Nâng cao năng lực tiếp cận các dịch vụ kinh doanh nông nghiệp cho các nông hộ ở miền trung Việt Nam

Trong thời gian báo cáo, dựán Agribiz đã hoàn thành nhiều hoạt động quan trọng nhưcác nghiên cứu trường hợp vềKDNN trang trại, đánh giá nhu cầu tập huấn của cán bộkhuyến nông ở4 tỉnh Thừa Thiên Huế, NghệAn, Kontum và Quảng Ngãi. Kết quả điều tra cùng với những kiến thức và kĩnăng có được từchuyến đi làm việc tại New Zealand đã xác định và phát triển được các khoá tập huấn, đánh giá được chương trình đào tạo tại trường Đại học Kinh tếHuế. Những kết quả đạt được trong thời gian qua được tóm tắt nhưsau: • Hiểu được tình hình KDNN trang trại ởmiền Trung Việt Nam; • Hiểu sâu hơn vềnhu cầu đào tạo của cán bộkhuyến nông tại các cấp tỉnh, huyện và xã; • Cải thiện được kiến thức và kĩnăng của cán bộKhoa KT&PT và cán bộkhuyến nông của các SởNN&PTNT tham gia vào việc phân tích kinh doanh trang trại; • Củng cốnăng lực của đội ngũcán bộKhoa KT&PT vềthiết kếvà phát triển khoá tập huấn. Những kết quả đạt được đã đáp ứng được những mong mỏi của dựán. Tóm lại, dựán Agribiz đã và đang tiến đến mục tiêu của mình.

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d Quang Ngai provinces and assist the development of a programs that will enable them to improve their livelihoods. 3.0 To develop the capacity of provincial agricultural extension and service staff in agribusiness skills and methods that will enable them to more effectively contribute to smallholder (including women and ethnic minorities) livelihood improvement. 2. Activities to be Completed These are the activities that Dr Martin will be involved with over 2006 and includes her duties during the NZ study. The Blue coloured activities are the ones that will be covered during the August visit. Activities to be Undertaken The role of the Agribusiness Supply Chain Specialist will be to contribute to capacity building in a number of areas that include: research methodology (especially for the analysis of agricultural supply chains), development of curricula for HCE academic programs, training of HCE staff in agribusiness (especially agribusiness supply chains), and agribusiness presentations at workshops and seminars. The Agribusiness Supply Chain Specialist will undertake the following tasks during 2006: • Assist with the organisation of the study tour by HCE staff to Lincoln University; • Deliver specific session to the HCE staff during their study tour (sessions to include – farm agribusiness supply chains and their analysis); 31 • Advise the HCE staff on the methods and approaches for the analysis of agribusinesses supply chains. This will involve continued support for HCE staff in the development of the skills to agribusinesses and associated supply chains; • Review with the field study leaders (and their teams where appropriate) the findings of the field studies and how these findings can be applied in the development of the HCE agribusiness curriculum, especially in the topics in agricultural marketing, market information and supply chains; • Review with the HCE staff the on-going development of the agribusiness program curriculum, especially in the topics: agricultural marketing, market information and supply chains. Ensure that the program development reflects the findings of the field surveys, sound agribusiness methodologies. It should also be consistent with any national and Hue University requirements; • Review with the HCE staff the agribusiness supply chain topics that should be developed into training courses. For up to 2 courses assist the staff to prepare an outline of curricula for these courses; • Where required undertake meetings with Government agencies eg Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and other Institutions eg Universities to discuss the projects findings and implications for agriculture sector development in Viet Nam; • Contribute to any Lincoln University development activities in Viet Nam (in agreement with the appropriate Lincoln University authorities). Outputs and Deliverables The Agribusiness Supply Chain Specialist will contribute to the following outputs: • HCE staff who know the features of agribusiness supply chains and their role in the agricultural sector; • HCE staff with the skills and knowledge to analyse agribusiness supply chains; • Description and analysis of agribusiness supply chains that operate in the four project provinces; • Publications and seminars about agribusiness and supply chains in the project provinces; • HCE staff with the skills and knowledge to develop agribusiness curricula; • Modified agribusiness curriculum at HCE that reflects the agribusiness situation in the Central Regions and best practice farm agribusiness, especially agribusiness supply chains, skills and methodologies; • Publications and seminars about agribusinesses supply chains in the four project provinces. 32 3. August Visit Dr Martin’s visit has been scheduled to support the FEDS staff meet the CARD output requirements of: • Prepare a revised Agribusiness program curriculum by October 2006 • Design and deliver a limited number of agribusiness training courses before the end of 2006 Therefore the activities to be completed during the August visit are: 1. Curriculum assistance – Dr Martin will assist Dr Ha, and the curriculum development team, with the subjects in Sandra's main areas ie the agribusiness marketing supply chain subjects. She can advise on the content of the selected subjects, use of the findings from the field work in the 4 provinces and assist with the content linkages and relationships between the subjects. Professor Woodford has helped with the overall structure of the agribusiness degree and now Dr Martin can help to develop the agribusiness marketing supply chain area ie the subjects of the agribusiness program that are agribusiness supply chain related – this is to be featured of the program and make the FEDS program “different” to other universities in Viet Nam Preparation for Visit In preparation for Dr Martin’s visit Dr Ha and her team should have identified the subjects that they need assistance with. In the development of the agribusiness program curriculum the linkages between the subjects needs to be considered, especially the points made in the preparation for the curriculum work completed by Dr Woodford on the subject “structure” of a degree : • The business subjects (accounting, finance etc) that underpin the degree ie provide the basic business skills for the graduates • Some agricultural subjects to give them essential agricultural knowledge. • Agribusiness subjects that provide the core of the degree eg ag marketing, ag supply chains, farm analysis, farm management etc Point 2 below will also contribute to content of the various subjects. 2) Help to further analyse the findings from the field work in the agribusiness supply chain area. Ensure that the findings from the field work are used to develop the curriculum content and to prepare excellent case studies to support the teaching and learning. The analysis of the survey findings may also be used in the preparation of academic publications. 33 3) Advise on the preparation of at least one agribusiness course as FEDS have outlined. The course will be "Marketing/Supply Chain Analysis" and Dr Martin will assist with the planning of the content and structure of the course. In the preparation for the course it is important to consider – who is the target for the course ie who will it be delivered to, how long should be course be for, where will it be delivered. The comments of the sector people surveyed must be taken into consideration in the decisions about the design and plans for delivery of the course. Dr Martin’s work this mission is very important. It provides the final opportunity, before the curriculum is due to be completed, for Dr Ha and her team to consult with Dr Martin over the content of the agribusiness subjects in the curriculum. One of the main reasons for the Agribiz project is that COE will have a high quality relevant agribusiness program and make COE the leading agribusiness university in Viet Nam. The visit also provides the opportunity to develop the basis for a leading agribusiness training course and for Dr Martin and Dr Ha (and others) to review the development of papers and other publications. Proposed Program It is proposed that the following program be followed – Dr Martin can further discuss with Dr Ha and Dr The. Date Activity FEDS staff Monday 31 July Review status of Curriculum, discussion of preparation for agribusiness subjects Dr Ha – curriculum team Tuesday 1 August am Further discussion and agribusiness curriculum development work pm Review of case studies – agribusiness supply chain features for QN and KT Dr Ha and team Relevant team leaders and teams. Wednesday 2 August am Further discussion of the case studies pm Implications of case study findings for curriculum development Relevant teams Dr Ha and team Thursday 3 August Review preparation of Course preparation team 34 curriculum for agribusiness training course Friday 4 August am Follow up work with the curriculum team pm Follow up work with the agribusiness training course team. Dr H and team Course preparation team This looks a very busy week and Dr Martin and the FEDS staff may want to make some modifications. Curriculum development has been made the main activity as it is the most important. Stewart Pittaway 22 June 2006 35 II Report Enhancing Small Farmers’ Access to Agribusiness Services in the Central Region of Vietnam AusAID Collaboration for Agriculture and Rural Development (CARD) Program REPORT Associate Professor Sandra Martin August 2006 36 INTRODUCTION This Report records some outcomes from the Input of Associate Professor Sandra Martin in July/August 2006. It covers development of the agribusiness program curriculum in agricultural marketing, market information and supply chains, discusses how the case studies that have been developed can be used, and reviews the topics for the marketing supply chain training courses, and approaches that can be used to deliver these courses. 37 SUBJECT IN AGRICULTURAL MARKETING for the Bachelor’s Degree in Agribusiness and Rural Development Background Basic theory is currently presented in introductory courses on marketing and microeconomics. This theory is taught in a very general way in a lot of detail. Students therefore have prior exposure to in-depth theory but will have little appreciation of how to apply this theory to particular contexts, such as agriculture. Much teaching is currently done to relatively large classes (about 50) where lecturers present theory based on standard overseas textbooks to students. While there are some attempts to use mini-cases and to stimulate class and group discussion, this is not normal practice. Full case study teaching (where theoretical principles emerge from case analysis) would require a very radical shift in educational style, and is not considered feasible at this stage. Where possible, lecturers try to use Vietnamese examples, but it is sometimes difficult to get authentic examples. In these situations, overseas examples are used to illustrate theory. Suggested Modifications After review of the content and delivery of the existing subject in Agricultural Marketing, a number of modifications are suggested. a. The subject can be positioned more distinctively within the curriculum by: i. reducing the amount of marketing theory covered and selecting that theory that is most appropriate for agricultural marketing; ii. making greater use of authentic Vietnamese examples and mini- cases to illustrate and apply this theory; iii. using mini-cases as a basis for class or group discussion of marketing theory, concepts and principles b. The customer focus of marketing should be stressed more strongly, which can be done by simplifying the content of the marketing management theory and adding more material on agribusiness supply chain management. c. The structure of the course can be simplified so that three broad areas of marketing relevant to agribusiness are covered. These are: i. Traditional Agricultural Marketing ii. Agribusiness Supply Chain Management iii. Agribusiness Marketing Management 38 Areas of Marketing The three areas of marketing identified above emerge from different disciplinary bases and are focussed on different marketing ‘problems’. This is illustrated in the diagram below. Traditional Agricultural Marketing Agribusiness Supply Chain Management Marketing Management Traditional Agricultural Marketing is economics-based, and focuses on the behaviour of markets for agricultural products. It includes supply and demand analysis, marketing channels, marketing functions and margins along channels. It tends to view marketing as how products are moved to market after they have been produced. The strength of this approach lies in its emphasis on the fundamental economics that underlie agricultural markets, but its definition of marketing is now viewed as largely outmoded as it is not customer-focussed. Kohls and Uhl is the standard text. Marketing Management is management based, and focuses on how a firm can manage its marketing decisions. It includes an analysis of customers, market research, various marketing decisions that a firm has to make, and other management-based theory. There are a range of standard texts, with Kotler being a very popular text. Although the texts use many examples and mini-case studies, these tend to be US examples that are not particularly relevant for agribusiness or for small firms. The Marketing Management approach does not overlap the Traditional Agricultural Marketing approach. Agribusiness Supply Chain Management is a very recent approach to marketing. There is some overlap with Traditional Agricultural Marketing (for example, its emphasis on chains overlaps the discussion on channels). There is also some overlap with Marketing Management (for example, the customer-focussed approach is similar to the emphasis on consumers in Marketing Management). However, supply chain management adds further dimensions, such as its focus on information flows and 39 relationship management. The supply chain management discipline is still ‘settling’ and there are a number of texts, all taking slightly different approaches, but none of them acknowledged as the standard text. It should be stressed that these are three different ‘approaches’ to agricultural marketing, all of which can contribute to its understanding, but cannot be ‘mixed’ as they each address different issues. Suggested Content and Approach Traditional Agricultural Marketing It is suggested that this area is presented first as it sets the wider scene because of its market/industry approach. Suggested content is: • Understanding Agricultural Markets o Supply and Demand o Elasticities o Factors influencing supply and demand • Marketing Channels o Organisations o Stages of Marketing o Margins • Support for Agricultural Marketing (Government/Policy) When presenting this material, the theory should be presented to them as revision from previous courses, but the real emphasis should be on application with agricultural examples. For example, the section on Understanding Agricultural Markets could focus on some different industries, such as coffee. Factors influencing the demand for coffee could be discussed, then factors influencing supply, and some information on variations in coffee prices over time. These could then be analysed in terms of demand and supply factors, and what is likely to emerge is that variations in price are due to changes in competitors supply (eg shortfalls because of drought, etc). Discussion of elasticities could then be done in this context also. FAO publications are likely to be a good source of this industry knowledge, but a quick Web search will turn up good sources. There may be scope for some material on estimation of supply and demand. However, this has been covered in earlier courses, so if it is done, then the emphasis would have to be on how to estimating agricultural supply and demand (for example, they could do a project estimating demand and supply of coffee). 40 Agribusiness Supply Chain Management It is suggested that this approach is considered next, as they have already been introduced to the wider market/industry and ‘the channel’, but the SC approach allows them to view the ‘channel’ as a chain that can be actively managed for the benefit of the consumer and intermediate customers. 41 Suggested content is: • What are supply chains? • Value creation in chains o Consumer needs o Value creation by intermediate customers o Value creation within a firm • Supply Chain Functions o Logistics o Quality Control o Information o Vertical Integration/Relationship Management • Chain orientation and control o Chain leaders o Co-operative versus Opportunistic • Chain Performance • Chain Analysis Because the students will not have been exposed to this material before, they will need to get the theory in some detail as well as the application of the theory. The theory should be presented using some authentic Vietnamese agricultural examples, and after this has been done, there would be scope of looking at some different chains and discussing them in some detail so that the students get an appreciation of the whole chain and how it operates, not just examples of the different components of chains. The case analyses that have been done for the CARD project will provide a good supply of examples and cases that can be used in this section. Because this part of the course is new, there is scope for a section on how to analyse supply chains. That is, some theory of supply chain analysis can be presented, and this can be illustrated using examples from analyses done for the CARD project. For example, two chains could be chosen and chain analysis could be discussed using each of these cases. This will make the analysis ‘real-life’ for the students. Marketing Management It is suggested that the section on Marketing Management be done last, since this is firm-level theory, and means the course looks at markets/industries, then chains (which operate within industries), then firms (which operate within chains). Suggested content is: • Identifying consumer needs and constraints to meeting these o Theory 42 ƒ Market segments ƒ Consumer needs (Maslow) ƒ Products as a bundle of attributes ƒ Product life cycles 43 o Market Research ƒ What needs to be researched ƒ How can it be researched? • Developing a marketing strategy to meet consumer needs o Using the marketing mix to position the product ƒ Product ƒ Price ƒ Place ƒ Promotion o Making sure that the marketing mix is ‘coherent’ The have covered much of this material in their general marketing course, but in a very general sense with little application. In this course, the theory revised should be very selective, with the major emphasis on application of the theory in agricultural situations. It is suggested that two mini-cases be followed through to illustrate the application of the theory. The first case could be a commodity product produced by a Vietnamese farmer (which could come from the CARD case studies) while the second case could be an example of an entrepreneurial farmer producing a product that is taken through to the supermarket or close to the end consumer. There will be some good Vietnamese examples of this. In the text written by Shadbolt and Martin, there is a chapter by Martin that shows how case studies can be woven into the teaching of marketing management, and how marketing management principles (the 4 P’s) can be applied to commodity products (and thus become the 2 P’s). Conclusion If this course can be realigned as suggested above, it would make it quite distinctive and unique within Vietnam. It would force students to apply theory in an agricultural context, cover areas of marketing that are currently not covered (such as supply chain management), and link well with the farmer training courses in the CARD programme. Should the above suggestions be adopted, then I can provide on-going distance support for it. 44 USE OF THE CASE STUDIES Introduction Many excellent case studies have now been produced as part of the CARD programme. These case studies have many purposes: 1. They have provided training for FEDS staff in farm and supply chain analysis; that is, they have built up their own skill base by doing the case studies and writing them up. 2. They have allowed FEDS staff to isolate the issues faced by farmers in the four target provinces through in-depth analysis of representative cases. 3. They have provided case material that can be used in courses taught by FEDS staff. In the discussion of the Marketing subject above, it was shown how the case studies could be used for teaching. 4. They will provide case material for the training courses for farmers and their trainers. In the following discussion of the Marketing and Supply Chain course, suggestions are made on how to use the case studies for this purpose. 5. They can be used for research papers and journal articles. 6. They can be used to write a textbook on farm management and agribusiness/supply chain management as applied to Vietnam Once the four booklets have been produced, they can be treated as big ‘data banks’ for each of the above purposes. Teaching Uses As noted above, the cases can be used in university courses and in the training courses for farmers and their trainers. It is suggested that the course design is done and then it will be clear what types of examples and cases are required to illustrate particular points. Once this has been done, then FEDS staff can discuss the cases and decide which cases or examples might best illustrate the points in question. For example, one of the supply chain cases covers production of oranges. In the past, plantations were well aligned to customer needs, but as farmers have taken over production, this alignment has slipped and now the farmers are losing market share to other sources of oranges because farmers are not meeting the market requirements. This case study is a very good example that could be used in both the marketing course and the farmer training course. Currently, the CARD project is focussed on the teaching uses for the case studies that have been produced. 45 Research Uses As noted above, there are a number of research uses that can be made of the case studies. Cross-case analysis could be used write one or more policy papers for government (or others) on the needs of farmers in the four target provinces. This could be written up in monograph style, and would enhance the reputation of FEDS in the policy area. Cross-case analysis could be used to write up research papers in the farm management and supply chain areas. These could be initially put out as monographs, then used for conference presentations, and finally polished up and submitted to journals. This would enhance the research reputation of FEDS staff. In this regard, it is suggested that, initially, one paper be targeted to the International Farm Management Association (IFMA) Conference, and one paper be targeted to the International Agribusiness Management Association (IAMA) Conference. These are international conferences and the former publishes the papers in its conference proceedings, while the latter referees them and publishes them in its journal. This research focus could occur in the final part of the CARD program, and would address the applied research requirement in the terms of reference. 46 TRAINING COURSES FOR FARMERS AND TRAINERS Marketing and Supply Chain Management Introduction Some suggestions are made on what the content of training courses for farmers and trainers might be, and also how the delivery of these courses might be approached. It is recommended that course design start with what is necessary for the farmer course, and to ‘build up’ from this to the trainer course. A similar course that has been designed is a potential model that could be adapted. Content of the Farmer Course Rather than summarise down the workshops that have been delivered on Marketing and Supply Chain Management, it is recommended the course is built around the paper on Opportunities for Smallholders within Supply Chains. This restates the supply chain theory from the point of view of farmers and links it back to the farm analysis work presented by Keith Woodford and Stewart Pittaway. The content of the Marketing and Supply Chain course depends to some extent on the content of the Farm Analysis course, as these two courses interrelate. The following content is recommended for the Marketing and Supply Chain course. Unit 1: What is marketing all about? • Supply Chain Management/Marketing o The basic concepts (the circle diagram) o What are the key marketing questions Unit 2: Resources • What are your resources? o Physical/natural, human, financial o What are your goals? o Can you produce a particular product? (This module will be a focussed ‘revision of material in the Farm Analysis course) Unit 3: Marketing Decision-Making • Using facts and figures (Gross Margins and Budgets) • Risk (especially price risk) (This module will be a focussed ‘revision’ of material in the Farm Analysis course, with some additional emphasis on price risk and the factors underlying market prices) 47 Unit 4: Market Requirements • What are your market outlets? • What are the market requirements for different market outlets? • Can you meet the market requirements for a particular product with your resources? Unit 6: The ‘Routes’ to the Market • For different products, what are the options o What are the market outlets? o How can your product be transformed (processed) or enhanced (graded, packaged, washed, etc)? o What are the prices for different product ‘forms’ in different market outlets • For different products, what can you do? o Who should you sell to? o Should you improve your product? o How can you get your product to the market in good condition? • Are you missing any information, and where could you find this information? Unit 7: Conclusion Summary of what has been learnt Learning Approach The following are some brief points on teaching and learning. Miranda Cahn will deal with this in a more conceptual way and in greater detail. The notes here are an attempt to explain the philosophy behind the learning approach used in a similar course. • Teaching and Learning o Teaching is not learning; it can be one component in the learning process and can help to facilitate learning o We are interested in learning • How do farmers learn? o By ‘doing’ o From other farmers o Through formal teaching (this is likely to be much less preferred) • What do farmers already know about the material (what is their prior knowledge or prior learning?) • You can be partners in learning with farmers o You bring ƒ The principles (the points in the course content above) ƒ Your facilitation skills 48 o They bring ƒ Their prior knowledge ƒ Their experience How can you utilise their knowledge and the knowledge of other farmers into a learning package that stresses the principles that you want them to understand? 49 ‘Putting Together’ the Course Content and the Learning Approach For a previous course, the course content and the learning approach were put together by recasting the principles to be learned in each module as a series of exercises. For example, for Unit 4, the following approach was followed: Market Requirements • What are your market outlets? Farmers were put into small groups. They picked a product that they were familiar with, and then listed the various market outlets. (This utilises their prior knowledge and they can learn from other farmers by the group work). • What are the market requirements for different market outlets? In their small groups, the farmers list the market requirements for one or two market outlets. Before they do this, the trainer explains what is meant by ‘market requirements’. (Once again, this utilises their prior knowledge and they can learn from other farmers through the group work). • Can you meet the market requirements for a particular product with your resources? In their small groups, the farmers are given a small case study to discuss. In this case study, the ‘characters’ are thinking of growing a new vegetable for the supermarkets, and they go and ask the supermarket what they require. They then have a think about their own situation. It is clear in the case study that they do not have the resources to meet the requirements of the market. This exercise again uses the farmers’ prior knowledge and they can learn from each other. By introducing the case study, it gives some variety in the learning approach. By approaching the unit in this say, the farmers can use their prior knowledge and experience, while the trainer structures the exercises so that the ‘principles’ emerge through the exercises; that is, the trainer facilitates the learning experience. There are many ways of facilitating learning. These can include small group discussion, large group discussion, exercises that the farmers can do in their own time and relate to their own business, case studies, guest speakers and field trips. What is used depends on time and resources. However, it is important to get some variety. Training Materials for Farmers In a previous course using this approach, a booklet was provided for farmers. This booklet contained all of the exercises for each unit and had plenty of space for farmers to write their own notes. The booklet was attractively set out with a lot of visual cues 50 for the exercises (such as a talking head, an ear, a question mark, etc). At the end of each unit, the material covered was summarised as questions containing the ‘principles’. The words used were simple, but the material was conceptually very defensible. 51 Training Course for the Trainers In a previous course that was similar in content, the training course for trainers was done in a particular way. They were given a large booklet as part of their training materials. In this booklet, each unit to be taught to farmers was presented in three parts. 1. The first part had the material that was in the farmer’s booklet. 2. The second part had teaching tips for trainers, where there were a set of hints and tips for each exercise in the unit. 3. The third part had background material that was required by the trainers before they could deliver to the farmers. The training course for trainers began with a workshop on Supply Chain Management Concepts. The basis for this was the paper Agribusiness Supply Chain Management Concepts, which was presented to FEDS staff in July 2005. Once the trainers had been through this workshop, they went through the training course for farmers. For each unit, the background material was presented to them and discussed. Then the material in the farmer’s booklet was analysed for that unit, and the teaching tips were discussed for each exercise. This style of training for trainers built their confidence because they had a lot of backup material for the farmer course. They could also make use of other trainer’s ideas on how to vary the suggested presentation of material. They were also provided with some key charts; for example, the chart of the circle diagram, and a chart with the rectangle that summarised what marketing was all about. Length of Courses If Units 2 and 3 are revision for what is in the Farm Analysis course, then the farmer course should take 2 days. The course for trainers should take four days. 52 APPENDIX 3 AGRIBIZ PROJECT STUDY TOUR FEEDBACK The purpose of this evaluation is to provide feedback on what you have learned from the study tour. The feedback is being undertaken some time after the tour so that you can fully reflect on what you learned and have been able to apply in your work. We hope that this feedback can be used to provide further professional development for you and your staff. The Study Tour The name of the study tour I went on was Agribiz Study Tour to Lincoln University, New Zealand It was undertaken over the following dates/year 12th- 24th February, 2006 1 The aim of the study tour was to: - To study and build up teaching curriculum of Agribusiness as well as to gain experiences and teaching methods in Agribusiness - To study Agribusiness activities carried out in NZ farms and obtain the methods of farm management - To develop the relationship and cooperation between FEDS, HCE and Lincoln University. 2 I learned the following new skills and knowledge from the study tour: SKILLS: - Practise speaking English 53 - Prepare, build up teaching curriculum, organize training courses for farmers as well as for extension staff - Obtain teaching methodologies as well as ways of managing and analyzing farms in New Zealand KNOWLEDGE: -Obtain more knowledge about the operation and agribusiness in farms in New Zealand. - Have a better look at the relationship among farms, cooperatives, supermarkets and export. - Obtain more methods to build training curriculum; to analyze farm business, product supply chain as well as risks. 3 I added to my existing skills and knowledge about the following topics/work areas: - Case study report writing up; professional activities - Agricultural marketing, farm management, Agribusiness, agricultural economy. - Training curriculum for the Dept, for farmers and for extension staff as well as teaching process and methodologies for students. What have you applied in your work? 4 Have you changed some aspect of your work as a result of the study tour? Yes No No due to the constraints in my job 3 If there are constraints – what are they? 54 - Poor equipment - Overlapped activities organized 5 What did you learn from the study tour that you have been able to apply in your job? (Please detail skills and knowledge gained and how you have been able to use it.) Curriculum and Training Course Preparation Skills - Build up teaching curriculum, organise training courses for farmers and extension staff. - Reduce theoretical periods and increase practice; build modules of making plans for household economy. - Apply obtained knowledge to teaching lessons. Agribusiness knowledge - Farm economy; Agribusiness training curriculum - Supply chain analysis in Thua Thien Hue; amend more knowledge about supply chain to Agricultural Marketing and knowledge about Farm Management to Agricultural enterprises administration. - Study the production relationship among farms, cooperatives and supermarkets to analyze Agribusiness. Teaching and Learning Skills and knowledge - Reform the teaching methodologies so as to focus more on facts. Also apply more facts about Agriculture in New Zealand in teaching lessons. - Knowledge about tourism and communication - Study and suggest some projects to develop Agriculture. Other Skills and knowledge 55 - Training process and methodology in Lincoln University; - Ways of building training curriculum; - Achievements of NZ agriculture as well as some large- scale farms in NZ. 6 What did you learn from the study tour that you have been able to teach to other FEDS staff that you are responsible for? - New Zealand’s culture; Ways of organizing seminar to compare supply chains in NZ and in Vietnam; - Economic Management mechanism in NZ 7 Are there resources (equipment, text books, etc) that you now need to fully apply what you learned from the study tour? (Please be specific.) - Guidance of using @ risk software; books about Agribusiness and Agricultural Economy, about Micro and Macro Economics, Agribusiness supply chain. - Videos about Farm Management and Supply chain - Teaching aids such as computers and projectors, etc. 8 What follow-on capacity building activities (eg staff training, further study tours, Agribiz consultant support) do you recommend to assist you in your job and to achieve the aims of the Agribiz project? (Please be specific.) - Train the staff by studying, training courses as well as increasing cooperation, exchange and further study tour by topics in New Zealand or in other developing countries. - Consultancy in Agribusiness. 56 APPENDIX 4: PRESENTATION ON THE RESULT OF THE STUDY TOUR TO NEW ZEALAND CHUỖI CUNG NÔNG SẢN TS. Phùng Thị Hồng Hà I. Khái niệm chuỗi cung Một chuỗi cung là một chuỗi những quá trình mà nó cung cấp hàng hoá từ người này sang những người khác. Một chuỗi cung là một mạng lưới của những sự lựa chọn từ việc sản xuất đến việc phân phối . Chúng bao gồm những chức năng: mua sắm vật tư, vận chuyển những vật tư này đến các sản phẩm trung gian và sản phẩm cuối cùng và phân phối những sản phẩm cuối cùng này đến tay người tiêu dùng •Một chuỗi cung về bản chất có 3 phần chính: cung cấp, sản xuất và phân phối. - Cung tập trung vào: bằng cách nào (how), từ đâu (where from) và khi nào (when) vật tư được mua và cung cấp tới các nhà sản xuất. - Các nhà sản xuất biến đổi những vật tư này thành các sản phẩm cuối cùng. - Việc phân phối đảm bảo rằng những sản phẩm cuối cùng này sẽ được đưa tới những khách hàng cuối cùng thông qua một mạng lưới các nhà cung cấp, các cửa hàng và những người bán lẻ •Thường, công tác kế hoạch hoá được xem là một phần của chuỗi cung. Nó liên quan tới việc kế hoạch hoá và xắp xếp dòng sản phẩm và thông tin giữa ba khu vực trên. •Người ta nói rằng, Chuỗi được bắt đầu với những người cung cấp của những người cung cấp của bạn và kết thúc với các khách hàng của khách hàng của bạn SƠ ÐỒ CHUỖI CUNG CẠNH TRANH NGƯỜI TIÊU DÙNG NHÀ PHÂN PHỐI/QUẦY BÁN LẺ NHÀ CHẾ BIẾN NHÀ SẢN XUẤT ? NHÀ CUNG CẤP CÁC YẾU TỐ ĐẦU VÀO CHUỖI CUNG CẠNH TRANH 57 SƠ ĐỒ TẠO GIÁ TRỊ TRONG CHUỖI CUNG NGƯỜI TIÊU DÙNG KHÁCH HÀNG TRUNG GIAN VÀ CÁC NHÀ CUNG CẤP KHÁCH HÀNG TRUNG GIAN VÀ CÁC NHÀ CUNG CẤP KHÁCH HÀNG TRUNG GIAN VÀ CÁC NHÀ CUNG CẤP NHÀ CUNG CẤP NHU CẦU CỦA NGƯỜI TIÊU DÙNG TẠO GIÁ TRỊ TẠO GIÁ TRỊ TẠO GIÁ TRỊ TẠO GIÁ TRỊ 58 MÔ HÌNH TẠO GIÁ TRỊ CỦA MỘT NHÀ MÁY CÁC CHỨC NĂNG CỦA CHUỖI CUNG • Công tác hậu cần và việc bảo quản sản phẩm • Quản lý thông tin • Thống nhất các tiến trình thông qua việc quản lý các mối quan hệ QUẢN LÝ CHUỖI CUNG • Quản lý chuỗi cung là quá trình kế hoạch hoá, tiến hành và điều khiển các hoạt động của chuỗi cung với mục đích thoả mãn nhu cầu của khách hàng càng hiệu quả càng tốt. Quản lý chuỗi cung mở rộng đến tất cả các vấn đề: di chuyển, lưu trữ nguyên liệu thô, chế biến sản phẩm từ khi bắt đầu đến khi tiêu thụ hết sản phẩm. Các hoạt động của nhà máy Liên hệ với khách hàng Liên kết với các nhà cung cấp đầu vào - Mua đầu vào - Hậu cần đầu vào - Bảo dýỡng sản phẩm -Chế biến sản phẩm - Củng cố sản phẩm (Lau chùi, phân loại, đóng gói, giới thiệu) -Các quầy bán sản phẩm - Hậu cần đầu ra - Bảo dýỡng sản phẩm (đảm bảo chất lýợng) Các nguồn lực của hãng - Vật chất và tự nhiên - Vốn - Nhân lực - Năng lực đổi mới 59 KHUNG QUẢN LÝ CHUỖI CUNG THỊ TRƯỜNG •Thị trường là nơi tiêu thụ sản phẩm của nông hộ. Các thị trường khác nhau thì có những nhu cầu khác nhau về hình thức sản phẩm, số lượng, chất lượng, tính liên tục và kịp thời của sản phẩm NÔNG HỘ (TRANG TRẠI) •Nông hộ là một đơn vị sản xuất có mục tiêu sản xuất riêng tuỳ thuộc vào nhu cầu, trách nhiệm và nguyện vọng của họ. Họ có những nguồn lực khác nhau có thể sử dụng để đáp ứng nhu cầu của những thị trường khác nhau, từ đó đạt mục tiêu của mình. QUY TRÌNH ĐƯA SẢN PHẨM RA THỊ TRƯỜNG •Người nông dân có thể lựa chọn các quy trình khác nhau để đưa sản phẩm ra thị trường. Quy trình này bao gồm: * Hình thức sản phẩm * Các khâu trong chuỗi * Dịch vụ cung ứng và bảo quản sản phẩm THỊ TRƯỜNG Các quy trình đưa sản phẩm ra thị trường NÔNG HỘ 60 THÀNH PHẦN CHUỖI CUNG SIÊU THỊ B CỬA HÀNG BÁN LẺ NGƯỜI THU MUA VÀ ĐIỀU PHỐI CỦA SIÊU THỊ NGƯỜI TRỒNG RAU ƯU TIÊN NGƯỜI TRỒNG RAU ƯU TIÊN THỊ TRƯỜNG NGƯỜI BÁN BUÔN THỊ TRƯỜNG ƯU TIÊN NGƯỜI BÁN BUÔN SIÊU THỊ B 61 MỘT SỐ HÌNH ẢNH MINH HỌA Trang trại trồng rau (Broccoli, Cauliflower, potatoes) •Quy mô sản xuất lớn •Trình độ chuyên môn hoá cao •Sản xuất cơ giới hoá, tự động hoá cao Hệ thống làm lạnh rau•Máy làm lạnh nước •Máy rửa rau 62 Hệ thống bảo quản rau•Sau khi rửa sạch được xếp vào các rổ đựng •Đưa vào nhà làm lạnh Trang trại trồng PARSNIPS Hệ thống làm sạch và phân loại PARSNIPS PARSNIPS Đà ĐƯỢC PHÂN LOẠI, CHUẨN BỊ ĐƯA ĐI TIÊU THỤ 63 TRANG TRẠI NUÔI BÒ SỮA NHÀ VẮT SỮA BÒ BỒN CHỨA VÀ BẢO QUẢN SỮA TƯƠI 64 NHẬN XÉT CHUỖI CUNG RAU Ở NEWZEALAND •Khẩu độ của chuỗi ngắn •Thông tin trong chuỗi rõ ràng, nhanh và chính xác •Chênh lệch giá đồng đều •Quan hệ giữa các thành viên trong chuỗi chặt chẽ và bền vững. •Kiểm soát chất lượng sản phẩm tốt CHUỖI CUNG RAU Ở VIỆT NAM HỘ NÔNG DÂN THU GOM NHỎ THU GOM Phân bón Thuốc sâu Hạt giống Xuất khẩu Ngýời bán lẻ Đại lý cấp 2 Đại lý cấp 1 ở các chợ: Ba đồn, Đồng Hới, Đông Hà, Huế, Đà nẵng, Q.ngãi Công ty Xuất khẩu Miền Bắc Xí nghiệp C.Biến Xuân Lộc Đại lý cấp 1 ở chợ đầu mối Vinh, Hà tĩnh Đại lý cấp 2 BÁN LẺ NGƯỜI TIÊU DÙNG 65 CHÊNH LỆCH GIÁ TRONG CHUỖI CUNG CÁC NHÀ THU GOM NHỎ NHẬN XÉT•Khẩu độ của chuỗi dài •Chênh lêch giá không đồng đều •Thông tin trong chuỗi (đặc biệt đối với hộ) không rõ ràng •Sự hợp tác giữa nhà thu gom với người sản xuất chưa chặt chẽ và thiếu tính ổn định •Việc bảo quản, chế biến rau nhằm nâng cao chất lượng và kéo dài tuổi thọ của sản phẩm chưa thực hiện được •Chưa kiểm soát được chất lượng sản phẩm NGUYÊN NHÂN •Quy mô sản xuất nhỏ, Sản xuất còn manh mún và mang tính tự phát •Kế hoạch hoá sản xuất chưa thực hiện •Kiến thức thị trường hạn chế • Loại rau Giá mua ở các hộ trồng rau Giá bán cho bán buôn cấp 1 Ngýời tiêu dùng cuối cùng Cải muối 600 900 2000 Xu hào 1500 1800 3000 Cà Rốt 2500 3200 5000 Củ cải 400 8000 1500 Hành 4500 4500 7000 66 APPENDIX 5 DR MIRANDA CAHN’S VISIT Terms of Reference Background The project Enhancing Small Holders Access to Agribusiness Services in the Central Region of Viet Nam is funded through the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) Collaboration for Agriculture and Rural Development (CARD) program. CARD is designed to assist the Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development (MARD) contribute to the Outcomes expected from the Government of Vietnam's Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS) and has the following goal and purpose: Program Goal: To increase the productivity and competitiveness of Vietnamese smallholder agriculture and related rural enterprises. Program Purpose: To develop and apply agricultural knowledge and technologies that address constraints to productivity and competitiveness. Agriculture is defined to include agriculture, livestock, fisheries and forestry. Agricultural knowledge refers to knowledge about the scientific, technical and economic aspects of production in these sectors while technologies refer to identifiable technical or management opportunities to change existing production methods. Related rural enterprises are defined as including activities of government, private sector or non-government organisations or institutions involving the provision of inputs to or dealing with the products of agriculture, livestock, fisheries or forestry. CARD is a funding facility that supports collaborative agriculture and rural development projects involving Vietnamese and Australian Institutions. The total value of projects supported during 4 rounds (Round 3-6) over the 2004-2010 period is expected to be A$22,75m., including an AusAID contribution of A$13,65m. Australian Institutions and Vietnamese Institutions are expected to contribute 25% and 15%, respectively of total project costs. The results expected from CARD include: • Innovations adopted by smallholder agriculture • Improved productivity and competitiveness of the agricultural sector • Stability through agricultural diversification • Knowledge products developed to support agricultural information 67 • Further research capacity development of Vietnamese agricultural and rural development institutions. In addition, CARD will assist MARD to institutionalise a "best practice" contestable process to plan, manage, monitor and evaluate the agricultural research and development program. Enhancing Small Holders Access to Agribusiness Services in the Central Region of Viet Nam project features: Developing the agribusiness capacity of the Faculty of Economics and Development Studies (FEDS) at the Hue College of Economics (HCE) to act as a strategic resource for rural development in the Central Regions of Viet Nam is the purpose of the project. Livelihood improvement for the small holders, including ethnic minorities, is constrained by their lack of agribusiness skills and also by the lack of agribusiness skills of the provincial extension staff. The project methodology is for the Australian partner, Lincoln University, to develop the agribusiness and applied research skills of the FEDS staff over a three year program. The capacity building program will include three major phases: a survey to determine the agribusiness needs of small holders and provincial staff in four Central Regions provinces Nghe An, Quang Ngai, Thua Thien Hue and Kon Tum; development of training courses for small holders (including women and ethnic minorities) and provincial extension agencies a well as the development of an agribusiness program curriculum at HCE; delivery of training courses for small holders and provincial agencies including the development of the capacity of the provincial agencies to deliver effective agribusiness training courses for small holders. Project outputs will include: FEDS will improved applied research skills and agribusiness teaching, research and consultancy skills, HCE with an improved agribusiness curriculum; provincial agency staff with enhanced agribusiness skills and able to deliver agribusiness training for small holders; small holders with better agribusiness skills and supported by more effective provincial agencies. Moreover the project outputs will be: 1.0 The development of the agribusiness skills and knowledge and the applied research skills of the HCE staff that will strengthen agribusiness teaching, research and consultancy activities at HCE. 2.0 To identify the agribusiness skills and knowledge needs of small holder farmers (especially from ethnic minority groups) in Kon Tum, Thua Thien Hue, Nghe An and Quang Ngai provinces and assist the development of a programs that will enable them to improve their livelihoods. 3.0 To develop the capacity of provincial agricultural extension and service staff in agribusiness skills and methods that will enable them to more effectively 68 contribute to smallholder (including women and ethnic minorities) livelihood improvement. Activities to be Undertaken These are the activities that Dr Cahn will undertake on her October visit. Dr Cahn’s role will be to contribute to capacity building in 3 areas: development of curricula for HCE academic programs; the further development of HCE staff training skills; and assistance with the development of training courses for farmers and extension staff. Specific Tasks will include: • Review with the field study leaders (and their teams where appropriate) the findings of the field studies and how these findings can be applied in the development of the HCE agribusiness curriculum, especially in the topics of rural development, project planning, credit and microfinance; • Advise the HCE curriculum preparation team on the content of the rural development, project planning etc subjects and ensure the crosscutting themes of gender etc are included in these subjects; • Review with the HCE staff the status of the development of the 4 Agribiz training courses and assist them to prepare the courses to achieve high quality learning outcomes The review of courses will focus upon learning and educational aspects: (1) general design and preparation of course material, notes, structure of course, applied learning approaches etc and (2) planning for the delivery of the courses – length of courses, teaching/learning approaches, evaluation of courses, methods of delivery etc. • Contribute to any Lincoln University development activities in Viet Nam (in agreement with the appropriate Lincoln University authorities). Outputs and Deliverables The Rural Development and Training Specialist will contribute to the following outputs: • HCE staff who know the features of rural development its role in the agricultural sector; • Publications and seminars about rural development features in the project provinces; • HCE staff with the skills and knowledge to prepare subjects in rural development for the agribusiness curricula; • HCE staff with the skills and knowledge to prepare and deliver high quality training courses; • Modified agribusiness curriculum at HCE that reflects the rural development situation in the Central Regions and best practice rural development skills and methodologies; Deliverables The Rural Development and Training Specialist will contribute to the following deliverables: 69 • Sections of project six monthly reports; • Milestone reports; • Sections of the publication on analysis of agribusinesses supply chains in the four project provinces.

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