The roles of government in social sercurity for farmer in vietnam

The whole country is gradually changing to the economic market and has the big amount of countryside area, so building thesocial security system play an essential role that aims the farmers to reduce or resolve the risk of lives. In order to do so, the government has paid more attention to build and gradually complete the social security system for people including farmers. However, due to the limitation of economic conditions, organizing and understanding, the social security for farmers still faces many difficulties, the coverage is still small and lowly impacts. There are many reasons including the role of the government. Consequently, the study on “the role ofthe Government in social security for farmers” is needed both practically and theoretically. Based on the positive role of Government on building and completing the law, policy system of social security for farmers according to pay-get principle (VSI and VHI) and social security not according to payment of farmers but with the support from government and group of people (RSA and USA), the statuses of role of government in social security of three provinces (Thanh Hoa, Nghe An and Ha Tinh) have been investigated. Until now, the social security system for farmers has just been created. It is not systematic and also the coverage of VSI, VHI and social assistance is low. It does not impact much and the guarantees of social security for farmer also face to a lot of difficulties. Consequently, the roles of the Government in social security need to be improved in the next fewyears. In order to increase the coverage areas of VSI, it is needed to encourage the healthy and middle class people in the countryside participate to this system and also add some more benefits of VHI that make equal to CHI. For the social assistance system, it is necessary to enlarge and improve the support of social assistance at least as current poorness standard, especially consider the vulnerable families. Finally, in order to improve the role of the government in social security for farmers in the next few years, several solutions including job solution, increase income, government fund support for pay-get systems as well as other system, complete the management system, training human resources and enhance the understanding the social security for famers. Four important solutions are proposed: In order to develop VSI, the government needs to change the principle of VSI payment, not follow basic salary but follow theregional average income. On the other hand, the benefit of VSI should add more that create the equality to CSI. In order to cover whole country national health insurance, the Government should support 60-80% of payment for thefarmers with low and poor income. 24 Increase the coverage of RSA from 1.65% in 2010 to 3% in 2015 and 5% in 2020, rise the national fund of RSA from 0.54% in 2010 to 1.12% in 2015 and 2.45% in 2020. Within unexpected social assistance, the support for the vulnerable farmer’ families is considered well. For the organizational system, the Government needsstudy and separate the VSI for farmer and others to and official organization from the national scale to regional scale.

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farmers. Although under the leadership of the Vietnam Communist Party, the country now is fast moving on the path of industrialization and modernization but in the near future, this rate can not reduce to under 40% yet. It can being said that farmers are still a major workforce and they specially are always a vital social and political force in ensuring social stability and national security. Because of the productivity of agricultural labor and products in Vietnam is not high. Therefore the contribution of this sector to GDP is still low. For this reason, in a long time policy makers forgot or delayed issues which related to social welfare to farmers or only approached problems to express the superiority of the socialist regime but they seem not to put it in the category of government management yet. Up to recent years, the Party and Government have made guidelines and policies to address the general issues which relate to social security and particularly for farmers. Many policies such as social insurance, health insurance, 2 social protection packages, social priority packages have been amended and supplemented and codification by Government. However, social welfare system in general and for for farmers in particular remains many shortcomings and inadequacies as well as not to meet the demand when the country has a fluctuation in economic and politics. Thus it requires to have an additional research to make it becomes better and to complete it in scientific way. There are several meticulous research on social welfare and social welfare for farmers in Vietnam. However, the results of these research had not applied or slowly applied to actual living of citizens. For these reasons, author of this research found that doing a research of the role of government in social welfare for farmers in Vietnam is very nessesary and now is an urgent job for the country. That is reason why the author has choosen the topic: "The Role of the Government in social welfare for farmers in Vietnam " for her research in the doctoral thesis in economics politics. 2. The objectives of the thesis research: 2.1. The general objectives: Basing on the theoretical and practice research of countries and Vietnam today, the thesis proposes orientations and solutions to strengthen the role of the Government in social welfare for farmers in Vietnam in next years. 2.2 . Specific Objectives: - To clarify the theories of the role of the Government on social welfare for farmers which bases on the basis of theoretical research and experience of some countries around the world. - To analys factual effect of the roles of the Government on social welfare for farmers in Vietnam then pointing out the achievements, constraints and root causes which limited these roles - To suggest a directive proposal and solutions to enhance the roles of the State the Government on social welfare for farmers in Vietnam in next years. 3. Subjects and scope of research 3.1 . Research subjects: The research’s subject is the roles of the Government in social welfare in Vietnam. However, this subject is quite broad. Therefore, this thesis mainly focus on the roles of the Government in legal system construction, policy 3 mechanism, policies, policy coordination organization and management organization, monitoring and supervision in order to set up the system and creating the conditions to ensure the operation of social welfare system. Regarding the establishment of a social welfare system, the thesis considers to build up the social welfare system which bases on the principles of contribution – get benefits and the social welfare system not just is contribution principle. To create the conditions to implement the roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers, the thesis has focused on analyzing policies and viewpoints of the Party, economic capacity to ensure that farmers have a chance to take part in and the the Government’s ability of financial assuarance, management capacity farmers awareness about social welfare system. In respect of farmers, a research’s objective, the thesis just select and research lives of farmers in the north central areas where economic growth level is average compared to other areas in Vietnam. Additionally, here also have farmers who live in different terrains such as midland, coastal and mountainous areas. Those can present for most of farmers over the country. 3.2. Scope of the Study - In space: Research is done on a national scale, but data is collected through surveys which were implemented in three North Central provinces of Thanh Hoa, Nghe An and Ha Tinh. - On time: the information and data in the research are collected then choosen from datas which were published from 2000 to 2012, and the proposed solutions is suggested for the 2020s. 4. Thesis’s contributions: - To buid a conceptual framework of the roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers through integration of researchs in Vietnam and abroad which are based on practical experiences of some countries . - Through secondary document systems from the ministries and related departments as well as analysing the data, survey which were conducted and interviewed in three north-central provinces of Ha Tinh , Nghe An and Thanh Hoa. The thesis analyzed and assessed the reality of the Government’s roles in social welfare for farmers in Vietnam and then pointed out achievements, limitations and causes . 4 - Providing recommendation of directions and solutions to enhance the roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers in Vietnam in next years. 5. Thesis’s Structure The thesis includes an introduction, conclusion, list of references, appendices of the processing of information, data and survey results as well as the contents of the four following chapters. Chapter 1: Overview and research methodology of the roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers . Chapter 2: The roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers: theoretical issues and practical experiences. Chapter 3: Evaluating actual condition of the roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers in Vietnam today. Chapter 4: Viewpoints and solutions to enhance the roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers in Vietnam in next few years. Chapter 1 Overview and research methodology of the roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers 1.1. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH ON the roles of the Government in social welfare FOR FARMERS: 1.1.1 . The contexts of research in overseas: In an overview of the research in the world, the thesis refers to the group of problems: 1) Studies which involve the roles of the Government in building legal framework and institutional policies of social welfare for farmers; 2) a piece of research which relates to the role of the Government in the coordination of economic – social policies in social welfare for farmers; 3) The research entails the role of the Government in organizing inspection and supervision the implementation of social welfare policies for farmers . 1.1.2 . The contexts of research in Vietnam: After analysing several domestic research, the thesis has clarified three following issues: 1) The relevant research on the participation forms of farmers in Vietnam on social welfare activities, 2) Studying the contents of related 5 issues to the roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers; 3) Studying the conditions to ensure the implementation of the Government's roles in the development of the social welfare system in Vietnam. Since then, the thesis raises three issues must be addressed: Firstly, how do farmers engage to any form of social welfare mode? In other words, social welfare for farmers that will include how many components and who are major pillars? Secondly, How did the establishment status of welfare legislation system and institutional policies achieve to encourgate farmers to participate in the system, was it appropriate or inappropriate? Thirdly, what is the limitation of roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers now? What does the Government need to do to continue to help the social welfare system to work into actual lives of farmers. 1.2 . METHODOLOGY 1.2.1 . Approaching method: The research is carried out though approaching the topics from theoretical to practical studies, from general to specific as well as systemic approach and interdisciplinary approach. 1.2.2 . Research Mode The research carries out studying model which bases on the following basis: 1.2.2.1 . Contents of the role of the Government in social welfare for farmers: The research focuses on analyzing three later issues: Firstly, the Government builds law systems, mechanisms and policies of social welfare for farmers. The thesis will analyze the development process of legislation system and related policies to social welfare in general and in particular for farmers. Secondly, the Government builds and coordinate social welfare policies with other social – economic policies such as the application of technology and science to argicultural production process, to create jobs, to improve income and to reduce poor rate. Thirdly, the Government monitors and supervises the implementation of policies on social security for farmers. 6 Table 1.1: Research Framework Effect features Roles of the Government in social welfare Assesment criteria Government’s viewpoints Setting up legal system, mechanism, policies on social welfare. 1. Implemention degree of the Government’s roles: - Adequacy, uniform, the consistent of legal system - Efficiency and effectiveness of policy coordination, inspection and monitoring Budget capacity of Government and farmers Coordinating social welfare policy with other social policies Management Ability on social welfare Monitoring and suppervising 2. Participation of farmers in social welfare: - The coverage - Level of impact Social awareness of social welfare 1.2.2.2 . The factors that ensure the State's role in social welfare for farmers The thesis focuses on the following groups : First , the State 's view on the development of social security system for farmers . Second, the ability to ensure that budgeting for farmers to participate in the principle of social security plays - enjoy , as well as state funding . Third, the capacity of the plant general manager of social security , in particular for farmers . In this thesis refers to machinery , staff management social security for farmers . Fourth, social awareness and advocacy measures of social awareness about social security for farmers. 1.2.2.3. Evaluating criteria for the roles of the Government on social welfare for farmers To evaluate the roles of the Government on social welfare for farmer, 7 researcher has used two criterion groups. The first group is the criteria for performance level of the contents of the Government on social welfare for farmer, such: 1) The degree of completeness, consistency and compliance of legal systems and mechanisms, policies as well as assurance and commitment on financial support from government budget for social welfare for farmers; 2) the effectiveness of the coordination of social welfare policies with economic - social policies; 3) The honesty, effective and efficient of monitoring works in implementation of policies of social welfare for farmers. The second criterion group is evaluation of farmers' participation in the social welfare components, how does it work? Because after all , the participation of farmers in social welfare is a vital measure criterion on validity and effectiveness of the implementation of the Government's role in social welfare for farmers. This group includes the criteria of coverage and level of impact of social welfare on farmers. 1.2.3. Research Methodology: In order to carry out research which follows the mentioned model, the conducted thesis conducted uses both qualitative and quantitative method during studying progress. 1.2.3.1 . Qualitative methods Based on the methodologies of dialectical and historical materialism, researcherb has used statistical method and comparative approach method to analyze and to compare the approach on the role of the Government in developing and improving the social welfare system, the advantages and difficulties in enforcing roles of the Goverment in over the country as well as in three north central provinces , the opportunities and challenges in achieving the objectives of social welfare implementing progress in incoming stages, then finding appropriate models to apply and expand social welfare system for farmers in Vietnam in general and in three central provinces in particular, as well as analyzing and pointing out factors which affect sustainable development of the social welfare system for farmers, since then indicating what efforts need to make to achieve given objectives . 1.2.3.2 . Quantitative Methods In order to use for targeted quantitative studies , researcher had collected secondary data from reports of government management departments and local 8 departments where their functions and duties related to the roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers. Besides the secondary data, the thesis has also collected primary data to specifically evaluate and specify the roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers and these surveys are conducted in three provinces of Ha Tinh, Nghe An and Thanh Hoa. Questionnaires for the primary document are divided into two groups of respondents that are the group of farmers and the group of managers. 1.2.3.3. Data processing In the thesis, researcher had used descriptive statistical methods to compare insurance participation status and the rate of surveyed farmers who involved in support programs of government, to collect and analyze viewpoints of managers at all levels on conformity and necessary adjustment which need to implement from current social welfare system for farmers. In this research, researcher has implemented cross-checking to limit errors during the data entry process . Chapter 2 THE ROLES OF THE GOVERNMENT IN SOCIAL WELFARE FOR FARMERS: THEORETICAL ISSUES AND PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES 2.1. DEFINITION, CHARACTERISTICS AND THE ROLES OF SOCIAL SECURITY FOR FARMERS: 2.1.1 . The concept and necessity of social welfare system: 2.1.1.1 . The concept of social welfare: According to the research, social welfare is an income guarantee and other certain essential conditions for individuals, families and communities under significant changes on economic, society and nature which had impacted their lives and make them reducing or losing their ability to work or losing their jobs because of their sickness, disease or a worse case is death. This guarantee may help vulnerable people such elderly peole, orphans, disabled people, the victims of war and natural disasters reduce their hurt and can survive. 2.1.1.2 . The need of a social welfare system 9 Firstly, to prevent, limit and overcome risks due to growing demand of human nature . Secondly, to overcome the defects which had been occured in the difficult time and financial crisis during the development cycle of the market economy . Thirdly, the impact of industrialization, modernization also requires to have a social welfare system for substanable lives of citizens. 2.1.2. The concept and characteristics of social welfare to farmers 2.1.2.1 . The concept of social welfare for farmers: The research refers that social welfare for farmers is a system of policies and methods that the Government, family and society had done to help farmers to deal with the risks which were happened due to the social - economic crisis, Those impacted farmers’ lives and make them reducing or losing their income then falling into poverty and impoverishment . 2.1.2.2. The basic characteristics of social welfare for farmers. Firstly, social welfare for farmers is inextricably linked between the form of contribution - beneficiary and the form which is not based on the principle of contribution. Secondly, social welfare for farmers is belonged to the field of social security for the unofficial sector (non- structural). Thirdly, farmers who are people wherether most of them have low and unstable incomes therefore the sustainability and stability of financial capacity of them to take part in a form of social welfare is not high. 2.1.3 . The roles of social welfare for farmers The research analyzes the social welfare for farmers to show that this system has contributed to political stability role besides contributing to implement social equality and to develop sustainable society and economy. 2.2 THE ORIGIANAL, CONTENT AND AFFECTING FACTORS ON THE ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN SOCIAL SECURITY FOR FARMERS 2.2.1. The original and importance of the roles of the Government on social welfare system for farmers 2.2.1.1. The original of the Government’s roles on social welfare system for farmers In the researcher’s perspective, original roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers is the Government to build a system of policies and measures to help farmers to deal with the risks which were happened due to the 10 social - economic crisis, Those impacted farmers’ lives and make them reducing or losing their incomes then falling into poverty and impoverishment. The research illustrates that the roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers have reflected the basis of Government as well as reflecting social responsibility of the Government in the distribution and the use of national product . 2.2.1.2. The importance of the role of the Government in social welfare for farmers Firstly, to help the Government to prevent risks and keep the lives of farmers – one of the most vulnerable group in stable Secondly, to help the Government to achieve the objectives of sustainable economic development . Thirdly, to contribute to improvement of social - economic management tools of the Government. 2.2.2. Contents of roles of the Government in social welfare for farmers: The thesis focused on three major content groups : 1) Government builds and enhances legal environment and institutional policies on social welfare for farmers; 2) The Government coordinates the implementation of social welfare policies for farmers with other social - economic policies, and 3) The Government monitors and suppervises the implementation progress of policies on social welfare for farmers 2.2.3. The factors affect the roles of the Government in social security for farmers The research analyzed four groups of factors: 1) The Government perspective on social welfare for farmers; 2 ) The financial capacity of the Government and farmers' income; 3) The capacity of the management system on social welfare for farmers and 4) Social awareness about social security for farmers . 2.3. SOME EXPERIENCES OF SOME COUNTRIES OVER THE WORLD ON THE ROLES OF GOVERNMENT IN SOCIAL WELFARE AND PRACTICAL EXEPERIENCES IN VIETNAM: From the analysis of the experience of the Federal Republic of Germany and China in the development of social welfare system for farmers, the research concludes: 11 Firstly, the establishment of a social welfare system for farmers is necessary for all countries in the developing process of economic market because it is the most effective method to help farmers - one of the vulnerable groups of society to prevent, remedy and mitigate risk. Secondly, depending on each different model of social welfare and the specific conditions of each country, the Government has different roles on social welfare deployment for farmers. However, the most common role of the Government is reflected on the establishment of legal system, institutional mechanisms and policies to supervise and monitor the implementation of social welfare policies . Thirdly, It also depends on the different types of institutions, social - economic conditions whether each country will has various ways to operate the different social welfare system. Therefore, the scope of the Government’s role in social welfare for farmers varies widely or narrow in different. In some countries, their government directly intervene in the operation of the social welfare system as well as directly organise income and expenditure of social welfare funds. Besides that other countries asign to social welfare organisation to manage and operate by them-self. Fourthly, although in some extents, there are differences, but generally most government must have a financial support policy for farmers to participate in the social welfare system. Without this support, social welfare mode is hardly to implement and expand. Chapter 3 THE STATUS QUO OF THE GOVERNMENT ON THE ROLES OF SOCIAL WELFARE FOR FARMERS IN VIETNAM TODAY 3.1 . ANALYZING THE STATUS QUO OF THE GOVERNMENT’S ROLES IN SOCIAL WELFARE FOR FARMERS IN VIETNAM TODAY 3.1.1. Government establishes and enhances legal environment, policy institutions for farmers to participate in social welfare system. 3.1.1.1. Government establishes and enhances legal environment, policy institutions for farmers to participate in social welfare system according to the principles of contribution – getting benefits The research analyzes two following problems: Firstly, the government 12 establishes and improves legal environments and policy institutions to help farmers to participate in voluntary social insuarance system. Secondly, the government establishes and improves legal environments and policy institutions to help farmers to participate in voluntary medical insuarance system. 3.1.1.2. Government establishes and enhances legal environment, policy institutions for farmers to participate in social welfare system not based on the principle of contribution: Thesis refers to three issues : Firstly, the government establishes and improves legal environments and policy institutions of normal social assistant packages in the community. Secondly, the government establishes and develops a system of unexpected social assistant packages for farmers. Thirdly, the Government encourages social organizations and individuals to help from the community . 3.1.2. Government coordinates the implementation of social welfare policies for farmers with other social - economic policies The thesis had analyzed the implementing coordination between social welfare policies for the farmers and other social economic policies in order to contribute to socials support and to encourage farmers to take part in as well as to ensure the implementation of the Government's roles on social security for farmers. 3.1.3. The Government sets up management mode, inspection and supervision modes on the general social security and the social welfare for farmers in particular. The thesis has described the development and improvement steps of the organizational model of voluntary social and medical insuarance and the organization of self - management on social participation for farmers in Vietnam. 3.1.4. Results of farmer participation in the social welfare system today 3.1.4.1. The participation of farmers in social welfare system under the principle of contribution – getting benefits. The research shows some participation results of voluntary social and medical insuarance in particular, which involved farmer participation during the years of 2008 – 2012. Commenting on the involvement and impact of social welfare system under the principles of contribution – getting benefits on the farmers. 13 Table 2. Statistic of social and medical insuarance participation rate of farmers in Vietnam 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 1. The number of official labor (thousand people) 11.580,1 12.226,6 13.498,5 The number of official labor who bough forced social insuarance 8.500 8.800 9.400 10.104,5 10.436,8* The rate of official labor who bough forced social insuarance (%) 73,40 71,97 69,64 2. The number of unofficial labor (thousand people) 30.629,50 37.095,40 36.903,4 50.000* The number of unofficial labor who bough voluntary social insuarance 6.110 41.193 67.319 96.400 134.000* The rate of unofficial labor who bough voluntary social insuarance (%) 0,019 0,11 0,18 0,38 3. Total of Vietnamese citizens (thousand people) 85.118,70 86.025,00 86.932,5 87.840,00 The number of people who bough medical insuarance in general 39.700 50.070 51.140 60.000* The number of forced medical insuarance and medical insuarance for poor people: 29.100 34.700 47.000 The number of people who bough voluntary medical insuarance 10.600 15.300 4.200 Cover rate of voluntary medical insuarance (%) 19,00 29,80 10,5 10,30* 4. Voluntary social insuarance and medical insuarance for farmers through survey datas The number of farmers who did survey (person) 258 The rate of farmers who bought voluntary social insuarance (%) 9,3 The rate of farmers who bought voluntary medical insuarance (%) 28,8 Reference sources: Department of invalids and social affairs (Cục TBXH) 2010; Vietnam social insuarance (BHXHVN 2013); research survey 2011; * researcher’s projection. 1) According to research results show that social welfare system which is run under the principles of contribution – getting benefits until 2012 just had 0,38% participation rate on voluntary social insuarance and 10,3% on 14 voluntary medical insuarance. At the surveyed provincinces in 2011, these rates were higher but there was only 9.3 % of farmers who took part in voluntary social insuarance and 28.8 % on voluntary medical insuarance, respectively. This result is quite low. The implementation of the guidelines and policies of the Party and Government on social welfare for farmers into actual lives has been still slow. 2) The participants on voluntary social insuarance mainly those who have taken the time to participate on forced social insuarance then turn to on voluntary social insuarance or the people who are over working age but not enough working time to get retired pensions or the farmers who had incomes from medium to high rate…etc,.The amount of money which is choosen to participate voluntary social insuarance still remains at low level, normaly they choose a higher level of the minimum wage . 3) According to a survey in a number of localities, up to now there are very few farmers who received pensions from voluntary social insuarance. However, the overall pension rate is quite low, It normaly ranges from 725,000 VND to 1,300,000 VND /person / month. With a pension level is lower than minimum wage or higher than it a little bit, that is very difficult for beneficiaries from the voluntary social insuarance to pay living expenses and get a stable life. 3.1.4.2. The participation of farmers in social welfare which are not based on the principle of contribution The thesis presents the participation of farmers in normal social assistant packages, unexpected social assistant packages from government budget and expected social assistant packages from community and has drawn the following comments: 1) The coverage and level of impact of normal social assistant packages in general and for farmers in particular is low. In 2010, the rate of assisted cases just reached 1.65 % in comparation with the population. In three investigated provinces, in 2009, the coverage rate of normal social assistant packages is higher than national average rate but it only reached 3.19 % . The impact level of normal social assistant packages is low. Social assistant standard compared to the poverty line period 2006 - 2010 is by 60 % 15 rural poverty standard. In the three mentioned provinces in 2009, the average amount of received money was 135.416 VND/person/ month. 2) The unexpected social assistant packages from the Government’s budget in terms of crop failure, natural disasters, etc,. normaly are very low. There are still many cases which are incorrect addresses or identifiable moral support than offseting losses. 3) The unexpected social assistant packages from community activities have been implemented at the local level, especially for the average, poor and very poor households. However, this support is not stable and the level of assistance is not high. 3.2. EVALUATE THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT IN SOCIAL SECURITY FOR FARMERS 3.2.1. Achievements and limitations the role of the Government in social security for farmers in Vietnam currently 3.2.1.1.Achievements and limitations in developing and improving the system of laws, policies and social security for farmers. Firstly, regarding achievements, the Government built and is gradually improving the legal system of social security for farmers, including social security based on get –pay principle (including voluntary social insurance and voluntary health insurance) and social security not based on the contribution (including regular social assistance, unexpected social assistance from the national budget, community social assistance from individuals and social organizations. Secondly, there are still some limitations in creating a legal environment of social security for farmers. 1) Social security system which is based on pay-get principle - The proportion of contribution between compulsory social insurance (CSI) and voluntary social insurance (VSI) is equal but those who are enrolled in CSI receive major support from the Government and enterprises while the farmers have to pay the entire 18%. - The average income of farmers is very low, less than the minimum wage of present society, therefore it is unfair to pay VSI if based on the minimum wage. - Those who are enrolled in CSI have five benefits (illness, retirement, 16 death, maternity, labor accidents and occupational diseases), while those who enrolled in VSI only have two benefits which are retirement and death. - If the retirement pension is less than the minimum wage, those who are enrolled in CSI will be compensated by the minimum wage, and those who enrolled in VSI will not. 2) Social security which is not based on contribution. Although the number of beneficiaries of social protection policies is expanding, there are still many limitations regarding irrational approaches and synchronization with other social policies. Thirdly, having a general evaluation on legal law and policy - Regulation on social security based on the pay-get principle is not suitable for the contribution ability of farmers. The principle of receiving voluntary social insurance is not equal with the principle of receiving compulsory social insurance. - The legal system of social support in Vietnam lacks a system of uniform standards; it is based more on humanity than on the rights of the people. Many regulations are not suitable for the social economic conditions which lead to inefficient implementation, causing conflicts and social inequality. - The allowance has many discrepancies and inconstancies with other social policies; identifying the beneficiaries is still based on many complicated criteria which lead to difficulties. - The socialization in voluntary social insurance and compulsory social insurance’s regulation is still poor. 3.2.1.2. Achievements and limitations of the Government in combining social security with other social economic policies. Firstly, in general, poverty alleviation policies are more appropriate than the market labor polices for farmers. Secondly, the influence of social economic policies on social security is not substantial. Loans are the most effective policy; other policies such as employment and labor market access policy are still poor. 3.2.1.3. Achievements and limitations of the Government in managing and observing social security implementation for farmers Many measures have been implemented but the implementation is still 17 inadequate. The mechanism is not transparent; therefore, the solutions which should handle errors are not serious enough, limiting the effectiveness and efficiency of the social security program for farmers in our country. 3.2.2. The causes of the limited role of the Government in social security for farmers 3.2.2.1. Social security is still new to farmers, and its guidelines have not kept pace with the reality. The regulations on the managing and organizing models are not suitable for the reality of farmers. This has resulted in a low participation of farmers in pay-get system as well as other system which does not require farmer’s contribution . 3.2.2.2. The income of farmers is low which causes difficulties for them to enroll in social security which is based on the pay-get principle. The research results show that only households who have an average income above 3.244 VND / month can participate in social security which is based on the pay-get principle. Other households with an average income of around 927.166 VND/ month did not participate in social security. The thesis analyzed the causes of low income status of farmers: Table 3. Income of households participating social security in pay-get principle The total number of households having information (Household) Total income of household having information (million/ year) Average income of a househould having information (million/ year) Number of people in a family (Person) Average income of a person (thousand VND/ month) 1. General income of investigated households 247 15784.38 63.904 4,42 1.204.750 2.Households enrolling in social security in the pay-get principle 24 3644.7 151.863 3,9 3.244.916 3. Households did not enroll in social security in the pay-get principle 223 11.150.0 50.178 4,51 927.166 Source: Author’s research results 18 3.2.2.3. National budget and community budget to support social security which is not based on the pay-get principle for farmers is still limited Financial support from these sources is still limited. Compared with some other countries in religion, social security expenditure is still low. 3.2.2.4. The ability of social security management to farmers still has many limitations. Specificity: Firstly, social security network based on the pay-get principles has not delivered to communal and ward levels to mobile people to enroll in social security system. Secondly, the number and quality staff working in social security have not met the requirement. 3.2.3.5. Social awareness of farmers about social security and the propagation and dissemination of information on social security to people is limited Chapter 4 DIRECTIONS AND SOLUTIONS TO STRENGTH THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN SOCIAL SECURITY FOR VIETNAMESE FARMERS IN THE NEXT FEW YEARS 4.1. CONTEXT OF STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT IN SOCIAL SECURITY FOR VIETNAMESE FARMERS IN THE NEXT FEW YEARS 4.1.1. Social economic context has influence on the role of Government in social security for farmers in the next few years. 4.1.1.1. Career structure in rural areas. Although modernization and industrialization has spurred economic restructuring towards increasing the proportion of industry and services, reducing agriculture's share in GDP, but by 2011, in rural Vietnam, the structure of agricultural producers is still big, accounting for 62.0% share of industrial households and construction accounting for 14.73%, the proportion of service households accounting for 18.4% . Furthermore, the proportion of households with the greatest income from agriculture, forestry and fisheries households is lower than the proportion of agriculture, forestry and fisheries. This is creating challenges for social security policies. 19 4.1.1.2. Population and labor in rural areas in the next few years. As anticipated, by 2015, population in rural areas will be 60.820 thousand people, accounting for 66,41% national population; by 2020 will be 60.52 thousand people, accounting for 62,93% national population. As can be seen, rural population structure will be reduced but the rate is still low; the number of rural population is still big. This is a challenge for the development of social security system in rural area. In addition, by 2020 the proportion of elderly people who are above 65 year old in rural areas will be increased from 6,72% in 2009 to 7,3% in 2019. This is also a challenge in supporting social security for these objects. In 35,4 million of labor in rural areas, only 3,2 million of labor are trained and most of them reached only the intermediate level 4.1.1.3. Income, expense, saving and the life of people living in rural areas Although there has been some improvements, the income of people living in rural areas is still low; the gap between the rich and the poor, between economic religions is still getting bigger which makes difficulties in expenditure and saving for people living in rural areas. This creates a challenge to the development of social security system for farmers. This context has shown that population and labors living in rural areas have a big part; aging population is increasing significantly, farmer’s lives are still difficult. These are challenges to the development of social security for Vietnamese farmers, including the pay-get system as well as other systems in the next few years. 4.1.2. Party and Goverment’s policy in social security for farmers. The dissertation demonstrates opinions, objects, policies and solutions of Resolution number 15-NQ/TW on 01June 2012 of Central committee course XI: Some issues of social issues period 2012-2020 and Resolution 70/NQ-CP on 01 November 2012, the executive committee presented an Action plan of the Government in social security implementation by 2020. This is a foundation for the direction and solution of strengthening the role of Government in developing social security system to Vietnamese farmer in the next few years. General spirit of the Party and Government is guaranteed a minimum level of social security for people in general and farmers in particular 20 4.2 DIRECTIONAL ENHANCEMENT THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT IN SOCIAL SECURITY From the real situation of farmers participating to the social security (SS) system of whole country for several recent years, the socio-economic conditions of farmers and the law and the policy of the party and the government as mentioned in the previous parts, the dissertation proposes a method to improve the participation of farmers to SS in the next few years. 4.2.1. Improvement of the participation of the farmers to the SS 4.2.1.1. The SS based on pay-get principle Firstly, to increase the organizations to implement and encourage healthy classes to pay volunteer social insurance fee (VSIF). Secondly, to increase the impact of SS based on pay-get principle. For the ones who pay SSF, it needs the policy to maintain the income for the retirees as much as minimum basic salary. For the ones who have volunteer health insurance (VHI), the qualities of health checking and health treatments by health insurance need to improve. 4.2.1.2. The SS not based on payment of farmers Firstly, to enlarge the coverage of regular social assistance (RSA) in general and farmer in particular, especially for the vulnerable people. Secondly, to increase the payment of RSA for different groups of people. Thirdly, to ensure the unexpected social assistance (USA) be suitable to different people at different districts and wards with different socio-economic conditions. 4.2.2. The directional improvement of the role of government to SS for the famer of the country in the next few years. 4.2.2.1 Continue completing the law system and policies of SS to the farmers Firstly, to adjust the VSIF that is suitable for the farmers. The rate of VSIF follows its policy and is adjusted accordingly to the standard income of the particular area. Secondly, to add more benefit of volunteer social insurance (VSI) that reaches to the benefit of compulsory social insurance (CSI). This equality between VSI and CSI needs to be proposed. The benefit of VSI need to be further enlarged to reach to the benefit of CSI. 21 4.2.2.2. Enhance the cooperation of socio-economic policies and social security system for farmer The 4 groups of policies need to be finalized in order to better cooperate with social security policies are proposed as follows: reducing poorness and removing the hungriness programs; the programs and methods that support farmers to participate in the labour market; the policies that provide the basic social services for farmers; distribute the reasonable government funds for social security targeting to farmers that includes: education, hospital, environment and national objective programs on labour, reducing poorness and removing hungriness, and culture that aims to use effectively the social financial sources. 4.2.2.3. Finalize the policy system of management, validation and observation of the social security for the farmers. Increase the validation, observation and construction of information, report and documentation processes. Implement the financial validation and testing clearly with financial sources of social security for farmers are used clearly. 4.3. MEASURES TO STRENGTH THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN SS FOR THE FARMERS OF THE COUNTRY IN THE NEXT FEW YEARS 4.3.1. Push the production, increase the income source and income of farmers. In order for farmers to actively participate in social security pay-get, the raise of income is the most essential way. Three ways are proposed as follows: 1) increase systematically both agricultural and non-agricultural production; 2) increase the job training for farmers in the country sides; 3) increase and collect the government sources for enhance the infrastructure in the country sides that aims to create a good condition for production, sale the agricultural products. 4.3.2. Push the financial support from government for farmers to participate in the social security system Firstly, the methods of financial support for VHI. In order to encourage the farmers to participate in VHI that orients to whole country people to get health insurance, the government need to encourage the healthy classes to participate to VHI system. Also, the government needs to support the poor and approach to the middle class with the support about 60-80% payment with the accordance to their income. 22 Secondly, the government should propose the way to adjust the funds for social assistance in general and for farmers in particular. 4.3.3. Study and innovate the organizational management of social security based on pay-get principle for farmers. The government should study and innovate the organizational management for social security based on volunteer pay-get principle. It is able to separate the pay-get parts of volunteer social security in general and for farmers in particular and give to the other organization from the national scale to regional scale. Innovate the informatics and statistical processes with the reference to social security in general for farmers in particular. 4.2.4. Increase the quality of human resources training for social security process. The human resources for social security in general and for social security for farmers in particular need to be increased and trained both quality and quantity. The code of ethic for these activities is also needed. 4.2.5. Improvement of understanding and consideration of farmer about benefit of social security programs The advantages and the need of social security need to be shown and proved to farmers, especially the benefit when they participate in the social security systems. These programs should be cooperated with education of self- security of each people, also should educate people to self-improve, self-pay and save for social security for whole family. On the other hand, the government has to pay more attention on building the social security system for farmers, supporting them to participate as well as creating a good social environment that encourage farmers to self-improve instead of waiting to the support of government. CONCLUSION The whole country is gradually changing to the economic market and has the big amount of countryside area, so building the social security system play an essential role that aims the farmers to reduce or resolve the risk of lives. In order to do so, the government has paid more attention to build and gradually complete the social security system for people including farmers. However, due to the limitation of economic conditions, organizing and understanding, the 23 social security for farmers still faces many difficulties, the coverage is still small and lowly impacts. There are many reasons including the role of the government. Consequently, the study on “the role of the Government in social security for farmers” is needed both practically and theoretically. Based on the positive role of Government on building and completing the law, policy system of social security for farmers according to pay-get principle (VSI and VHI) and social security not according to payment of farmers but with the support from government and group of people (RSA and USA), the statuses of role of government in social security of three provinces (Thanh Hoa, Nghe An and Ha Tinh) have been investigated. Until now, the social security system for farmers has just been created. It is not systematic and also the coverage of VSI, VHI and social assistance is low. It does not impact much and the guarantees of social security for farmer also face to a lot of difficulties. Consequently, the roles of the Government in social security need to be improved in the next few years. In order to increase the coverage areas of VSI, it is needed to encourage the healthy and middle class people in the countryside participate to this system and also add some more benefits of VHI that make equal to CHI. For the social assistance system, it is necessary to enlarge and improve the support of social assistance at least as current poorness standard, especially consider the vulnerable families. Finally, in order to improve the role of the government in social security for farmers in the next few years, several solutions including job solution, increase income, government fund support for pay-get systems as well as other system, complete the management system, training human resources and enhance the understanding the social security for famers. Four important solutions are proposed: In order to develop VSI, the government needs to change the principle of VSI payment, not follow basic salary but follow the regional average income. On the other hand, the benefit of VSI should add more that create the equality to CSI. In order to cover whole country national health insurance, the Government should support 60-80% of payment for the farmers with low and poor income. 24 Increase the coverage of RSA from 1.65% in 2010 to 3% in 2015 and 5% in 2020, rise the national fund of RSA from 0.54% in 2010 to 1.12% in 2015 and 2.45% in 2020. Within unexpected social assistance, the support for the vulnerable farmer’ families is considered well. For the organizational system, the Government needs study and separate the VSI for farmer and others to and official organization from the national scale to regional scale. 25 AUTHOR’S PUBLISHED WORKS 1. Mai Ngọc Anh, Phan Thị Kim Oanh, Phạm Hương Thảo (2012) Improve income for farmers: Vietnamese experience and recommendation for Laos. The summary record of international conference “Vietnam – Lào economic cooperation: Developing spearhead economic sector by 2020”. Publisher: National economic University. 2. Mai Ngọc Cường, Phan Thị Kim Oanh (2012) Social security which is based on pay-get principle for Vietnamese farmers:Reality and recommendations. Economic and development magazine, Number 185 November 2012. 3. Mai Ngọc Cường, Phan Thị Kim Oanh and colleagues (2013) Income, poverty alleviation and social security policy in Vietnam currently: Reality and recommendations. Book “Some basic issues of Social policy in Vietnam currently”. Publisher: National politics. 4. Mai Ngọc Cường, Mai Ngọc Anh, Phan Thị Kim Oanh (2013) About social security in Vietnam period 2012 - 2020. Book, Publisher National politics 5. Mai Ngọc Anh, Phan Thị Kim Oanh (2013). Social assistance for farmers: The reality of 3 provinces and recommendations. Economic and development magazine, number 191(II) May 2013. 6. Mai Ngọc Cường, Mai Ngọc Anh, Phan Thị Kim Oanh (2013). Social policy for rural migrant in Vietnam currently. Publisher National politics.

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