Một số vấn đề lý thuyết của câu bị động

PHẦN MỞ ĐẦU I.Lý do chọn đề tài. Năm học 2006-2007 là năm thứ hai thực hiện hình thức thi trắc nghiệm đối với môn tiếng Anh ở các kì thi tốt nghiệp THPT, thi ĐH của bộ GD & ĐT. Trong chương trình tiếng Anh THPT hệ 3 năm, câu bị động là một phần kiến thức hết sức quan trọng, có trong các kì thi tốt nghiệp và thi ĐH. Muốn làm tốt được các bài tập trắc nghiệm về câu bị động thì học sinh cần phải nắm được các vấn đề liên quan đến câu chủ động , câu bị động trong tiếng Anh, chuyển từ hình thức làm các bài tập tự luận sang bài tập trắc nghiệm. Vì vậy tôi chọn đề tài “ Câu bị động và câc dạng bài tập trắc nghiệm” làm vấn đề nghiên cứu trong sáng kiến kinh nghiệm của mình. II.Mục đích. Khi viết sáng kiến kinh nghiệm này, tôi chỉ mong được góp thêm một vài ý kiến của mình về các vấn đề liên quân đến câu chủ động và câu bị động trong tiếng Anh giúp giáo viên có thể tham khảo thêm trong việc ôn tập cho học sinh chuẩn bị cho các kỳ thi sắp tới. III.Đối tượng nghiên cứu. Trong chương trình tiếng Anh THPT hệ 3 năm, câu bị động được đưa vào giảng dạy ở khối 11 và 12. Trong đề tài của mình, tôi chỉ tập trung vào một số vấn đề lý thuyết của câu bị động như cấu trúc, cách sử dụng,cách chuyển từ chủ động sang bị động, một số dạng đặc biệt trong câu bị động và một số bài tập viết, bài tập trắc nghiệm tương ứng để củng cố cho phần kiến thức ở trên , nhằm giúp học sinh hiểu và nắm được những kiến thức cơ bản và nâng cao của câu bị động trong Tiếng anh để các em có thể làm tốt các dạng bài tập trắc nghiệm về câu bị động trong Tiếng anh.

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PhÇn më ®Çu I.Lý do chän ®Ò tµi. N¨m häc 2006-2007 lµ n¨m thø hai thùc hiÖn h×nh thøc thi tr¾c nghiÖm ®èi víi m«n tiÕng Anh ë c¸c k× thi tèt nghiÖp THPT, thi §H cña bé GD & §T. Trong ch­¬ng tr×nh tiÕng Anh THPT hÖ 3 n¨m, c©u bÞ ®éng lµ mét phÇn kiÕn thøc hÕt søc quan träng, cã trong c¸c k× thi tèt nghiÖp vµ thi §H. Muèn lµm tèt ®­îc c¸c bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm vÒ c©u bÞ ®éng th× häc sinh cÇn ph¶i n¾m ®­îc c¸c vÊn ®Ò liªn quan ®Õn c©u chñ ®éng , c©u bÞ ®éng trong tiÕng Anh, chuyÓn tõ h×nh thøc lµm c¸c bµi tËp tù luËn sang bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm. V× vËy t«i chän ®Ò tµi “ C©u bÞ ®éng vµ c©c d¹ng bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm” lµm vÊn ®Ò nghiªn cøu trong s¸ng kiÕn kinh nghiÖm cña m×nh. II.Môc ®Ých. Khi viÕt s¸ng kiÕn kinh nghiÖm nµy, t«i chØ mong ®­îc gãp thªm mét vµi ý kiÕn cña m×nh vÒ c¸c vÊn ®Ò liªn qu©n ®Õn c©u chñ ®éng vµ c©u bÞ ®éng trong tiÕng Anh gióp gi¸o viªn cã thÓ tham kh¶o thªm trong viÖc «n tËp cho häc sinh chuÈn bÞ cho c¸c kú thi s¾p tíi. III.§èi t­îng nghiªn cøu. Trong ch­¬ng tr×nh tiÕng Anh THPT hÖ 3 n¨m, c©u bÞ ®éng ®­îc ®­a vµo gi¶ng d¹y ë khèi 11 vµ 12. Trong ®Ò tµi cña m×nh, t«i chØ tËp trung vµo mét sè vÊn ®Ò lý thuyÕt cña c©u bÞ ®éng nh­ cÊu tróc, c¸ch sö dông,c¸ch chuyÓn tõ chñ ®éng sang bÞ ®éng, mét sè d¹ng ®Æc biÖt trong c©u bÞ ®éng… vµ mét sè bµi tËp viÕt, bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm t­¬ng øng ®Ó cñng cè cho phÇn kiÕn thøc ë trªn , nh»m gióp häc sinh hiÓu vµ n¾m ®­îc nh÷ng kiÕn thøc c¬ b¶n vµ n©ng cao cña c©u bÞ ®éng trong TiÕng anh ®Ó c¸c em cã thÓ lµm tèt c¸c d¹ng bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm vÒ c©u bÞ ®éng trong TiÕng anh. IV.Ph¹m vi nghiªn cøu. N¨m häc 2006-2007 V.C¬ së nghiªn cøu. T«i nghiªn cøu ®Ò tµi nµy dùa trªn nh÷ng c¬ së sau: Dùa vµo thùc tÕ gi¶ng d¹y. - Dùa vµo mét sè tµi liÖu tham kh¶o vÒ c©u bÞ ®éng. - Dùa vµ mét sè ý kiÕn cña ®ång nghiÖp. PhÇn néi dung Mçi c©u cã thÓ ®­îc thÓ hiÖn ë thÓ chñ ®éng hay bÞ ®éng. Chóng ta dïng c©u chñ ®éng khi chñ ng÷ trong c©u lµ t¸c nh©n trùc tiÕp g©y ra hµnh ®éng trong c©u. Khi chñ ng÷ chÞu t¸c ®éng cña hµnh ®éng trong c©u, chóng ta dïng thÓ bÞ ®éng. ViÖc lùa chän sö dông c©u chñ ®éng hay bÞ ®éng phô thuéc vµo nhiÒu yÕu tè. Trong nhiÒu tr­êng hîp, chóng ta chØ sö dông duy nhÊt hoÆc d¹ng chñ ®éng hoÆc d¹ng bÞ ®éng. Do ®ã häc sinh cÇn ph¶i n¾m ®­îc mét sè vÊn ®Ò sau: I. C¸ch dïng c©u bÞ ®éng. - Khi kh«ng cÇn thiÕt ph¶i nh¾c ®Õn t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng( do t×nh huèng ®· qu¸ râ rµng hoÆc do kh«ng quan träng). Eg: The road has been repaired. -Khi chóng ta kh«ng biÕt hoÆc quªn ng­êi thùc hiÖn hµnh ®éng. Eg: The money was stolen. - Khi chóng ta quan t©m ®Õn b¶n th©n hµnh ®éng h¬n lµ ng­êi thùc hiÖn hµnh ®éng. Eg: This book was published in Vietnam. - Khi chñ ng÷ cña c©u chñ ®éng lµ chñ ng÷ kh«ng x¸c ®Þnh nh­ : people, they, someone… Eg: People say that he will win. à It’s said that he will win. - Khi ng­êi nãi kh«ng muèn nh¾c ®Õn chñ thÓ g©y ra hµnh ®éng Eg: Smoking is not allowed here. II.CÊu tróc. VÒ cÊu tróc c©u bÞ ®éng trong tiÕng Anh , t«i sÏ chia thµnh hai lo¹i sau : Lo¹i 1: BÞ ®éng ®èi víi c¸c th× kh«ng tiÕp diÔn. D¹ng nµy cã c«ng thøc tæng qu¸t sau: BE + PAST PARTICIPLE Lo¹i 2 : BÞ ®éng víi c¸c th× tiÕp diÔn. D¹ng nµy cã c«ng thøc tæng qu¸t sau: BE + BEING + PAST PARTICIPLE Lo¹i 1 ¸p dông cho s¸u th× bÞ ®éng kh«ng tiÕp diÔn vµ lo¹i 2 ¸p dông cho s¸u th× bÞ ®éng tiÕp diÔn. Nh­ng trong phÇn nµy t«i chØ giíi thiÖu nh÷ng th× häc sinh ®· häc trong ch­¬ng tr×nh , phôc vô cho thi häc k× vµ thi tèt nghiÖpTHPT bao gåm bèn th× bÞ ®éng kh«ng tiÕp diÔn lµ: th× hiÖn t¹i ®¬n , th× qu¸ khø ®¬n , th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh ,th× t­¬ng lai ®¬n , bÞ ®éng víi ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu vµ hai th× bÞ ®éng tiÕp diÔn lµ : HiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn vµ qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn. Lo¹i 1 : BÞ ®éng kh«ng tiÕp diÔn. 1)Th× hiÖn t¹i ®¬n: S + am / is/ are + Past Participle Eg: Active: They raise cows in Ba Vi. Passive: Cows are raised in Ba Vi. 2)Th× qu¸ khø ®¬n: S + was / were + Past Participle Eg: Active : Jame Watt invented the steam engine in 1784. Passive : The steam engine was invented by Jame Watt in 1784. 3)Th× hiÖn t¹i hoµn thµnh: S + have/ has been + Past Participle Eg: Active: They have just finished the project. Passive: The project has just been finished. 4)Th× t­¬ng lai ®¬n: S + will be + Past Participle Eg: Active:They will build a new school for disabled children next month. Passive: A new school for disabled children will be built next month. 5. §éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu. S + Modal Verb + be + Past Participle. EX1: Active : You can see him now. Passive : He can be seen (by you) now. EX2: Active : He should type his term paper. Passive : His term paper should be typed. Lo¹i 2: BÞ ®éng tiÕp diÔn. 1) Th× hiÖn t¹i tiÕp diÔn: S + am / is / are +being + Past Participle Eg: Active: Ann is writing a letter. Passive: A letter is being written by Ann 2) Th× qu¸ khø tiÕp diÔn: S + was / were + being + Past Participle Eg: Active: She was cleaning the room at 7 a.m yesterday. Passive: The room was being cleaned at 7 a.m yesterday. III. C¸ch chuyÓn tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng. Muèn chuyÓn tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng häc sinh cÇn n¾m ch¾c c¸c b­íc chuyÓn sau ®©y: X¸c ®Þnh t©n ng÷ trong c©u chñ ®éng , chuyÓn nã thµnh chñ ng÷ trong c©u bÞ ®éng. - X¸c ®Þnh th× cña ®éng tõ trong c©u chñ ®éng, chia “to be” t­¬ng øng víi th× tiÕng Anh ®ã vµ víi chñ ng÷ míi cña c©u bÞ ®éng. - Chia ®éng tõ chÝnh trong c©u chñ ®éng ë d¹ng past participle trong c©u bÞ ®éng. - By+ t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng ( khi muèn nhÊn m¹nh t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng) S + V + O S + V (participle) + O Eg: They will finish this work tomorrow. S V O This work will befinished (by them) tomorrow. Trong phÇn nµy cÇn l­u ý häc sinh mét sè vÊn ®Ò sau: - C¸c tr¹ng tõ chØ c¸ch thøc th­êng ®­îc ®Æt tr­íc ®éng tõ ph©n tõ hai trong c©u bÞ ®éng. Eg: He wrote the book wonderfully. à The book was wonderfully written. - By + t¸c nh©n g©y hµnh ®éng ®øng sau tr¹ng ng÷ chØ n¬i chèn vµ ®øng tr­íc tr¹ng ng÷ chØ thêi gian. Eg1: A passer- by took him home. à He was taken home by a passer- by. Eg2: We will receive the gifts on Monday. à The gifts will be received by us on Monday. - C©u bÞ ®éng phñ ®Þnh vµ nghi vÊn ®­îc t¹o gièng nh­ c¸ch cña c©u chñ ®éng. Tuy nhiªn kh«ng ph¶i bÊt cø c©u nµo còng cã thÓ chuyÓn tõ chñ ®éng sang bÞ ®éng hoÆc ng­îc l¹i. §iÒu kiÖn ®Ó chuyÓn mét c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng lµ c©u ®ã ph¶i cã mét transitive verb ( ®éng tõ ngo¹i h­íng). C©u cã intransitive verb ( ®éng tõ néi h­íng) th× kh«ng thÓ chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng. §éng tõ ngo¹i h­íng lµ ®éng tõ cÇn mét t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp trong khi ®éng tõ néi h­íng th× kh«ng cÇn mét t©n ng÷ trùc tiÕp. Eg: 1) She is making a cake. à A cake is being made by her. Transitive verb 2) They run along the beach every morning. Intransitive verb Practice VËn dông nh÷ng kiÕn thøc ë trªn , h·y luyÖn tËp b»ng c¸ch lµm c¸c bµi tËp sau: Exercise 1: ChuyÓn nh÷ng c©u sau sang bÞ ®éng: 1.My father waters this flower every morning. ->…………………………………………………………. 2. John invited Fiona to his birthday party last night. ->…………………………………………………………. 3. No one can move the heavy rock in his garden. ->………………………………………………………….. 4. Her mother is preparing the dinner in the kitchen. ->………………………………………………………….. 5.We should clean our teeth twice a day. ->…………………………………………………………… 6. Did Mary buy this beautiful dress? ->…………………………………………………………….. 7.Some people will interview the new president on TV. ->……………………………………………………………… 8.We can’t finish our work on time. ->……………………………………………………………... 9.Her husband never takes her to the cinema. ->……………………………………………………………… 10. He was doing his homework at 9 p.m yesterday. ->………………………………………………………………… Tuy nhiªn , hiÖn nay theo quyÕt ®Þnh cña Bé gi¸o dôc vµ ®µo t¹o th× m«n Ngo¹i ng÷ ®­îc thi d­íi h×nh thøc tr¾c nghiÖm kh¸ch quan trong c¸c bµi thi häc kú còng nh­ tèt nghiÖp THPT hay thi C§, §H . Do ®ã, muèn lµm tèt ®­îc c¸c bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm vÒ c©u bÞ ®éng th× häc sinh ph¶i n¾m ch¾c cÊu tróc c©u bÞ ®éng , lµm ®­îc c¸c bµi tËp viÕt vÒ chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng th× sÏ dÔ dµng lµm ®­îc c¸c bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm. Sau ®©y lµ mét sè bµi tËp d­íi h×nh thøc tr¾c nghiÖm , sÏ gióp häc sinh cñng cè kiÕn thøc vµ lµm bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm vÒ c©u bÞ ®éng tèt h¬n. Exercise 2: Chän ®¸p ¸n ®óng nhÊt ®Ó hoµn thµnh nh÷ng c©u sau: 1. My wedding ring ………… of yellow and white gold. a. is made b. is making c. made d. maked 2. If your brother ………………., he would come. a. invited b. were invited c. were inviting d. invite 3. Mr. Wilson is …………… as Wilie to his friend. a. knowed b. knew c. known d. is known 4. References …………. in the examination room. a. not are used b. is not used c. didn’t used d. are not used 5. Laura ………….. in Boston. a. are born b. were born c. was born d. born 6. My nother is going …………… this house. a. sold b. to be sold c. to sold d. to sell 7.There’s somebody hehind us . I think we are ………………. a. being followed b. are followed c. follow d. following 8. Have you …………….. by a dog? a. bite b. ever been bit c. ever been bitten d. bit 9.The room is being ………….. at the moment. a. was cleaned b. cleaned c. cleaning d. clean 10. The road to our village …………. widened next year. a. is b. will c. can d. will be Exercise 3: Chän c©u cã cïng nghÜa víi c©u ®· cho b»ng c¸ch chän a, b, c hoÆc d. 1.Somebody cleans that room everyday. a. The room every day is cleaned. b. The room is everyday cleaned. c. The room is cleaned every day. d. The room is cleaned by somebody everyday. 2. They cancelled all flights because of fog. a. All flights because of fog were cancelled. b. All flights were cancelled because of fog. c. All flights were cancelled by them because of fog. d. All flights were because of fog cancelled. 3.They are building a new highway around the city. a. A new highway is being built around the city. b. A new highway is being built around the city by them. c. A new highway around the city is being built. d. Around the city a new highway is being built. 4.They have built a new hospital near the airport. a. A new hospital has been built near the airport by them. b. A new hospital near the airport has been built. c. A new hospital has been built near the airport . d. Near the airport a new hospital has been built by them. 5. They will ask you a lot of questions at the interview. a. You will be asked a lot of questions at the interview. b. You will be asked a lot of questions at the interview by them. c. A lot of questions will be asked you at the interview. d. A lot of questions will be asked at the interview. 6. People don’t use this road very often. a. This road is not used very often. b. Not very often this road is not used. c. This road very often is not used. d. This road not very often is used. 7. Somebody accused me of stealing money. a. I was accused by somebody of stealing money. b. I was accused of stealing money. c. I was accused of stealing money by somebody. d. I was accused stealing money. 8. Somebody is using the computer at the moment. a. The computer is being used at the moment. b. The computer at the moment is being used. c. The computer is being used by somebody at the moment. d. The computer is used at the moment. 9. The bill includes service. a. Service is included by the bill. b. Service included in the bill. c. Service is included in the bill. d. Service is in the bill. 10. They have changed the date of the meeting. a. The date of the meeting has been changed. b. The date of the meeting has been changed by them. c. The meeting has been changed the date. d. The date of the meeting has changed. c¸c d¹ng ®Æc biÖt cña c©u bÞ ®éng. ViÖc chuyÓn ®æi tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng hoµn toµn tuú thuéc vµo cÊu tróc c©u do ®ã c¸ch tèt nhÊt ®Ó n¾m v÷ng c¸ch chuyÓn ®æi lµ xem xet nã d­íi cÊp ®é c¸c mÉu c©u ®· biÕt. 1.MÉu c©u : S + V + O (C, A) Trong mÉu c©u nµy t©n ng÷ cã thÓ lµ mét danh tõ, côm tõ hoÆc ®¹i tõ. H·y xÐt mét sè vÝ dô sau: S + V + O Eg: Active: Her mother is cleaning the kitchen. Passive: The kitchen is being cleaned by her mother. S + V + O + C Eg: They called him Mr. Angry. àHe was called Mr. Angry. S + V + O + A Eg: He put the table in the corner. à The table was put in the corner. S + V + O + O 2. MÉu c©u : §èi víi c©u cã hai t©n ng÷, chóng ta cã thÓdïng mét trong hai t©n ng÷ chuyÓn thµnh chñ ng÷ trong c©u bÞ ®éng. Tuy nhiªn, t©n ng÷ chØ ng­êi th­êng hay ®­îc sö dông nhiÒu h¬n. Eg: We gave him a nice present on his birthday. Oi Od - C¸ch chuyÓn thø nhÊt: He was given a nice present on his birthday. - C¸ch chuyÓn thø hai : CÇn thªm mét giíi tõ. A nice present was given to him on his birthday. Cã hai giíi tõ cã thÓ ®­îc dïng trong tr­êng hîp nµy lµ : to, for. Mét sè ®éng tõ dïng víi ‘to’: give, bring, send, show, write, post, pass… Mét sè ®éng tõ dïng víi ‘for’ : buy, make, cook, keep, find, get, save, order ……….. Eg1 : She didn’t show me this special camera. à This camera wasn’t shown to me. Eg 2: She is making him a cup of tea. à A cup of tea is being made for him. 3. C©u bÞ ®éng víi c¸c ®éng tõ t­êng thuËt. C¸c ®éng tõ t­êng thuËt th­êng ®­îc dïng ®Ó t­êng thuËt l¹i c¸c c©u nãi, ý nghÜ, c©u hái , yªu cÇu, lêi xin lçi ……… Mét sè ®éng tõ t­êng thuËt th­êng gÆp lµ : say, think, know, believe, ask, tell, promise…. Cã hai cÊu tróc liªn quan ®Õn ®éng tõ t­êng thuËt: S + V + Oi + that clause. MÉu c©u : Active: S (Oi) + be past participle + that clause. Passive : Eg: He told me that you had a new bike. à I was told that you had a new bike. S + V + that + clause. MÉu c©u MÉu c©u nµy cã hai c¸ch chuyÓn sang d¹ng bÞ ®éng: C¸ch 1 : dïng chñ ng÷ gi¶ “it” Eg: People think that I am the best student in my class. à It is thought that I am the best student in my class. C¸ch 2 : dïng chñ ng÷ cña mÖnh ®Ò that vµ sö dông d¹ng nguyªn mÉu cña ®éng tõ. ë vÝ dô trªn , cã c¸ch chuyÓn thø hai lµ: Eg: I am thought to be the best student in my class. ë c¸ch chuyÓn thø hai , cã thÓ dïng 3 d¹ng nguyªn mÉu cña ®éng tõ: 1) To- inf: khi hµnh ®éng x¶y ra ë mÖnh ®Ò that diÔn ra cïng th× hoÆc diÔn ra sau hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò t­êng thuËt. 2) nguyªn mÉu tiÕp diÔn: to be ving, khi hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò that ë th× tiÕp diÔn , cßn hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò t­êng thuËt ë th× ®¬n gi¶n, cïng bËc. 3)nguyªn mÉu hoµn thµnh: to have done, khi hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò that x¶y ra tr­íc hµnh ®éng ë mÖnh ®Ò t­êng thuËt. Eg1: People say that he is a rich man. à He is said to be a rich man. Eg2: They think that she is living there. à She is thought to be living there. Eg3: They said that Tom had left home before the weekend. Tom was said to have left home before the weekend. 4. C©u mÖnh lÖnh. Active: V + O + Adjunct Passive: Let +O + be past participle + Adjunct. Khi chuyÓn c©u mÖnh lÖnh sang c©u bÞ ®éng ta sö dông cÊu tróc sau: Eg: Take off your hat! à Let your hat be taken off! Ngoµi c¸ch trªn, cßn mét c¸ch kh¸c ®Ó chuyÓn c©u mÖnh lÖnh sang c©u bÞ ®éng nh­ng Ýt dïng h¬n. §ã lµ: S + am/ is/ are + to be + past participle HoÆc S should be + past participle Eg: Active: Look after the children please! Passive: The children should be looked after! HoÆc : The children are to be looked after! 5. WH- question. §èi víi nh÷ng c©u hái cã tõ ®Ó hái, chóng ta cã thÓ chia lµm hai lo¹i: Lo¹i 1: Tõ ®Ó hái cã chøc n¨ng lµ t©n ng÷ trong c©u chñ ®éng. Víi d¹ng c©u hái nµy viÖc chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng rÊt ®¬n gi¶n v× tõ ®Ó hái ®ã sÏ cã chøc n¨ng lµ chñ ng÷ trong c©u bÞ ®éng. Eg: Active: How many languages do they speak in Canada? Passive: How many languages are spoken in Canada? Lo¹i 2: Tõ ®Ó hái cã chøc n¨ng lµ chñ ng÷ trong c©u chñ ®éng khi chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng, nã sÏ cã vai trß lµ t©n ng÷ trong c©u. Khi ®ã, ta sÏ cã hai c¸ch chuyÓn. HoÆc chuyÓn By lªn ®Çu c©u( tõ ®Ó hái sÏ ë d¹ng t©n ng÷) hoÆc ®Ó By ë cuèi c©u. Eg: Who wrote this novel ? à Who was this novel written by? HoÆc: à By whom was this novel written? S + V + O + Ving 6. CÊu tróc : Cã hai tr­êng hîp x¶y ra: T©n ng÷ cña Ving cïng chØ mét ®èi t­îng víi chñ ng÷ cña c©u: Eg: He kept me waiting. -> I was kept waiting ( by him). T©n ng÷ cña Ving kh«ng chØ mét ®èi t­îng víi chñ ng÷ cña c©u: Eg : He hates people looking at him. He hates being looked at ( by people). S + V + O ( to) + V 7. CÊu tróc : S + V + O + to + V a. - Khi t©n ng÷ kh«ng cïng ®èi t­îng víi chñ ng÷. Eg : We asked him to do it. -> He was asked to do it. - Khi t©n ng÷ cïng ®èi t­îng víi chñ ng÷. Eg : She would love someone to take her out to dinner. -> She would love to be taken out to dinner. S + V + O + V( without to) b. Khi chuyÓn sang c©u bÞ ®éng chóng ta dïng To-infinitive trõ ®éng tõ “let”. Eg : We heard him sing this song. -> He was heard to sing this song. Nh­ng : They let us go home. -> We were let go home. HoÆc : We were allowed to go home. Have / get something done. ( d¹ng nhê b¶o ). 8. CÊu tróc a. Víi have. Active : S + have + Object( person) + bare infinitive + Object. Passive : S + have + Object ( thing) + Past Participle (+ by + Object( person)) Eg : I has him repair my bicycle yesterday. -> I had my bicycle repaired yesterday. Víi get. Active: S + get + O (person) + to infinitive + O ( thing) Passive : S + get + O (thing) + Past participle (+by + O(person)) Eg: I get her to make some coffee. -> I get some coffee made. PRACTICE. Dùa vµo nh÷ng kiÕn thøc ë trªn yªu cÇu häc sinh lµm c¸c bµi tËp sau ®©y: Exercise I : ChuyÓn nh÷ng c©u sau sang bÞ ®éng: 1. Do they teach English here? ->…………………………………………………. 2. Did the teacher give some exercises? ->………………………………………………… 3. When will you do the work? ->………………………………………………… 4. What books are people reading this year? ->…………………………………………………. 5. People saw him steal your car. ->…………………………………………………. 6. They made him work all day. ->……………………………………………………. 7. Open your book! ->………………………………………………….. 8. Don’t do that silly thing again ! ->………………………………………………….. 9. She advised me to sell that house. ->………………………………………………… 10. Why didn’t they help him? ->…………………………………………………. Exercise I1. Chän ®¸p ¸n ®óng nhÊt ®Ó hoµn thµnh nh÷ng c©u sau: 1. The old lady was ……….exhausted after the long walk. a. very b. aboslutely c. pretty d. fairly. 2. The old man is said…………….all his money to an old people’s home when he died. a. to leave b. to leaving c. have left d. to have left. 3. Nobody was injured in the accident , …………? a. was there b. was he c. were they d. weren’t they. 4. Renoir’s paintings ……….. masterpieces all over the world. a. had considered b. are considered c. are considering d. consider. 5. He was advised…………singing lessons. a. take b. taken c. taking d. to take. 6. You’d better get someone…………your living room. a. redecorate b. redecorated c. to redecorate d. redecorating. 7. When…………..? In 1928. a. penicillin was discovered b. did pencillin discoved. c. was penicillin disscoverd d. did pencillin discover. 8. I don’t remember……………..of the decision to change the company policy on vacations. a. telling b. being told c. to tell d. to be told. 9. The children ……………to the zoo. a. were enjoyed taken b. enjoyed being taken c. were enjoyed taking d. enjoyed taking. 10. A new bike was bought ………….him on his birthday. a. to b. for c. with d. on. 11. His car needs ………………. a. be fixed b. fixing c. to be fixing d. fixed. 12. Her watch needs……………. a. reparing b. to be repaired c. repaired d. a&b. 13. He was said……………….this building. a. designing b. to have designed c. to designs d. designed 14. Ted………….by a bee while he was sitting in the garden. a. got sting b. got stung c. get stung d. gets stung 15. Let the children…………..taken to the cinema. a. to b. be c. to be d. being. Exercise III : Chän c©u cã cïng nghÜa víi c©u ®· cho b»ng c¸ch chän a, b, c hoÆc d. 1. It has been said that UFO sightings are increasing. a. People say that UFO sightings are increasing. b. people have said that UFO sightings are increasing. c. That UFO sightings are increasing is true. d. UFO has been said to be inreasing. 2. He is getting them mend the windows. a. He’s having the windows to mend. b. He’s having to mend the windows. c. He’s having to be mended the windows. d. He is having the windows mended. 3. They made her hand over her passport. a. She was made to hand over her passport. b. She was made hand over her passport. c. She was handed over to make her passport. d. She was handed over for her passport to make. 4. Don’t let the others see you. a. Don’t let you to be seen. b. Don’t let yourself be seen. c. You aren’t to be seen by the others. d. Both a &c allowed. 5. They say that many people are homeless after the tsunami. a. They say many people to have been homeless after the tsunami. b. They say many piople to bbe homeless after the tsunami. c. Many people are said to have been homeless after the tsunami. d. Many people are said to be homeless after the tsunami. 6. They know that the Prime Minister is in favour of the new law. a. The Prime minister is known to have been in favour of the new law. b. They know the Prime Minister to be in favour of the new law. c. The Prime Minister is known to be in favour of the new law. d. They know the Prime Minister to have been in favour of the new law. 7. They expect that the government will lose the election. a. The government is expected to have lost the election. b. The government is expected to lose the election. c. They expect the government to lose the election. d. They expect the government have lost election. 8. I didn’t realize that somebody was recording our conversation. a. I didn’t realize that our conversation was recorded. b. I didn’t realize that our conversation was being recorded. c. I didn’t realize that our conversation was being recorded by someone. d. Our conversation wasn’t realized to be recorded. 9. They never made us do anything we didn’t want to do. a. We are never made to do anything we didn’t want to do. b. We were never made to do anything we didn’t want to do. c. We have never made to do anything we didn’t want to do. d. We had never made to do anything we didn’t want to do. 10. Brian told me that somebody had attacked him in the street. a. I was told by Brian that soebody had attacked him in the street. b. I was told by Brian that he had been attacked in the street. c. Brian told me to have been attacked in the street. d. Brian told me that he had been attacked in the street. PhÇn kÕt luËn Trong qu¸ tr×nh gi¶ng d¹y tiÕng Anh khèi 11 vµ khèi 12, t«i ®· giíi thiÖu cho c¸c em häc sinh nh÷ng kiÕn thøc c¬ b¶n vÒ c©u bÞ ®éng trong tiÕng Anh. §èi víi tõng ®èi t­îng häc sinh kh¸c nhau, th× yªu cÇu vÒ kiÕn thøc còng kh¸c nhau. §èi víi nh÷ng ®èi t­îng häc sinh yÕu, hoÆc chØ phôc vô thi häc kú hoÆc thi tèt nghiÖp THPT th× t«i chØ giíi thiÖu nh÷ng phÇn c¬ b¶n nh­ c¸ch chuyÓn tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng, c©u bÞ ®éng ë mét sè th× tiÕng Anh häc trong ch­¬ng tr×nh, vµ víi c¸c ®éng tõ khuyÕt thiÕu, WH- question, cÊu tróc SVOO. Cßn ®èi víi ®èi t­îng häc sinh kh¸, giái, häc sinh häc khèi D th× t«i ®· giíi thiÖu thªm phÇn mét sè d¹ng ®Æc biÖt trong c©u bÞ ®éng. Trong qu¸ tr×nh gi¶ng d¹y, t«i nhËn thÊy häc sinh phÇn lín ®Òu n¾m ®­îc c¸c kiÕn thøc c¬ b¶n vµ ¸p dông lµm ®­îc c¸c d¹ng bµi tËp tr¾c nghiÖm phôc vô cho k× thi tèt nghiÖp THPT. Tuy nhiªn, ®èi víi ®èi t­îng häc sinh yÕu, th× c¸c em vÉn cßn gÆp mét sè khã kh¨n v× ®©y lµ phÇn kiÕn thøc liªn quan chÆt chÏ víi c¸c phÇn kiÕn thøc kh¸c ®Æc biÖt lµ c¸c th× tiÕng Anh.V× vËy, khi d¹y phÇn kiÕn thøc nµy, t«i ®· yªu cÇu häc sinh nh¾c l¹i kiÕn thøc ®· häc trong phÇn c¸c th× tiÕng Anh vµ c¸c kiÕn thøc cã liªn quan kh¸c. §Ò xuÊt: Lµ mét gi¸o viªn trÎ, gi¶ng d¹y ch­a l©u, kinh nghiÖm ch­a nhiÒu nªn t«i biÕt vÊn ®Ò m×nh ®­a ra cßn nhiÒu h¹n chÕ. V× vËy, t«i rÊt mong nhËn ®­îc sù tham gia x©y dùng cña c¸c thÇy c«, ®ång nghiÖp ®Ó vÊn ®Ò t«i ®­a ra ®­îc hoµn thiÖn h¬n, cã hiÖu qu¶ h¬n trong qu¸ tr×nh gi¶ng d¹y. Xin ch©n thµnh c¶m ¬n! Phï Cõ, ngµy 18 th¸ng 5 n¨m 2007 Ng­êi viÕt TrÇn Anh Dòng Môc lôc Trang PhÇn më ®Çu 1 I.Lý do chän ®Ò tµi II.Môc ®Ých III.§èi t­îng nghiªn cøu IV.Ph¹m vi nghiªn cøu V.C¬ së nghiªn cøu PhÇn néi dung 2- 15 I.C¸ch dïng c©u bÞ ®éng 2 II.CÊu tróc III. C¸ch chuyÓn tõ c©u chñ ®éng sang c©u bÞ ®éng 4 Practice 6 IV.C¸c d¹ng ®Æc biÖt trong c©u bÞ ®éng 9 Practice 13 PhÇn kÕt luËn 17

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