[Tóm tắt] Luận án Cách mạng tháng tám năm 1945 ở các tỉnh Bắc Trung Bộ

More than 70 years have gone by since the victory of the August Revolution in 1945, the country, the society and Vietnamese people, including the North Central provinces have made strides. Thinking of the past, the campaign of the August Revolution in 1945 in the North Central provinces has given to present some practical problems. There are about solidarity, unity in the internal party organization; the leadership role of the Party in practice to timely forecast, grasp, answer and reviews the practice; a matter of mobilizing the whole strength, rely on the people, the close relationship between the Party and people; the sacrifice, dynamic, flexibility, will of the cadres and Party members; the creative application the guidelines and policy of the Party into the specific conditions of localities; a matter of building the great national unity, promoting the internal resources and people’s spirit of independence and freedom. Besides, from the identifying the situation, grasping and seizing the opportunity of the August Revolution in 1945, the North Central provinces will think of ways to take advantage of opportunities and overcome the challenges of the areas, country and the world in the cause of industrialization and modernization./

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tember 1937). Untill that time, Quang Binh Provincial Party Committee was not yet established. On that basis, the movement in provinces turned to a new stage, starting with the movement for the Indochinese Congress held in 1936, the next was the picking- up Gordart in 1937. From 1937 to 1938, the provincial Party in provinces organized twice won election campaigns for applicants of the Democracy Front in the House of Representatives in Central Vietnam and the fight against "raising taxes project" in 1938. The struggles for democracy took place continuously. In Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, there was a movement called "Defensive Indochina" and the campaign to support the Chinese people against the Japanese fascists. The results of the democratic movement in period of 1936 to 1939 were one of the preconditions for the North Central provinces to conduct the preparation for national liberation. 2.2. THE PREPARATION PROCESS FOR THE INSURRECTION TO SEIZE THE AUTHORITY 2.2.1. The historical context and the shift to direct Vietnam Revolutionary Communist Party of Indochina 2.2.1.1. The situation in the country and the North Central provinces Hardly had the Second World War broken out, the French attacked Vietnam revolutionary movement. The colonial government implemented a policy called" economic war" to provide maximum resources to the states of Indochina. In September 1940, Japanese fascists invaded Indochina. Indochinese people had to bear the yoke of both France and Japan. With the backing of the French colonialists and Japanese fascists, many political parties and groups were established. On October 5 th 1939, Bao Dai issued the edict banning all meetings of communist propaganda in the Central Vietnam, and confiscated all kinds of progressive reports. In the North Central provinces, the French conducted population censuses, rearranged administrative systems to strengthen human resources to implement policies of exploitaion and plunder. After the treaty on July 23 rd 1941, the Japanese fascists started sending troops into the provinces. Thua Thien, Quang Tri, Nghe An and Thanh Hoa became important military bases of Japan. At North Central, the most “brilliant’ pro-Japanese elements was Ngo Dinh Diem. In the middle of 1943, Ngo Dinh Diem sent Ngo Phan Thuc to Japan to contact Cuong De. At the same time, he required Do Mau to sketch a plan to prepare for Cuong De to come back home and establish a pro-Japanese government. Coupled with persecution on politics, the French strengthened economic exploitation to serve the needs of war. On the occasion of war, comprador, foreign capitalists in the North Central provinces tried their best to plunder goods, speculate to make increasingly scarce commodity. In rural areas, the landlord, mandarins’ classes, used every expedient to exploit people. Therefore, the life of the peasants and workers were completely difficult. The life of the petty bourgeois, bourgeois, small and medium landowners also declined. There was no other way; they must struggle to overthrow the yoke of tyranny, set up a new social regime. 2.2.1.2. The policy of the Communist Party of Indochina From the Central Party Conference in November 1939 to the 8th one, the Indochinese Communist Party completed the strategies for struggling navigation in the new situation with following important contents: Setting the task of national liberation on top; asiding land revolution slogans, only setting the slogan of confiscating land of the empire and Vietnamese national betrayal to divide for peasants; conducting tax reduction, redividing the public land reasonably, striving to the slogan farmers have land; strengthening ethnic unity fronts; emphasizing the three ethnic solidarity in Indochina; advocating armed insurrection and predicting patterns of revolt from each part to the whole when the chance come. 2.2.2. Preparation combined with struggle toward insurrection to seize power in the North Central provinces 2.2.2.1. Units of the Party recovery after the terrorist phase of the French Despite having been terrorized violently, Party organizations in most of the North Central provinces had been consolidated and made slight progress. To March, 1945, 4 out of 6 provinces in North Central areas with the Party organization included Thanh Hoa, Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien; 2 provinces had the leadership of provincial offices were Thanh Hoa and Thua Thien. There were members of the Party at Nghe An and Ha Tinh but they could not manage to re-establish the Party organization. Although the party systems were not stable and throughout the countries, the recovery of the leadership at all levels played an important role in the restoration of the organizational party systems and the revolutionary movement. 2.2.2.2. Building and developing the revolutionary forces Building political force The implementation of the Resolution of the Party Central Conference in November 1939, the provincial Party organization advocated move public organizations into "anti-imperialist" groups, which made public organizations in some places up to district level. Social organizations such as Buddhist Youth, Sports Youth, the National language propagation group were founded, attracting the broad participation of the youth, intellectuals, Buddhists in the provinces. After receiving the “Central Resolution 8", from the beginning until the end of 1942, the provincial Party organizations of Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Quang Binh, Quang Tri and Thua Thien established Viet Minh Committee or Viet Minh encouraging Committee in some places, moved the anti- imperialist associations into snational salvation associations, some bases of Vietminh were formed in Tho Xuan ,Thieu Hoa, Yen Dinh (Thanh Hoa); Vinh, Quynh Luu, Dien Chau (Nghe An); Quang Trach, Bo Trach, Dong Hoi, Le Thuy (Quang Binh); Vinh Linh ,Trieu Phong and Hai Lang (Quang Tri), Phong Dien, Hue, Phu Loc (Thua Thien). In early 1943, the Party organization in Ha Tinh still did not make contacts with the central government yet. Under these circumstances, some officials formed a revolutionary group, named Vietnam National Salvation Council. After being established, the Vietnam National Salvation Ha Tinh began to contact with the Party organization in Nghe An, received the documents of the Viet Minh Front. In April 1943, the Vietnam National Salvation Ha Tinh was renamed into The National Salvation. The Ha Tinh National Salvation actively built bases in Can Loc, Duc Tho, Thach Ha, Cam Xuyen, Huong Son, and Huong Khe districts. The highlight in building political forces in the North Central provinces was the development of the National Language Spread Association. Through its activities, many teachers and youth contacted with the national salvation youth organizations, became cadres of the masses and Viet Minh Front. Constructing armed forces and bases In early 1941, the Provisional Central Committee decided to conduct the entire people armed in preparation for a revolt. Implementing the policy of the Regional Party committee of the Central Vietnam, the North Central provinces conducted to build armed forces and bases. In Thanh Hoa, on the basis of the thrive of the Anti- imperialist National Salvation Council, the officials and Party members directed to create self-defense forces, guerrillas in villages, then chose the qualified people to form sub-group of guerrillas. At the end of July 1941, Ngoc Trao war zone was established. On September 19 th 1941, Ngoc Trao guerrilla was established with 21 soldiers, till the end of September 1941, the number of the army was up to 84 people and was arranged according to each subject session. On October 18 th 1941, the French mobilized 500 soldiers and thousands bellman, divided into four army battalions to besiege Ngoc Trao war zone. The fierce fighting took place. However due to the remarkable difference between the number of soldiers, on October 19 th 1941 night, the partisans secretly withdrew from Ngoc Trao, then distributed on local forces. Despite having existing in a short time, Ngoc Trao war zone was the peak of the movement against imperialism for national salvation in Thanh Hoa, which had a great impact on the local population and the surrounding provinces. In March 1942, the Party Contact Committee of Le Thuy district (Quang Binh) established self defense teams of 13 soldiers. In Phu Loc (Thua Thien), in July 1942, self-defense team with seven soldiers was established, armed with spears and daggers. In April 1943, Ha Tinh National Salvation Front established self defense teams. The guerrilla bases in Ngan Truoi and Truong Bat (Huong Khe) were built. Under forms of learning martial ethnic groups, Viet Minh Thanh Hoa chose some qualified people for safeguard national salvation. In March 1944, Thanh Hoa Provincial Party Committee opened the first military training at Nga Son. After the General Viet Minh required "Uprising preparation", the North Central provinces boosted building the armed forces. In Thua Thien, at the middle of 1944, Phu Loc District Party Committee conducted strengthening and development of Diem Truong self defense team. On June 24 th 1944, the Conference of the Thanh Hoa Provincial Party delegates urgently set out the policy to open more political training, short-term military, every district, ward must have a secret location for major politics and military. The movement of military training took place eagerly in districts and wards. At the conference of Thanh Hoa Provincial Party held on March 3 rd 1945, they advocated self-defense teams to conduct raids, take the enemy weapons to equip. 2.2.2.3. Anti-imperialist, fascist and henchmen struggle: At the same time trying to restore the movement of the outside party members, party members in prisons were also active. Dozens of fights broke out at the prisons in 1940 and 1941. Besides, many struggles of the classes erupted. Typical struggles were ones of the workers in Vinh - Ben Thuy, Ham Rong match factory, Rome plantation in Huong Hoa (Quang Tri) with a rich variety of forms, forcing employers to make concessions. The harassment lawsuits, elaborate fights, conscription, against taxes, against collecting paddy and cotton crops were forms of popular struggle of farmers in rural areas of the provinces. Some landlords, rich peasants with national spirit joined the struggle in favor of the farmers. The rallies with the participation of thousands of people were held in Trieu Phong, Cam Lo and Vinh Linh (Quang Tri) on October 20 th and 21 st in 1940. On January 4 th 1941, 2,000 students from Vinh City combated against Indian fabrics trafficking shopkeepers. In particular, on January 13 th 1941, Nguyen Van Cung commanded Vietnamese patriotic troops to invade Cho Rang, Do Luong and intended to occupy Vinh. On January 22 nd 1941, Hung Nguyen - Nghe An citizens organized rally at Lieu Market. Next, on May 14 th 1941 night, under the leadership of the Song Con (Huong Son - Ha Tinh), the masses destroyed Ferrey plantation. Self-Defense Forces of a number of provinces organized ambushes on soldiers patrolling in order to relief workers arrested. Typical one was the ambush of self-defense squad in Thieu Hoa (Thanh Hoa) on July 14 th 1941. On December 4 th 1943, Hoang Hoa people prevented Japanese fascists ‘convoys with 500 roading workers. In particular, on September 21 st 1944 night, revolutionary pamphlets were spread in Thanh Hoa town and other districts in this province, which made colonial government utmost indignant. On February 25 th 1945, Thanh Hoa High School students were on strike to protest the French arresting teachers and students of this school. Thus, from September 1939 to March 1945, although the French and the Japanese fascists conducted violent terrorists with Vietnam revolutionary movement, in the North Central provinces many struggles of classes and different strata erupted. Chapter 3 URGENT PREPARATION IN ALL ASPECTS AND INSURRECTION TO SEIZE POWER IN NORTH CENTRAL PROVINCES (FROM 3-1945 TO 8-1945) 3.1. POLICY’S INDOCHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY AFTER JAPANSE COUP D’ETAT FRENCH INDOCHINA 3.1.1. Conspiracy and tricks of the Japanese fascists At night on March 9 th 1945, the Japanese forces fought against the French throughout Indochina. The French troops resisted weakly and surrendered the Japanese fascist the day after. After the coup, Japan declared "granting independence" to Viet Nam. To the Southern Dynasty, Bao Dai - a puppet king under French colonial authority became the puppet king under the Japanese fascists authority. On April 17 th 1945, a new government was set up with the Prime Minister was Tran Trong Kim. After the coup, the Japanese fascists put about 9,000 troops to occupy important positions in provinces and implemented downright brutal policies. With the support of the Japanese fascists, the pro-Japanese political party was established and present in almost all provinces. Japanese fascists also opened schools teaching Japanese, organized showing films and sporting events, etc to attract the youth, the students to follow them. Brutal domination policy of the Japanese fascists pushed people of provinces fell into the dismayed paths. The famine in the North Central provinces at the end of 1944 and the beginning of 1945 clearly reflected that devasting truth. It could be seen that the downright brutal policies of Japanese fascist exposed its nature and fastened the revolutionization of the strata in the North Central Coast. 3.1.2. The policy of the Indochinese Communist Party On March 12 th 1945, the Standing Committee of the Central Communist Party issued Directive "Japan - France Shooting and our actions", which identified the main enemy of Indochina’s people was Japanese fascists, so the slogan "Expel France - Japan" was replaced by the slogan "Expel the Japanese fascists" and mentioned the slogan "Establishing the Revolutionary Government" to against the Tran Trong Kim government, launched anti Japanese national salvation movement climax as the premise for the general insurrection, ready to change the form into the general insurrection. The Indochinese Communist Party also proposed an innovative undertaking as "breaking the barn, solve hunger." Directive "Japan - France Shooting and our actions" had great impacts on the development of anti-Japanese national salvation movement climax and The Uprising of August 1945. 3.2. RUSHING BUILDING ARMED FORCES IN ALL ASPECTS TOWARDS INSURRECTION TO SEIZE POWER 3.2.1. Developing and strengthening Party organization systems After March 9 th 1945, many cadres and Party members having experience escaping from prisons returned to local areas to work. Thanks to that, Party organization systems in some provinces were quickly restored and strengthened. On March 1945, Quang Tri provisional provincial Party Committee was reset. Then Vinh Linh, Trieu Phong and Hai Lang and Gio Linh District Party Committee were reset. On May 4 th 1945, Thanh Hoa Provincial Party Committee opened the conference to discuss measures to implement directives of the Standing Committee of the Central Communist Party. After the conference, the provisional provincial Party Committee was strengthened. Party organizations were built in Thach Thanh, Vinh Loc, Thieu Hoa, Hoang Hoa, Yen Dinh, Ha Trung, Hau Loc Nga Son, Nong Cong districts. On May 23 rd 1945, the Conference of Thua Thien province officials was convened in Cau Hai Lagoon (Phu Loc), advocated speeding up the preparation of the uprising to seize power. After the conference, Thua Thien Hue provisional provincial Party Committee was strengthened, the Party organizations were built in districts, towns in the province. In particular, Hue city, Phu Loc district set up provisional town committees and provisional district committees. In Nghe An and Ha Tinh, due to the fact that there was no general organization and did not make contact with the Central Party Committee, officials, party members assigned themselves go to other places to make contacts and build bases. After a while, the Party organizations in Nghe An and Ha Tinh were restored. In Quang Binh, in June 1945, a branch of the Indochinese Communist Party was founded in Dong Hoi town with 6 members. In Quang Trach, Bo Trach, Quang Ninh and Le Thuy, the Party organizations had more active policy against the Japanese fascists and minions. Although the Party organizations in provinces were restored and positively worked, in some localities, there were some phenomena of prejudice, mutual suspicion among groups. Under these circumstances, on June 27 th 1945, the Standing Committee of the Central Communist Party mailed to urge comrades in Central provincines quickly agreed. In Nghe An and Ha Tinh, in the context that the Provincial Party Committee was not recovered, officials, party members and patriots gathered themselves in Viet Minh Front, formed the nucleus to lead the movement. In late June 1945, Quang Tri provisional provincial Party Committee was renamed to Quang Tri Party Unity Canvassing Board. On July 2 nd 1945, Quang Binh Party Unity Canvassing Board was established. 3.2.2. Promoting to construct political force 3.2.2.1. Building, strengthening and developing the Viet Minh Front In Quang Tri, after the provincial key officials meeting held in April 1945, Viet Minh Committees were founded in all towns, districts, villages. Numerous workers, peasants, youth attended the National Salvation. From April to July in 1945, Viet Minh Committee was set up in various districts from midland plains and coastal areas, communes and villages in Thanh Hoa Province. To the beginning of August in 1945, the number of people taking part in the national salvation in the province up to thousands of people. After the provincial conference in May 1945, in Thua Thien there were two Viet Minh organizations: Viet Minh Nguyen Tri Phuong and Viet Minh Thuan Hoa. At the end of June in 1945, the leaders of two Viet Minh organizations hold a meeting in Hue and decided to merge Viet Minh Nguyen Tri Phuong and Viet Minh Thuan Hoa organizations into one and agreed to the action plans. Thus, in July 1945, Viet Minh Front was established in all districts of the province. In some places, the Viet Minh committees were established in some communes. On May 19 th 1945, the Viet Minh Nghe Tinh Canvassing committee was founded. From the end of May to early of July in 1945, Viet Minh Compliance Committee was set up in 15 districts, towns and cities of two provinces. On August 8 th , 1945, Viet Minh Nghe Tinh Congress was held and elected Viet Minh Nghe Tinh Executive Committee including 7 members, by Nguyen Xuan Linh as the secretary. In Quang Binh, Viet Minh foundation was set up in Quang Ninh, Quang Trach, Le Thuy, Bo Trach, and Tuyen Hoa. In Dong Hoi, Viet Minh foundation was formed in the inner city and suburban villages. On July 4 th , 1945, Provincial Viet Minh officials Conference was held and decided to unify Viet Minh forces. After the meeting, the Viet Minh Executive Committee in districts and villages was founded. The national salvation organizations were formed from urban to rural areas and attracted many people’s participation. 3.2.2.2. Promoting the propaganda against the Japanese fascists and henchmen In the buildup to prepare insurrection to seize power, the fight on the ideology front with the Japanese fascist and minions had particularly important roles. Recognizing this problem, the Party Organization and the Viet Minh Front in provinces used leaflets, press to unmask false independence, tricks of the Japanese fascists and minions, encourage patriotism and gather large masses. 3.2.2.3. Abusing Youth social organizations and revoluntionizing Hue Frontline Youth School students In order to frustrate the plot of the pro-Japanese elements and gather people, Viet Minh organizations in North Central provinces proposed to abuse youth social organizations with more flexible forms of struggle operations depending on specific conditions of the locality. Thus, Viet Minh in provinces not only avoided persecution and destruction of the enemy, limited the area of operation of the minions, but also attracted a great majority of the masses of pro-Japanese organizations to follow Revolution. On September 2 nd 1945, the Frontline Youth School was founded, opened the first training course and only consisted of 43 students. At first, Viet Minh group was set up with 3 people, then grew to 5 and established Viet Minh Board. Viet Minh Board actively made contact with Viet Minh official groups at schools in Hue. Through the advocacy of Viet Minh Board, to mid July in 1945, all school students were under the revolution. 3.2.2.4. Mobilizing intermediate classes to join the National Salvation To mobilize troops, Nghe An, Quang Binh and Thua Thien provinces founded War Campaign Committee. Viet Minh in provinces built base station applications in the Security Affairs, grasped the soldiers guarding in some governments and districts or advocated some internal troops to the uprising. Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Quang Binh and Thua Thien promoted advocacy work of civil servants, students, notables and intellectuals to participate in the National Salvation Association and achieved important results. For the religions, the policy of Viet Minh in provinces was mobilizing Buddhist, Catholic people, highly segmented to limit the opposition of reactionary dignitaries in these religions. For the Government of Tran Trong Kim, Viet Minh in provinces stated overthrow slogans but for the individual members of the cabinet, at the provinces, districts, Party organizations, Viet Minh Front had specific strategies to each object, neutralized these objects which could be neutral. Many district heads, mayors campaigned were very good faith, willing to cooperate with Viet Minh. The mobilization of senior officials in Hue imperial and Tran Trong Kim government also achieved important results. Thus, to mid August 1945, the North Central provinces built strong political force enough to step into the insurrection to seize power. 3.2.3. Promoting to build armed forces and bases In Thanh Hoa, The Provincial Conference held in April 1945 advocated self-defense teams, promoted armed propaganda, built war zone, mass uprising toward insurrection to seize power. Until before the uprising, Thanh Hoa had grown to be an armed force with more than 2 thousand guerrilla and self-defense. In July 1945, the liberation zones of Trieu Phong (Quang Tri) was established. In Hai Lang, Thuong Nguyen- Phu Long war zone was founded. The self-defense team was established in Cam Lo, Quang Tri town, Trieu Phong and Hai Lang. The military training was organized; trained military movements developed and were open in public. In Thua Thien, the self- defense teams were established in many localities in the districts of Phong Dien, Quang Dien, Phu Vang, Huong Thuy, Phu Loc and Hue City. In Nghe An, the Safeguard team was established and developed rapidly and widely from urban to rural areas. In Ha Tinh, self-defense forces were in the rapid development in the communes of Can Loc and Huong Son districts. Until before the uprising, the province had about 1,000 self-defense team members and built the base area in Trang Sim, Khe Tram (Huong Son), Truong Bat (Huong Khe). In Quang Binh, the Safeguard team was established in Dong Hoi town and the government to serve as the core for the masses revolt to seize power. Trung Thuan (Quang Trach), Vo Xa (Quang Ninh), Bau Reng (Dong Hoi) were built into the bases. Along with the development of the armed forces, building bases, preparing weapons were also urgently implemented. Generally, before the general uprising of August 1945, in 6 provinces, the numbers of guns were just over 600, scattered in many districts. The main weapon of self-defense, guerrilla were knives, swords, machetes, sticks. Before the uprising to seize power, the North Central provinces had built quite powerful revolutionary forces, ready with the country to "stand up to bring power to freed us". 3.3. ANTI JAPANESE NATIONAL SALVATION MOVEMENT CLIMAX 3.3.1. Downing the barn movement and addressing hunger Before actual famine worsened, Party organizations, Viet Minh Front in North Central provinces launched hunger relief movement which were very strong and attracted countless people from different classes to participate in with various forms of struggle. Downing the barn movement, addressing hunger gained great victory. That victory not only partly solved immediate hunger, but also launched a mass movement, created real motivation to fan the flames of revolutionary struggle in the North Central provinces. 3.3.2. Promoting volunteer propaganda, partial uprising, establishing the revolutionary government Volunteer propagating teams went to villages and held crowded rallies, hanged gold-starred red flags, banners, publicly advocated anti Japanese fascist policy of Viet Minh Front. The rallies, protesters increasingly intensed, took place simultaneously in many districts and towns of provinces with the highest spirits to mentally intimidate feudatory leaders, frontal assault on local authorities. Before ebullient momentum of the revolution, some feudatory leaders carried books, seals to submit to the Viet Minh Front, some were so nervous that they did not work. On that basis, the people’s revolutionary governments were set up in many villages in Ha Trung, Thieu Hoa and Hoang Hoa districts (Thanh Hoa); Quang Trach, Quang Ninh districts (Quang Binh); Trieu Phong, Gio Linh districts (Quang Tri) and Phu Loc district (Thua Thien). Besides, the district partial uprisings exploded and won in Hoang Hoa. The Anti Japanese National Salvation movement climax marked the basic completion of preparing the uprising to seize power in the North Central provinces. 3.4. THE CHANCE AND UPRISING PLAN OF THE PARTY, THE VIET MINH FRONT IN THE NORTH CENTRAL PROVINCES 3.4.1. The chance of the general uprising to seize power in the North Central Provinces Along with the event that America dropped 2 atomic bombs on Hiroshima (August 6 th 1945) and Nagasaki (August 9 th 1945), with the victory of the Soviet Red Army and the unconditional surrender by Japanese fascist to Allies, the opportunity of the general uprising was ripe throughout the country . Seizing this great chance, on the afternoon of August 13 th 1945, the Party Committee and Viet Minh Front set up The National Uprising Committee issued the general uprising throughout the country. On August 14 th and 15 th 1945, the Party National Conference met at Tan Trao and decided to lead Vietnamese uprising, set out policies for internal and external needs done after the victory of the general uprising. On August 16 th and 17 th 1945, the National Congress, also was held at Tan Trao, had upheld the decision of the Party’s general uprising, went through 10 major policies of Viet Minh, appointed Vietnam National Liberation Committee and Ho Chi Minh as President. Uprising decision of the Party and Viet Minh met the aspirations of the entire Vietnamese, was the most important conditions for Viet Minh in North Central provinces to lead people to seize power when revolution opportunities was ripe here. However, in North Central Coast, there were some disadvantages besides the great chances. There were many intelligentsia, civil servants engaged in the French administration and the Japanese fascist before in Hue. Bao Dai and Tran Trong Kim had not given up power yet. Japanese troops concentrated in North Central provinces mostly crowded (about 9,000 troops), had not received order to lay down their arms surrendered, many localities had not received any order of general uprising. In the mountains of the provinces, the revolutionary bases were weak, especially in mountainous regions of Thanh Hoa and Nghe An. The above situation posed Viet Minh of North Central provinces, especially in Thua Thien, to have appropriate policies to bring the revolution to complete victory, less bloodshed and ensure the unity to continue against the foreign invaders. 3.4.2. The uprising plan of the North Central provinces In terms of difficult communication without machines to wait for instructions from the Party, on August 8 th 1945, Viet Minh in Nghe Tinh actively created Uprising Committee and advocated: "Pirates of the government started from commune to district, etc. and Vinh city was in a particular case so it was necessary to wait for the results of the local before disposal". After receiving the news of the Japanese surrender to the Allies, on the afternoon of August 15 th 1945, Nghe Tinh Uprising Committee issued an insurrection order. On August 10 th 1945, The Standing Committee of Viet Minh Thua Thien Hue met and decided: After Japanese fascist surrendered to the Allies, we took the opportunity to launch the entire people's uprising to seize power in the provinces, did not wait for orders from Center. On August 20 th 1945, The Uprising Committee of Thua Thien was established with To Huu as the chairman. At night of August 21 st 1945, The Provincial Uprising Committee decided to conduct meetings and insurrection to seize power in Hue city on August 23 rd 1945. On August 13 th 1945, the Thanh Hoa Provincial Committee met to discuss extending the insurrection to seize power. On August 15 th 1945, Thanh Hoa received the Japanese surrender to the Allies. Although not yet received the Central Command's uprising, the conference decided to establish The Uprising Committee and The Provisional Provincial People's Committee, and launched an all-people uprising to seize power on the night of August 18 th 1945. On August 13 th 1945, Quang Tri Provincial Committee conducted a meeting to plan the uprising. On August 18 th 1945, while The Provincial Officials Meeting was on, the uprising command from the Central was received by Tran Huu Duc and Dang Thi attending The Conference to establish the Regional Party committee of the Central Vietnam. The conference decided to establish the Provincial Uprising Committee and the day to occupy Quang Tri town was on August 22 nd night and at dawn of August 23 rd 1945. Most districts in the province had the same uprising hours on these days. Huong Hoa, Cam Lo districts including Dong Ha town, upraised later about 1 to 3 days because there were many Japanese troops. On August 15 th 1945, Viet Minh in Quang Binh held a meeting to plan the uprising. Immediately after receiving the command from the Central, on August 17 th 1945, Viet Minh of the province held a conference and decided: "Choosing August 23 rd 1945 to upraise in the whole province. Insurrecting to seize power in Dong Hoi town and districts on the same day, same time, then to settle government system in overall". Thus, the policy of insurrection in the North Central provinces was carried out early, showing initiative and creativity of the local Viet Minh organizations. 3.5. UPRISING EVOLUTION TO SEIZE POWER IN NORTH CENTRAL PROVINCES (FROM AUGUST 15 th TO AUGUST 26 th 1945) 3.5.1. Revolutionnary to seize power in Ha Tinh (from August 15 th to August 21 th 1945) Can Loc was the first district in Ha Tinh to succeed in seizing power on August 15 with prominent role of the intellectual youth. Next, the victory was in Thach Ha and Cam Xuyen on August 17 th . On August 18 th 1945, the insurrection to seize power in the town of Ha Tinh quickly succeeded, which led Ha Tinh to be one of the first five provinces seizing power. Also on August 18 th the revolutionary government was established in Ki Anh and Duc Tho districts. On August 19 th , the revolutionary masses of Huong Son and Nghi Xuan district government won uprising victories. Huong Khe district finally took power on August 21 st 1945, marking the success of the August Revolution in Ha Tinh province. 3.5.2. Revolutionnary to seize power in Nghe An (from August 17 th 1945 to August 26 th 1945) Quynh Luu was the first district of Nghe An to seize the government on August 17 th . Then, on August 19 th , The Uprising Committee of Hung Nguyen conducted masses to seize power successfully. On August 21 st 1945, the revolutionary masses and the armed forces safeguard in Dien Chau, Vinh - Ben Thuy city upraised to seize power, established the The Provisional Revolutionary People's Committees. On August 22 nd the uprising in Nghia Dan conducted successfully to seize power. Following the victory on the circuit, on August 23 rd the revolutionary government was set up in Thanh Chuong, Nam Dan and Anh Son districts. On August 25 th the revolutionary masses in Yen Thanh district revolted to seize power. Nghi Loc, Quy Chau, Tuong Duong, Con Cuong and Vinh Hoa were last districts in Nghe An to take power on August 26 th . Within 10 days, the insurrection to seize power in Nghe An was successful without bloodshed. 3.5.3. Revolutionnary to seize power in Thanh Hoa province (from August 19 th to August 26 th 1945) On August 19 th , the revolutionary government was set up in Thieu Hoa, Tho Xuan and Cam Thuy, Dong Son, Yen Dinh, Vinh Loc, Thach Thanh, Ha Trung Nga Son, Quang Xuong and Hau Loc districts. Next, the insurrection succeeded in the Thanh Hoa town and Tinh Gia district on August 20 th . On August 21 st , the revolutionary masses and the uprising safeguard in Nong Cong district won the victory. Thuong Xuan, Ngoc Lac, Nhu Xuan, Lang Chanh, Ba Thuoc, Quan Hoa were the last parts of Thanh Hoa to take power on August 26 th . Although Viet Minh in the province had not yet received uprising commands from the central government, there was great successful uprising in 8 days with the leadership of the Party, Viet Minh Front. 3.5.4. Revolutionnary to seize power in Thua Thien Hue province (from August 19 th to August 23 rd 1945) Phong Dien and Phu Loc were two first districts to seize power on August 19 th 1945. Then there were insurrections to seize power in Huong Thuy and Phu Vang districts on August 22 nd 1945. In the morning of August 23 rd 1945, there were victories in Quang Dien, Huong Tra districts. Also on August 23 rd 1945, self-defense armed forces, Youth Frontline combined with urban and suburban masses conducted successfully uprising to seize power in Hue city, The Provisional Revolutionary People's Committee was established. On August 30 th 1945, Bao Dai abdicated, marking the cessation of the backward feudal system in Vietnam. With the method of using the self-defense forces, Hue Youth Frontline combined with the revolutionary masses to seize power from districts to towns, the uprising in Thua Thien won quickly, completely, avoided bloodshed in one of the most complex areas of the country. 3.5.5. Revolutionnary to seize power in Quang Binh province (on August 23 rd 1945) On August 23 rd 1945 Dong Hoi town and all towns, districts (Quang Trach, Bo Trach, Quang Ninh and Le Thuy, Tuyen Hoa) uprose to seize power, established The Provisional Revolutionary People's Committee. Taking place in only one day to seize power, Quang Binh province was one of provinces having the most effective and the fastest uprising in the country. 3.5.6. Revolutionnary to seize power in Quang Tri province (from August 23 rd to 25 th 1945) On August 23 rd 1945 in Vinh Linh, Gio Linh, Trieu Phong, Hai Lang and Quang Tri town successfully uprose. Cam Lo and Huong Hoa were the last two districts in Quang Tri taking power on August 25 th 1945. With armed protesters combined with diplomatic negotiations supported by self-defense forces, the uprising in Quang Tri - the areas where Japanese military occupied crowded had a quick success. In summary, in the North Central Coast, the insurrection to seize power started from Ha Tinh, followed by Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Thua Thien and Quang Binh, Quang Tri. To August 26 th 1945, the insurrection to seize power finished successfully in these provinces. Chapter 4 COMMENTS OF THE AUGUST REVOLUTION IN 1945 IN THE NORTH CENTRAL PROVINCES 4.1. CHARACTERISTICS 4.1.1. The process of preparation to seize power in the North Central provinces happened in difficult situations but still achieved comprehensive results, showing the initiative and creativity of the localities. 4.1.2. Morphology of insurrection to seize power in the North Central provinces was flexible and various. 4.1.3. Method of insurrection to seize power in the North Central provinces was various and unique. 4.2. ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS 4.2.1. Advantages 4.2.1.1. There was an agreement on the will and determination, creativity in the process of building the revolutionary forces. 4.2.1.2. Actively planning insurrection to seize power early. 4.2.1.3. Disabling the Japanese and obtaining numerous enemy weapons. 4.2.2. Limitations 4.2.2.1. Some Party organizations violated principles of Party discipline and did not delete thoroughly local and narrow-minded ideology. 4.2.2.2. Some localities did not focus on building revolutionary bases in the highland area, lack of responsiveness and flexibility in leadership. 4.3. ROLE 4.3.1. Directly terminating obsolete feudalism, dismantling Tran Trong Kim government, establishing the democratic government systems in the North Central provinces. 4.3.2. Impacting on the insurrection to seize power in some provinces in the South Central and Southern Area. 4.3.3. Having a certain influence on the revolutionary of Laos. 4.4. LESSONS LEARNED 4.4.1. Promoting the tradition of patriotism, unity and nation building united fronts 4.4.2. Methodology for building revolutionary forces 4.4.3. Seizing opportunities and shuttering the right time 4.4.4. Building Party organizations CONCLUSION 1. As one of the most important strategic areas of the whole country, North Central Coast used to be considered as a special "wattle" where so many heroes were born during the cause of building and protecting the country. People in the North Central provinces wrote so many glorious pages with lots of magnificent feat of arms in the battle against invasion and foreign domination. Before the August Revolution in 1945, the people of the North Central provinces suffered extremely ruthless exploitation and oppression of feudalism as well as imperialism. Besides, severe harsh weather events such as droughts, floods occurring very often made the lives of people from all classes, especially workers and farmers extremely miserable, destitute. The above conditions tempered themselves with reciprocal solidarity and support in life as well as in the heroic struggle against the violence. Before 1930, the people of the North Central provinces continuously revolted against French colonialism and feudal henchman but failed. From February 1930, under the leadership of the Communist Party of Vietnam, together with the people throughout the country, the people of the North Central provinces rose up with an incredibly intense atmosphere and the pinnacle of revolutionary movement 1930 - 1931 was the establishment of Soviet power in many villages in Nghe An and Ha Tinh. The establishment and activities of the Soviet government showed extraordinary strength, the creativity of the people of the provinces. They not only smashed the old society, but knew how to set up the new society as well. In the years 1936 - 1939, when the situation was favorably developing, under the leadership of the Indochinese Communist Party, the people of the North Central provinces rebelled to fight for the freedom, welfare, democracy and became one of the areas remaining strongly developing movement in the country. 2. From the explosion of the Second World War to the Japanese coup d'état in French Indochina, revolutionary movement of the North Central provinces had to undergo very rigorous challenges. The consecutive terrorisms and repressions extended with an unprecedented scale of French colonialism, Japanese fascist and their minions resulted in heavy losses of our Party: the leadership of Central Committee of Communist Party was not smooth, Central Party Committee no longer existed, communications among provinces were interrupted, majority of cadres and party members were arrested, the relationship between Party committees and people was in trouble and interrupted. However, those obstacles couldn’t make cadres, party members and people in these areas which are always rich in revolutionary traditions and patriotism shrink. The loss and pain, on the other hand, tempered their power to rise up and win their human rights. It was also the period when Indochinese Communist Party advocated change the struggling direction in new historical circumstances. Most of North Central provinces timely effectuated the struggling policies of the Indochinese Communist Party, the movement, therefore, still remained enduringly and continuously without lasting interruption. After breaking off so many times, once again the movement was restored; this stage developed better than the previous one. Meanwhile, a number of provincial Party organizations as Nghe An, Ha Tinh had not caught up the situation to direct the movement of the people, causing certain impact for the revolutionary movement. Party organizations and revolutionary establishments, were almost radically destroyed by French colonialism, Japanese fascist and the minions. Therefore, the movement of workers and farmers faced many difficulties. After September 3 rd , 1945, most of the provinces raced against time to timely move movement in the area on to pre-uprising period so that it could catch up with the national one. During the uprising’s urgent preparation to seize power (from March to August 1945), Party organizations and Viet Minh in the provinces cleverly incorporated movements in urban and rural areas. Propping the movement up against the countryside helped mobilize the movement of masses, but it didn’t mean to disregard the role of cities. In pursuit of the policies and guidelines of the central and local reality, Party organizations, Viet Minh Front in those provinces launched the appropriate movement to meet the earnest desire of the masses; therefore, they gathered numerous classes of society following the party’s guideline. However, before and during the pre-uprising period, the Party organizations, Viet Minh in provinces paid little attention to the construction of facilities in the mountains and mobilization towards ethnic minorities to join the revolution, which was considered as a serious restriction. Moreover, after a contact with the Party Central Committee, Nghe An and Ha Tinh, on the other hand, still could not reestablish Local Party which was an unacceptable historical fact. These shortcomings more or less affected the process of preparation as well as the uprising to seize power in the provinces. 3. The victory of the August Revolution in 1945 in the North Central Province was a vivid demonstration of the hormonal connection between the ways of the Party Central Committee, the guidelines, the measures of the Party as well as the provinces’ Viet Minh Font and the power struggle of Vietnamese people who fearlessly fought to gain independence and freedom. The victory of the insurrection to seize power in the North Central provinces was the victory of the methods, art of directing the creative uprising not only uncompromisingly but also flexibly; incorporated between the politic forces with the armed forces, between propaganda and persuasion, negotiation with violence ... in order to break down and isolate the enemy to extreme and enlist the forces so that we could win early and completely. That was the triumph of the spirit of actively attacking, assessing the situations, seizing the opportunity and launching the People's insurgents to seize power. In addition to the common features of such uprising methods taking place in many provinces and cities nationwide, Party organizations, some provinces’ Viet Minh Organizations had resolved timely and creatively many problems in the process to seize power in some of the district governments of Vinh, Hue and other mountain districts such as Thanh Hoa, Nghe An that suited to the characteristics of each regional situation under the motto " "Keeping cool/calm is to cope with multi- unexpected changes." Since then, they left lots of unique methods to seize power in comparison with other areas in the whole country. The victory of the August Revolution in 1945 in the North Central provinces was the turning point in the development process of the provinces, having a great influence on the South and Central Provinces as well as having implications for the cause of Laos’ revolution. The victory put a vital step to create momentum so that the people of North Central provinces could enter the period of the struggle to consolidate and protect the people's democratic government as well as contribute reject foreign historians’ authenticity allegations on the 1945 August Revolution in Vietnam at the same time. 4. The victory of the August Revolution in 1945 in the North Central provinces received the important contributions from young intellectuals. In the tough stages of the revolution in the North Central provinces (from September 1939 to March 1945), the movement of students, activities of the National Language Diffusion Association, Scouts Association in some provinces contributed actively to the propaganda of patriotism, expanded bloc of national unity, accelerated the process of diversification of the bourgeois class, enhanced pro-revolutionary forces, added strength to the struggle of the different strata, prevented intrigue, sabotage of the French revolution, the Japanese fascists and minions. The day after the Japanese coup d'état in French Indochina, many young intellectuals contacted with revolutionary bases in Hanoi so they actively established Viet Minh organizations such as: Can Loc (Ha Tinh), Hue (Thua Thien) and accelerated the preparation insurrection to seize power. Besides, many intellectuals of the Social Youth Organization, New Viet Nam, Frontline Youth School when being campaigned by cadres and party members joined the national salvation organizations of Viet Minh Front and became a major political force, contributing to the establishment of the revolutionary armed forces of the province. Students from Frontline Youth School themselves were revolutionary armed forces with especialcomponents who were educated youth. This was considered the first core armed force of Viet Minh Thuan Hoa beside the self-defense forces of the Viet Minh Nguyen Tri Phuong. When the Japanese fascist surrendered unconditionally to the Allies, a group of young intellectuals were flexible to organize insurrection to seize power, for instance in Can Loc (Ha Tinh) or become a pioneering force for insurrection to seize power, for some cases as students from Hue Frontline Youth school as examples. Many educated youth also undertook some important tasks of the revolutionary government apparatus in some localities in the North Central provinces. 5. More than 70 years have gone by since the victory of the August Revolution in 1945, the country, the society and Vietnamese people, including the North Central provinces have made strides. Thinking of the past, the campaign of the August Revolution in 1945 in the North Central provinces has given to present some practical problems. There are about solidarity, unity in the internal party organization; the leadership role of the Party in practice to timely forecast, grasp, answer and reviews the practice; a matter of mobilizing the whole strength, rely on the people, the close relationship between the Party and people; the sacrifice, dynamic, flexibility, will of the cadres and Party members; the creative application the guidelines and policy of the Party into the specific conditions of localities; a matter of building the great national unity, promoting the internal resources and people’s spirit of independence and freedom. Besides, from the identifying the situation, grasping and seizing the opportunity of the August Revolution in 1945, the North Central provinces will think of ways to take advantage of opportunities and overcome the challenges of the areas, country and the world in the cause of industrialization and modernization./.

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