Luận án Chính sách đối ngoại của Hàn Quốc đối với các nước Đông Bắc Á (1989 - 2010)

Việc điều chỉnh và xác lập chính sách ngoại giao đối với một khu vực có nhiều nội tình phức tạp bậc nhất như Đông Bắc Á là điều không hề đơn giản với cả Hàn Quốc và Việt Nam. Thực tế cũng cho thấy, khi vấn đề tranh chấp lãnh thổ, bất đồng lịch sử giữa các bên chưa được giải quyết thì quan hệ giữa Hàn Quốc, Việt Nam với các chủ thể chính trị còn lại trong khu vực vẫn tiềm ẩn không ít rủi ro và thách thức cần phải vượt qua. Chính vì đặc điểm này, sẽ là vội vàng và chủ quan nếu đưa ra kết luận chính sách của Hàn Quốc đối với các nước Đông Bắc Á (1989 - 2010) là hoàn toàn thành công hay thất bại. So với Việt Nam, những vấn đề mà Hàn Quốc vấp phải với Nhật Bản, Trung Quốc, đặc biệt là CHDCND Triều Tiên còn phức tạp và khó khăn hơn nhiều. Khi cơ hội phát triển của quốc gia gắn chặt với vận mệnh dân tộc, sự an nguy của khu vực và uy tín với quốc tế, Hàn Quốc vẫn phải tiếp tục điều chỉnh và hoàn thiện chính sách của mình để sinh tồn “giữa những người khổng lồ” và hàn gắn “vết thương chưa liền” từ thời Chiến tranh lạnh. Điều kỳ diệu là đứng trước vô vàn khó khăn, quốc gia này vẫn một mực tin tưởng về tương lai tươi sáng của khu vực vì “người Hàn Quốc có chung một giấc mơ – giấc mơ về một cộng đồng Đông Bắc Á hòa bình và thịnh vượng Thời đại của Đông Bắc Á rồi sẽ đơm hoa kết quả và Hàn Quốc quyết nỗ lực để sớm đạt đến ngày đó”

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The Korean Ministry of Finance and Economy, Statical Yearbooks; 167 PHỤ LỤC i PHỤ LỤC I THE ROH TAE WOO’S INAUGURAL ADDRESS: “WE CAN DO IT” (FEBRUARY 25, 1988) [] Fellow citizens, The Seoul Olympics, which will be a grand event for all Koreans and festival of peace for all the five billion people on earth, are fast approaching. On this occation, when Korea will burst on the world scene, there should be no family squabbles. Let us make joint, concerted efforts to make the Seoul Olympics long remembered by the inhabitants of the global community as the most successful. Let me emphasize, moreover, that the greatest historic significance of the Seoul Olympics is that it will bring the day of unification closer. The sonorous chorus of reconciliation which will emanate from Seoul when East and West meet together for the first time in twelve years will be a signal to the entire world that an era of unification is finally opening on the Korea Peninsula. In response to that great chorus, the Republic of Korea will intensify its diplomatic efforts to promote international peace and cooperation with all nations in the world. While further consolidating ties with Japan, the United States and other Western countries, we will further cultivate friendships with the Third World. We will broaden the channel of international cooperation with the continental countries with which we have hitherto had no exchanges, with the aim of pursuing a vigorous northern diplomacy. Improved relations with countries with ideologies and social systems different from ours will contribute to stability, peace and common prosperity in East Asia. Such a “northward-looking diplomacy” should also lead to the gateway of unification. Here I appeal to my fellow countrymen who yearn for an early end to the territorial division. Unification is a goal which we cannot forget, even in our sleep. We cannot be optimistic about attaining it but we need not be pessimistic, either. We should simply do our best to reach it. Coincidentally, our national self-esteem has grown much stronger. It is going to be the major driving force behind our endeavors to achieve unification as well as eminence in the world. We must thus nurture our democratic capability on the strength of national self-esteem, so that we can go through the gateway of unification while strengthening national security []. ii PHỤ LỤC II THE ROH MOO HYUN’S INAUGURAL ADDRESS: “AN AGE OF NORTHEAST ASIA BEGINS: A NEW TAKEOFF TOWARD AN AGE OF PEACE AND PROSPERITY” (FEBRUARY 25, 2003) [] I have several principles that I plan to adhere to in pushing the “Policy for Peace and Prosperity” on the Korean Peninsula. First, I will try to resolve all pending issues through dialogue. Second, I will give priority to building mutual trust and upholding reciprocity. Third, I will seek active international cooperation on the premise that South and North Korea are the two main actors in inter-Korean relations. And fourth, I will enhance transparency, expand citizen participation, and secure bipartisan support. I will implement my policy for peace and prosperity with the support of the general public. The suspicion that North Korea is developing nuclear weapons poses a grave threat to world peace, not to mention the Korean Peninsula and Northeast Asia. North Korea’s nuclear development can never be condoned. Pyongyang must abandon nuclear development. If it renounces its nuclear development program, the international community will offer many things that it wants. It is up to Pyongyang whether to go ahead and obtain nuclear weapons or to get guarantees for the security of its regime and international economic support. I would like to emphasize again that the North Korean nuclear issue should be resolved peacefully through dialogue. Military tension in any form should not be heightened. We will strengthen coordination with the United States and Japan to help resolve the nuclear issue through dialogue. We will also maintain close cooperation with China, Russia, the European Union and other countries. This year marks the 50 th anniversary of the Korea - US Alliance. It has made a significant contribution in guaranteeing our security and economic development. The Korean people are deeply grateful for this. We will foster and develop this cherished alliance. We will see to it that the alliance matures into a more reciprocal and equitable relationship. We will also expand relations with other countries, including traditional friends []. iii PHỤ LỤC III THE LEE MYUNG BAK’S INAUGURAL ADDRESS (FEBRUARY 25, 2008) [] Fellow Koreans, the Republic of Korea will take a more positive stance with a greater vision and carry out global diplomacy under which we actively cooperate with the international community. Transcending the differences in race, religion, and wealth, Korea will befriend all nations and peoples. Respecting the universal principles of democracy and market economics, we will take part in the global movement for peace and development. We will work to develop and further strengthen traditional friendly relations with the United States into a future-oriented partnership. Based on the deep mutual trust that exists between the two peoples, we will also strengthen our strategic alliance with the United States. We will attach importance to our policy towards Asia. In particular, we will seek peace and mutual prosperity with our close neighbors, including Japan, China and Russia and promote further exchange and cooperation with them. In order to ensure that our economic engine runs smoothly, we will work to acquire a safe and stable supply of resources and energy. Moreover, we shall take the lead in environment- friendly international cooperation. As befitting our economic size and diplomatic capacity, our diplomacy will contribute to promoting and protecting universal values. Korea will actively participate in United Nations peacekeeping operations as well as enlarge its official development assistance (ODA). By emphasizing the importance of cultural diplomacy, we will work to allow Korea to communicate more openly and easily with the international community. Our traditional culture, when coupled together with our technological prowess, will no doubt transmit to the world an image of a more attractive Korea. Unification of the two Koreas is the long-cherished desire of the 70 million Korean people. Inter-Korean relations must become more productive than they are now. Our attitude will be pragmatic, not ideological. The core task is to help all Koreans live happily and to prepare the foundation for unification. As already stipulated in my Initiative for “Denuclearization and Opening up North Korea” to Achieve US$3,000 in Per Capita Income, once North Korea abandons its nuclear program and chooses the path to openness, we can expect to see a new iv horizon in inter-Korean cooperation. Along with the international community, we will provide assistance so that we can raise the per capita income of North Korea to US$3,000 within 10 years. That, I believe, will both benefit our brethren in the North as well as be the way to advance unification. Together, the leaders of the two Koreas, must contemplate what they can do to make the lives of all 70 million Koreans happy and how each side can respect each other and open the door to unification. If it is to discuss these issues, then I believe the two leaders should meet whenever necessary and talk openly, with an open mind. Indeed, the opportunity is open []. v PHỤ LỤC IV PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA – REPUBLIC OF KOREA STATEMENT (BEIJING, 28 MAY 2008) At the invitation of President Hu Jintao of the People's Republic of China, President Lee Myung-bak of the Republic of Korea paid a state visit to China from 27 to 30 May 2008 and was accorded a grand and warm reception by the Chinese Government and people. During the visit, President Hu Jintao had talks with President Lee Myung-bak. President Lee Myung-bak also met with Premier Wen Jiabao of the State Council and Chairman Jia Qinglin of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. President Lee Myung-bak expressed deep condolences and sympathy to the great loss of life and property caused by the earthquake in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province and offered to provide necessary help to China's disaster relief effort. President Hu Jintao and other Chinese leaders expressed sincere thanks to the ROK Government and people for their care and timely help such as sending a rescue team. Both sides agreed to strengthen exchanges and cooperation on handling natural disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and typhoon. During the talks and meetings, the two sides had an in-depth exchange of views and reached extensive agreement on further developing China-ROK friendly relations and cooperation on regional and international issues of mutual interest. I. Further Developing Bilateral Relations The two sides applauded the rapid growth of their relations since the establishment of diplomatic ties in 1992. They both agreed to raise their comprehensive and cooperative partnership to the level of strategic cooperative partnership and step up exchanges and cooperation in the diplomatic, security, economic, social, cultural, people-to-people and other areas. Both sides believed that dialogue and cooperation in the diplomatic and security areas should be further strengthened and agreed to establish a high-level strategic dialogue mechanism between the two foreign ministries and develop the existing diplomatic security dialogue into a mechanism. The two sides decided to increase the exchanges between their leaders, government agencies, parliaments and political parties. vi The Chinese side reiterated that there is only one China in the world and Taiwan is an inalienable part of China. The ROK side expressed its full understanding of and respect for China's position and reaffirmed its position that the Government of the People's Republic of China is the sole legal government representing the whole of China and that it upholds the one China principle. II. Expanding Economic Cooperation and Trade The two sides agreed to adjust and enrich the Joint Research Report on China-ROK Mid-to-Long Term Development Plan on Economic Cooperation and Trade issued by the leaders of the two countries in 2005 to reflect the new progress on bilateral economic cooperation and trade which will serve as the basis for further practical cooperation in this field. The two sides commended the smooth progress of the joint study on China-ROK FTA by government agencies, industries and academia and agreed to build on past achievements and continue the research to push forward the bilateral FTA for win-win result. The two sides welcomed the amendment and issuance of the Treaty on Investment Protection between China and the ROK and agreed that the Treaty is conducive to protecting and expanding two-way investment and is in line with the development of the mutually beneficial business relations. The two sides agreed to work together to gradually achieve balance in the bilateral trade as it develops. The ROK side expressed its readiness to take an active part in China's various trade and investment fairs such as the China Import and Export Fair, China International Small and Medium Enterprises Fair and continue to send to China purchasing and investment groups. China expressed appreciation of this. The two sides agreed to the need of strengthening concrete cooperation on mobile communication, actively supporting further capital and technological cooperation between the two countries' communication enterprises and expanding the cooperation on electronics and information communication to areas such as software and radio frequency identification. The two sides agreed to strengthen extensive and mutually beneficial energy cooperation such as cooperation on nuclear power, oil reserve, joint development of resources and renewable energy in an effort to achieve concrete results in cooperation on energy conservation. vii The two sides agreed to strengthen cooperation on IPR protection, food safety and quality inspection, logistics and labour service. The two sides believed that closer financial cooperation is conducive to the development of the financial industry of both countries. They believed that they should learn from each other, share experience, improve their financial systems, promote the reform and opening up of their financial markets and step up coordination and cooperation in international and regional financial institutions. The two sides agreed to enhance joint study and survey in areas such as polar science and technology. Both sides recognized the importance to strengthen environmental cooperation and agreed to enhance exchanges and cooperation on environmental industry, sand storm monitoring and the Yellow Sea environmental protection, etc. The two sides agreed to actively cooperate in the preparation of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo and the 2012 Yeosu World Expo. viii III. Enhancing People-to-people and Cultural Exchanges The two sides decided to enlarge the programs of mutual youth visit and step up exchange activities such as home stay and home visit and expand the program of governmental scholarship swapping. The two sides agreed to explore ways to streamline visa procedures so as to increase mutual personnel visit. China welcomed the setting up of a consulate-general in Wuhan, China by the ROK. The two sides believed that the long history of bilateral exchange is an important asset of China-ROK friendly relations. To enhance mutual understanding, both sides should actively support the exchanges on history and culture between their academic institutions. IV. Advancing Cooperation on Regional and International Affairs The Chinese side reiterated its firm support to the improvement of relations and ultimate peaceful reunification between the north and south of the Korean Peninsular through dialogue. The ROK side appreciated China's efforts in maintaining peace and stability on the Korean Peninsular and looked forward to China's continued constructive role. The ROK side stated its positions on facilitating the settlement of the Korean nuclear issue and expanding exchanges and cooperation in the economic, social and other areas between the north and the south of the Korean Peninsular. China expressed its understanding of the ROK's positions and hoped to see progress in the reconciliation and cooperation between the north and the south of the Korean Peninsular. Both sides believed that the second phase Action Plan of the September 19 Joint Statement by the Six Party Talks should be fully implemented at an early date under the principle of “action to action”. The two sides agreed to work with other parties concerned to look into and formulate the action plan for the next phase in a constructive effort to fully implement the September 19 Joint Statement. The two sides recognized the importance of China-ROK cooperation to the Six Party Talks and the denuclearization on the Korean Peninsular and agreed to continue their close cooperation for achieving peace and stability on the Korean Peninsular and in Northeast Asia. The two sides reaffirmed the important role of the United Nations in solving issues of global significance and agreed to continue their close cooperation in UN affairs. The ix two sides believed that the UN reform should enhance the authority, effectiveness and efficiency of the organization so that its system, based on the consensus of the member states, will be more transparent, democratic and representative. Both sides support the UN Secretary General's efforts to enhance the efficiency and role of the UN. The two sides believed that cooperation among China, the ROK and Japan is very important to peace, stability and prosperity of Asia. The two sides agreed to work together to maintain the regular meetings among the three countries, such as the talks of their leaders and foreign ministers that take place alternately in the three countries. The two sides agreed to work together for the success of the 7th ASEM Summit to be held in Beijing this year. The two sides agreed to step up cooperation on issues of mutual interest such as climate change, non-proliferation of WMD, combating international terrorism, financial and economic crime, piracy and high-tech crime. V. The two sides welcomed the signing of the Treaty Between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Korea on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons, the Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Field of Polar Science and Technology Between the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China and the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of the Republic of Korea and the Memorandum of Understanding on Mutual Recognition of Higher Education Degrees and Background between the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China and the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of the Republic of Korea. VI. The two sides expressed satisfaction with the achievements of President Lee Myung-bak's visit to China and believed that this visit is important to the further growth of bilateral relations. President Hu Jintao said he looked forward to welcoming President Lee Myung-bak at the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympic Games. President Lee Myung-bak wished the Beijing Olympic Games a complete success and a grand gathering of human harmony and solidarity. He said he would attend the opening ceremony. President Lee Myung-bak expressed thanks to China for the warm hospitality and invited President Hu Jintao to visit the Republic of Korea at an early date. President Hu Jintao thanked him for the invitation and accepted the invitation with pleasure. x PHỤ LỤC V Japan - Republic of Korea Summit Joint Statement (June 07, 2003): “Building the Foundations of Japan - ROK Cooperation toward an Age of Peace and Prosperity in Northeast Asia” President Roh Moo Hyun of the Republic of Korea and Mrs. Roh paid an official visit to Japan as State Guests from 6 to 9 June 2003. During his stay in Japan, President Roh held a summit meeting with Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi of Japan. In accordance with the spirit of the “Japan-Republic of Korea Joint Declaration - A New Japan - Republic of Korea Partnership towards the Twenty-first Century”, announced in October 1998, the leaders shared the recognition that both Japan and the ROK must keep past history in mind, and based on that, advance together to develop a future-oriented mutual relationship in the 21st century. The leaders shared their resolve to continue to deepen the trust and friendship between the countries and to develop the relationship to a higher level while sustaining the momentum of goodwill and friendship between Japan and the ROK built up through the Year of Japan-Republic of Korea National Exchange and the success of the Japan - Korea World Cup Soccer tournament in 2002. 1. Prime Minister Koizumi expressed his support for the “Peace and Prosperity Policy” of the Government of the ROK, which seeks to achieve a permanent consolidation of peace on the Korean Peninsula and common prosperity in Northeast Asia. President Roh supported the basic policy of the Government of Japan based on the Japan-North Korea Pyongyang Declaration to achieve the normalization of diplomatic relations between Japan and North Korea to resolve the concerns of Japan such as nuclear and missile issues and the abduction issue in a way that contributes to peace and stability in Northeast Asia. 2. The leaders shared the recognition that the nuclear issue of North Korea is a serious threat to peace and stability not just on the Korean Peninsula but in Northeast Asia, and to the international nuclear non-proliferation regime. (1) In this regard, the leaders agreed that they would not accept the possession of nuclear weapons or any nuclear development programs of North Korea, and that a peaceful and diplomatic resolution to the issue was essential. (2) The leaders strongly called on North Korea to refrain from actions that would further exacerbate the current situation in order to bring about a peaceful resolution of xi the nuclear issue of North Korea. In this respect, the leaders reaffirmed the principles agreed upon at the Republic of Korea-United States Summit Meeting on 14 May and the Japan-United States Summit Meeting on 23 May, and agreed to enhance cooperation between Japan and the ROK. (3) Both leaders also stressed that the North Korean nuclear weapons program must be dismantled in a verifiable and irreversible manner. (4) The leaders expressed their confidence that a peaceful solution to the North Korean nuclear issue could be reached, and confirmed that for that purpose Japan, the ROK and the United States would maintain close consultation and coordination, and continue cooperation with the international community including countries concerned such as the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation. Moreover, the leaders emphasized that if problems regarding North Korea such as the nuclear issues are resolved peacefully and comprehensively and North Korea becomes a responsible member of the international community, extensive assistance from the international community for North Korea would be possible. (5) The leaders also shared the recognition that the tripartite talks among the United States, China and North Korea held in Beijing from 23-25 April were useful as a first step in the dialogue toward resolution of the North Korean nuclear issue, and welcomed the role of China in the talks. (6) The leaders shared the opinion that further meetings should be held promptly for the resolution of the North Korean nuclear issue and that the momentum of dialogue needs to be sustained. They also expressed strong expectations regarding a process of multilateral dialogue with the participation of Japan and the ROK for a comprehensive resolution of issues related to North Korea. 3. The leaders stated that they would cooperate closely on various issues in order to hew a path to the age of Northeast Asia filled with peace and prosperity and the building of a bright and prosperous future based on principles of liberalism, democracy and market economy shared by Japan and the ROK. (1) The conclusion of a free trade agreement (FTA) between Japan and the ROK would have enormous significance in promoting bilateral trade and investment, enhancing the competitiveness of both countries, contributing to East Asian and, furthermore, world economic growth, and promoting regional economic partnership. Therefore, the leaders paid due attention to the formation of the shared recognition regarding the necessity of xii concluding a comprehensive FTA in the Japan-Korea FTA Joint Study Group, and expected that the Joint Study Group would produce meaningful outcomes. In this light, Japan and the ROK will make efforts to initiate negotiations to conclude a FTA as soon as possible. In addition, they will also make further efforts to create an environment conducive to propelling a Japan-ROK FTA. (2) In order to develop cooperative economic relations between the two countries as partners, it is preferable that bilateral trade between the two countries would advance toward expansion and in this light, both leaders recognized the importance of industrial cooperation. In addition, the leaders expected that investment between the two countries would further expand in both directions taking the opportunity of the conclusion of the Investment Treaty between Japan and the ROK, and both leaders will mutually make further efforts to accelerate this process. (3) Under the shared recognition that the maintenance and enhancement of the global free trade regime contributes to the prosperity of the region and of the world, the leaders will cooperate in various opportunities such as the WTO Doha Development Agenda negotiations. (4) Japan and ROK will continue active cooperation in dealing with various global issues, including environmental issues, international terrorism, piracy, illegal acts involving states and international organized crime such as trafficking of narcotics and stimulants through international frameworks dealing with global issues, the various frameworks for regional cooperation or at state level. 4. Both leaders reaffirmed that the foundation for strengthening Japan-ROK cooperation toward the future was deep mutual understanding, warm friendship and vigorous exchange of people and culture between people from various fields and generations of both countries, particularly between young people who would be leaders of the next generation. In order to expand and deepen these elements, they agreed to sustain and develop the existing cooperative relationship and to work together, on the following points in particular: (1) Promotion of mutual understanding and friendship between Japanese and Korean citizens from various fields and generations a. To celebrate the fortieth anniversary of the normalization of Japan-ROK diplomatic relations, the year 2005 will be designated “Japan-Korea Festa 2005”, where various joint programs between Japan and ROK will be held in fields such as culture and xiii academia. This will create an opportunity to promote mutual understanding and friendship between Japanese and Korean citizens from various fields and generations, including young people who will be the main players in Japan-ROK relations in the next generation. b. The “Japan-ROK Joint Project for the Future” will be more vigorously promoted, with further expansion for the youth and sports exchange where exchange of about 10,000 young people per year is the goal. c. Both countries will make efforts toward further development of intellectual exchange, including the Japan-ROK Forum. d. Both countries will promote mutual exchange between leaders of the next generation in various fields such as politics, economics, academia and culture. (2) Efforts toward the formation of a one-day life area between Japan and the ROK a. Japan and the ROK will make further efforts to realize visa exemptions at an early date for ROK nationals traveling to Japan. As a new step for this purpose, the Government of Japan will consider the realization of visa exemptions, especially for ROK students visiting Japan on school trips, and will consider again the granting of visa exemptions during a limited period. b. Both countries will promote the early realization of flights between Kimpo Airport and Haneda Airport. (3) Expansion of Japan-ROK exchange a. In order to activate cultural exchange, the ROK will expand the categories of Japanese popular culture open to ROK citizens. b. Both countries will build a closer cooperative relationship in the campaign to increase the number of foreign tourists visiting either country, in the aim of further expanding mutual tourism exchange. c. Both countries will strive to conclude at an early date the Agreement on Social Security and the Agreement regarding Mutual Assistance in Customs Matters that are currently under negotiation. Regarding mutual recognition, both countries accelerate the work necessary for the launch of negotiations on mutual recognition, based on what has been done so far at the experts' working level and what is expected to be done at the Japan-Korea FTA Joint Study Group. d. Both countries will promote exchange between their respective regions through Japan Week held in the ROK and Korea Week held in Japan. xiv e. Both countries will continue to promote teacher invitation programs, sports exchange programs and Japanese and Korean language mutual learning support programs as part of the Japan-ROK New Century Exchange Project. f. Both countries will strengthen exchange and cooperation such as the exchange of people in the field of cultural property, and will activate the exchange of tangible and intangible cultural property. 5. The leaders agreed to make regular check-ups on the status of progress of the items contained in this Joint Statement at various occasions such as Foreign Minister meetings in the future. xv PHỤ LỤC VI. ẢNH 1. DIỄN TRÌNH QUAN HỆ LIÊN TRIỀU (1950 – 2007) xvi Nguồn: eng.unikorea.go.kr xvii ẢNH 2. CHÍNH SÁCH “ÁNH DƯƠNG” (KIM DAE JUNG) ĐỐI VỚI CHDCND TRIỀU TIÊN DỰA TRÊN TRUYỆN NGỤ NGÔN “GIÓ BẮC VÀ MẶT TRỜI” (AESOP) Nguồn: bestlatin.blogspot.com ẢNH 3. TỔNG THỐNG KIM DAE JUNG VÀ CHỦ TỊCH KIM IL SUNG TẠI HỘI NGHỊ THƯỢNG ĐỈNH LIÊN TRIỀU VÀO THÁNG 6-2000 (TRANG BÌA TẠP CHÍ TIME, NĂM 2000) Nguồn: content.time.com/time/covers/asia xviii ẢNH 4. KẾT QUẢ NÂNG CẤP QUAN HỆ HÀN QUỐC - TRUNG QUỐC (THỜI KỲ: ROH TAE WOO, KIM DAE JUNG, ROH MOO HYUN, LEE MYUNG BAK) Từ dưới lên:  1992: Tổng thống Roh Tae Woo tuyên bố thiết lập ngoại giao chính thức với Trung Quốc (Nguồn: www.gettyimages.com)  1998: Tổng thống Kim Dae Jung và Chủ tịch Giang Trạch Dân (Nguồn: en.people.cn/english)  2003: Tổng thống Roh Tae Woo và Chủ tịch Hồ Cầm Đào (Nguồn: news.xinhuanet.com/english)  2008: Tổng thống Lee Myung Bak và Chủ tịch Hồ Cẩm Đào (Nguồn: www.reuters.com) 2008: Quan hệ đối tác hợp tác chiến lược 2003: Quan hệ đối tác toàn diện 1998: Quan hệ đối tác hợp tác 1992: Quan hệ hợp tác xix ẢNH 5. HÀN QUỐC VÀ NHẬT BẢN (THỜI KỲ: KIM DAE JUNG, ROH MOO HYUN, LEE MYUNG BAK) 5.2. Tổng thống Roh Moo Hyun và Thủ tướng Koizumi đưa ra Tuyên bố chung: “Xây dựng nền tảng hợp tác Nhật Bản – Hàn Quốc hướng tới một kỷ nguyên hòa bình và thịnh vượng ở Đông Bắc Á” (2003). Nguồn: iphoto/2003/02/25nikkan_e.html 5.1. Tổng thống Kim Dae Jung gặp Thủ tướng Keizo Obuchi tại Tokyo và đưa ra Tuyên bố chung: “Quan hệ đối tác mới Hàn Quốc – Nhật Bản hướng tới thế kỷ XXI” (1998). Nguồn: eer/career03.html 5.3. Tổng thống Lee Myung Bak khởi động kế hoạch “ngoại giao con thoi” bằng chuyến thăm Thủ tướng Yasuo Fukuda (2008). Nguồn: www.koreatimes.co.kr

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