[Tóm tắt] Luận án Chính sách đối ngoại của Hoa Kỳ từ sau nội chiến đến kết thúc chiến tranh thế giới thứ nhất (1865 – 1918)

In the globalized age nowadays, the historical facts from the foreign policies of the U.S. in the mentioned periods have always been the historical lessons for nations in the relationship with this super power. To THE U.S., for guaranteeing the national benefit, the U.S. people always change the way to achieve and would not quit on any (flexible, double-side) to guarantee the largest possible benefit – which has never ever been changed no matter the U.S. was lead by any Party. Therefore, in the current context of comprehensive partnership between Vietnam and the U.S., beside taking advantage of the strength and the position which the U.S. has offered, Vietnam also has to stay very wise in order not to be depended on the U.S. to guarantee the stable development on the basis of independence, freedom, mutual respect.

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ter Civil War until the end of World War I (1865-1918). Chapter 3: Foreign policies of the U.S. on typical areas in the period of 1865-1918 Chapter 4. Some comments on foreign Policies of the U.S. in period 1865 – 1918. 6 Chapter 1. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH LITERATURE 1.1. Research literature of scientific issue in Vietnam 1.1.1. Before 1975 Since a long time ago, Vietnamese historians have concerns on researching of theU.S.. Before 1975, in the North, the research of the U.S. and its foreign policies somehow draw attention. The soonest one could be “Latin America fight for national independence and democracy” of Ha Ta (1961). Through describing the fight for national independence and democracy of Latin America, this book has clearly shown the intervention of the U.S. to Latin America. Coming next were the articles such as “Enslavement policies of the U.S. empire and its bankruptcy in Latin America” (1962) of Vo Van Nhung; “Invasion process of the U.S. on Cuba from more than 100 years ago” (1963) of Van Lac; “Looking back on invasion path of the U.S. imperialism during modern history” (1966), “One hundred years of fighting for independence and freedom of heroic Cuban people”(1968) of Pham Xuan Nam; “the first intrusion step of the U.S. on South East Asia” (1969) of Vu Duong Ninh These above articles somehow mentioned the intrusion and invasion process of the U.S. into different areas over the world like South-East Asia, Latin America, with Cuba as the first object. In the South, the research on the U.S. as well as its foreign policies has been concerned. Many research works on the U.S. have been translated such as “Basic documents on the U.S. history (1969) of Richard Morris; “The U.S. history” (1972) of Franck L. Schoell. These 2 works have focused on presenting the developing history of The U.S. since C. Colombus found America until 50s of XX century. Some isues of foreign policies of The U.S. have been mentioned more or less. At the same time, there have been some monographic works on diplomatic policies and external relations of The U.S. appeared in this period such as “Tehran convention (28/11/1942 – 01/12/1943)” (1962);”Latin America between bear and eagle” (1969) of Do Vu; “International political and diplomatic history” (2 episodes, 1972) of Hoang Ngoc Thanh. This work goes through the political situations and diplomatic relations between powerful countries in the period 1818-1939, the cause of World War II, the world situation after 1945, the change of politics in Western and Eastern countries as well as the dispute between 2 powers: The U.S. and Soviet Union. However, the content which this thesis needs is prior to the time of those works. 1.1.2. After 1975 7 After the national reunification, especially after the relationship normalization (1995), research of history in general as well as foreign policies of The U.S. in particular has been focused the most on scope and issue of research. Therefore, many research and translation works have been announced In general, we could divide those works into 3 groups as follow: In the first group, the research works focus on The U.S. or use a significant part to discuss on The U.S. such as “The U.S. history” (1994) of Le Minh Duc – Nguyen Nghi; “Modern history of the world” (1998) of Vu Duong Ninh, Nguyen Van Hong; “Brief history of the U.S.” (2000) of Vuong Kinh Chi; “Some historical themes of the world (episode II)” (2006) of Huu Ngoc; “Research issues on the U.S.” (2011) of Nguyen Thai Yen Huong, Do Minh Tuan. In the above works, there are just a few parts which mention foreign policy of the U.S. and still in general form, however they have provided various knowledge on many aspects of the U.S., through which give readers an overview of the issues which this thesis sets out. Especially, the study “The research issues on the U.S.” has aggregated 61 articles of different authors and divided in 4 chapters. There are 18 articles in the chapter mentioning foreign policies of the U.S., among them are the remarkable ones: “Meaning of lobby toward foreign policies of the U.S.” (Bui Phuong Lan); “Human right issue in foreign policies of the U.S.” (Ta Minh Tuan), “Global strategy of the U.S. after the Cold War”(Nguyen Vu Tung) Those articles somewhat analyze different aspects as well as specific policies in external relation of the U.S.. However, the common feature of those above studies is they do not or restrictively mention foreign policies of the U.S. in the period 1865-1918 – on the opposite, they focus on another phase of history – after Cold War. In the second group including research works on foreign policies of the U.S. in the overall of international relations over the world. We could name some typical research works such as “History of International relations (1917 – 1945)” (2002) of Lê Văn Quang; “History of International relations from the early modern period to the end of the Second War world”, (2005) Vũ Dương Ninh (Ed); “History of International Relations – Vol. 1” (2005) Vũ Dương Ninh (Ed) and Phạm Văn Ban, Nguyễn Văn Tận; “Humanitarian intervention in foreign policy of the U.S.” (2005) of Nguyễn Thái Yên Hương (Cb), “A contribution to study the history of Vietnam – the U.S relations” (2006) of Phạm Xanh, “Textbook of International Relations in the Asia – Pacific region” (2014) of Phạm Quang Minh. In general, these above research have spent some parts to talk about foreign policies and international relations of the U.S. in recent time but do not research on the mentioned period of this thesis. 8 Mentioning the foreign policies as well relationships between the U.S. and other countries in the world was also the content which the authors concern in their articles on professional magazines.. We could name some typical ones: Franklin D.Roosevelt và Chiến tranh thế giới thứ II (1939 – 1945) (1995) of Nguyen Quoc Hung mentioning the policy of THE U.S. under President F. Roosevelt in World War II; “Philippine – the United States war 1899 – 1903”(1998) of Cao Minh Chơng reviews the main features of the war in Philippines as well as the involvements of the U.S. to this country. The articles “The ideas and manifestations of the theory of Manifest destiny in the foregin policy of the United States” (2008) of Nguyễn Lan Hương, “The foundations of American nationalism development since the Civil war to the First World War” (2010) of Nguyễn Ngọc Dung have shown the basis, trends, points and expressions of exceptionalism, evolutionism in foreign policies of the U.S. in history. In the third group including research works mentioning on foreign policies of the U.S. through different periods or subjects, such as: “Foreign policy of the United States in the period1865 - 1904” (2007) của Trần Thiện Thanh; “The changes in the foreign policy of the United States in the period 1870 – 1900” (2008) of Nguyễn Ngọc Dung; “Japan in foreign policy of the United States before 1905” (2009) of Trần Thiện Thanh have researched on specific policies as well as movements of the U.S. diplomacy after the Civil War until the beginning of XX century. In the article “The role of the United States in the Latin America” (2005), author Do Minh Tuan has shown the typical role of THE U.S. in Latin America – which is considered as “backyard” of the U.S. to Asia, author Nguyen Van Tan has interpretations on the policies of the U.S. on Japan, Philippines and China in the article “Looking back at the Asia policy of the United States from the late 1850s to the early 20 th century” (2007). Beside, the issue of foreign policies of the U.S. has also been mentioned in the master thesis “Latino America and the U.S. policy in the modern period” (1983) of Hoàng Thị Điệp and doctoral thesis “The U.S foreign policy towards Japan in the early 20 th century” (2008) of Trần Thiện Thanh, “The policy of the United States towards European powers during its territorial expansion (1787 – 1861)”of Lê Thành Nam. These are 3 careful research works but they only focus on a specific area (Latin America) or a only specific subject – Japan – in the beginning period of XX century or focus on researching policies of the U.S. on European powers in territory expansion before 1861. Hence, we could see that, recently in Vietnam there were many research works on the U.S. in general and foreign policies as well as international relations in particular. However, there was almost no research 9 mentioning generically on foreign policies of the U.S. in the period after Civil War until the end of World War I (1865-1918). 1.2. Currentresearchliteratute in other countries We could affirm that, the research of the U.S. in general and foreign policies of the U.S. in particular have been paid much concern for a very long time ago by politicians and scholars in other countries, with polyhedral and systematic look. Within the scope of studies and documents we could approach, we could easily see that there are 2 arrays of this thesis which have been concerned principally: First – research different issues of the U.S. history. The remarkable ones are the general research studies on historical aspects of the U.S. which have been translated to Vietnamese and published in Vietnam such as: “Basic documents of the U.S. history” (1969) of Richard B. Morris; “History of the U.S.” (1970) of France L. Schoell; “Overview of the U.S. history” of Howard Cincotta, translated version (stored in the U.S. Embassy); “42 Presidents of the U.S.” (1995) of W. A. Degregorio; “The U.S. civilization” (1998) of Jean Prierre Fichou; “New history of the U.S.” (2003) of Eric Foner; “The U.S. history – issues in the past” (2009) of Irwin Unger; “History of the U.S. people” (2010) of Howard Zinn These above studies have one common feature: they have wide scope of research in term of space and time. The main research content is different sides of the U.S. history during different ages. The parts related to general foreign policies as well as particular ones to each specific country and area have been just mentioned at a certain level. Among the studies mentioned above, the noticeable one is “The U.S. history – issues in the past” (2009) of Irwin Unger. Irwin Unger has reconstructed the history of the U.S. from the beginning during the colony age, heading to independence, the born of the U.S. Constitution” and Parties, economic achievements of US, Civil War, Reconstruction, involvements of the U.S. in 2 World War and the U.S. in the modern age... Regarding foreign affair, this book has used medium capacity to talk about evolutionism and the U.S.empire. Regard the studies in English, the history of the U.S. has also attracted many scholars and many studies have been announced such as “The Frontier in American History” (1953) of Federick Jackson Turner. “The American Past: Conflicting Interpretations of the Great Issues” (1965) of Sydney Fine and Gerald S. Brown; “Main Problems in American History – Volume I” (1968) and “Main Problems in American History – Volume II” (1968) of Howard H. Quint, Dean Albertson, Mitton Cantor; “Woodrow Wilson” (1969) of Arthur Walworth; “The American Civil War”(1975) of Peter J. Parish; “Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis” (1985) of Josiah Strong; “An Outline of American History” (1994); “America’s 10 History” (2004) of James A. Henretta, David Brody, Lynn Dumenil, StheU.S.n Ware; “Battle History of The United States Marine Corps, 1775 – 1945” (2010) of George B.Clark. Those studies have mentioned THE U.S. history in large scope both in term of space and time in which the part on foreign policies as well as foreign affair activity just accounts for a very small portion and in summary form within the overall of each study. Second, research on foreign policies and relationships between the U.S. and relative subjects also attracts concern of scholars. Many of them have been translated and published in Vietnam, and we could name some typical ones such as “U.S foreign policy”(1961) of Russian author N.I.Nozemsew; “Central issues in American foreign policy” (1997) of Henry Kissinger; “The U.S foreign policy - the dynamics of choice in the 21th century” (2004), of Bruce W.Jentleson. Those 2 books contain many valuable materials on the centers in foreign policies of the U.S. as well as options in foreign affairs in the new century – XXI century. The study of Chinese author Ly Thang Khai “200-year internal affairs of the White House” (2004) has researched the U.S. history from the dawn until the beginning of XXI with the event 11/9/2001. In which, many issues of foreign affair have been mentioned like the fact that the U.S. started to interfere in global affairs through the battle between the U.S. – Spain (1898), the “Open Door” policy in China, “entice” and “force” to build and monopolize Panama canal Regarding the original English studies, foreign policies of the U.S. have been mentioned more variously. We want to mention some typical ones below: In 1942, Samuel Flagg Bemis published the book “A Diplomatic history of the United States” with more than 900 pages talking about the history of diplomacy of the U.S. through 3 stages: after the Founding Day; expanding period; and in XX century. In this book, the author has mentioned the diplomatic activities of the U.S. since the alliance with France (1775- 1778), Monroe Theory (1823), war with Mexico, Reconciliation between the U.S. and England, war with Spain, “Open Door” policy on China According to them, the author supposed that THE U.S. has not made any serious mistake regarding diplomatic aspect in the period 1775-1898. The recipe for success in this period of the U.S. diplomacy was lying on the totally-isolated advantage and far-away from Europe to compete with powerful countries in this continent in the context those countries had to face with many difficulties. In other words, the U.S. didn’t have to make deliberate calculation as long as the diplomatic policies be suitable with the vision of the elites as well as the benefit of American people. After actualizing the basic goals in foreign policies, the U.S. had stepped into a new age with the role of a powerful country in the world. With that position, 11 after 1898, the U.S. played more and more important role in global political situation with wide intervention in Philippines, Japan, China and prior to that, Latin America. The study “American Diplomacy 1900-1950” (1951) of George F. Kennan is a monograph regarding the diplomacy of the U.S. in the first half of XX century, which has been re-published with adding and editing in 1984 with the name “American Diplomacy”. Under the sight of an author and a diplomatic officer, G. F. Kennan has analyzed the foreign policies of the U.S. in the war with Spain, “Open Door” policy, the U.S. in the relation with East countries, the U.S. with World Wars and diplomacy of the U.S. in the modern world. Despite of the differences in point-of-view and evaluation, the information in this book is an important source of material suggesting for this thesis many issues in researching on diplomacy of theU.S.. The ensembles “The History of American Foreign Policy” (1986) of Jerald A.Comb; “Race, Federalism and Diplomacy: The Gentlemen’s Agreement A Century Later” (2009) of Paul Finkelman; “The Pan – American Trademark Convention of 1929: A Bold Vision of Extraterritorial Meets Current Realities” (2013) of Christine H. Farley more or less mention the foreign policies of the U.S. during ages. Focusing on researching each specific relation of the U.S. with other countries in the world is the content which has been concerned in some books such as “Thai – American Relations” (1982) of Hans H.Indorf; “The Banana war: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898 – 1934” (1983) of Lester.D.Langley; “United States – China Normalization: An Evaluation of Foreign Policy Decision Making” (1986) of Jaw – Ling Joanne Chang; “The United States and Viet Nam 1787 – 1941” (1990) of Robert Hopkins Miller; 1.3. The lacking and issue for thesis Through presenting the research situation inbound and outbound, we could see the lacking and issue for this thesis as follow: First, foreign policies of the U.S. in 1865-1918 have been researched in the U.S. and other countries which have concern and have many achievements. However, most of them only focus in researching in general an overall way the foreign policies through different ages in history without mentioning much the period 1865-1918 with the role of a separate object. Second, although the research works in foreign countries are very various, they still are the publications of other countries, therefore they show the typical points-of-view, expressions and evaluations of the researchers there. Hence, the inheritance of them should be criticized and selective in order to guarantee the trusty level as well as objectiveness in recognizing and evaluating the problems. 12 Third, the issue of foreign policies of the U.S. has drawn the concern tof researchers in Vietnam in recent years. Therefore, research works has been increased in term of quantity and more comprehensive in term of quality with time. However, foreign policies of the U.S. in period 1865-1918 has not been mentioned fully and comprehensively by any monograph. Fourth, reflecting foreign policies of the U.S. in period 1865-1918 has been concerned by authors inbound and outbound, however they not yet could systematically evaluate the foreign policies of the U.S. as well as the impacts of those policies on THE U.S. itself and other countries affected by the policies of theU.S.. This is another issue for this thesis and should be researched more carefully. Therefore, selective inheritance of the research works of prior authors – it is very important source of material affiliating for the recreation of foreign policies of the U.S. in period 185-1918 as well as drawing evaluations, assessments on the set-out issue, contributing in the research of the topic of foreign policy of the U.S. in Vietnam. CHAPTER 2. FOUNDATION FOR FOREIGN POLICIES OF THE U.S. AFTER CIVIL WAR UNTIL THE END OF WORLD WAR I (1865- 1918) 2.1. Overview of the forming process of the U.S. The U.S. had been officially born after Continental Congress II approved Declaration of Independence on 04/07/1776. After the Founding Statement, the U.S. people had to fight for independence drastically and toughly, and finally ended with victory by the win in Yorktown (1781). On 3/9/1783, England had to sign Paris peace treaty to recognize the independence of 13 colonial states in North America. Since then, the U.S. step-by-step developed to a strong nation and interfered more-and-more widely and deeply into international issues in the next centuries. 2.2. Foreign policies of the U.S. before 1865 2.2.1. Period 1776-1823 In this period, although always promoting neutrality policy by setting no alliance with any other country, the U.S. always cleverly applied “neutrality” to best serve the national benefit. This could be shown clearly in the expansion of territory (the case of Louisiana in 1803, Florida and Oregon in 1819) and claimed huge benefits in commercial, developed merchant fleets while England and France competed for hegemonic power on the continent and on the sea in the first years of XIX century. 2.2.2. Period 1823 - 1864 13 In this period, beside the expansion of territory (the merger of Texas in 1845, made war with Mexico and claimed 1,36 million km 2 including one part or the entire of California, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona states), the special stress of foreign policies of the U.S. was the declaration and implementation of Monroe Theory in December 1823. At first, it was a defensive theory with the slogan “America of American people” but then turned slowly into “America of US people”, and was a throughout political tool in foreign policies on Latin America area. With this theory, THE U.S. got a foundation to implement direct intervention policy in Latin America area which was shown in such events like occupying Puerto Rico (1825); forced Colombia to sign the agreement allowing the U.S. to gain many commercial benefits, the right to freely transport and place the railroad through Panama (1846) 2.3. International context from the second half of XIX century to the beginning of XX century The movements of the world in the period 1865-1918 had strongly impacted theforeign policies and foreign strategy of the U.S. on surrounding areas, at first were Latin America and Asia: the movement from capitalism to imperialism; the decline in developing pace of industry in England and France; the unification and grown of Germany, Italy, Japan; Latin American countries won the independence but had to face with many difficulties... Those important movements had brought the opportunities as well as challenges for the U.S. to be able to implement the expansion policy to expand its influence. 2.4. Intrinsic basis impacting on foreign policies ofthe U.S. in the period 1865-1918 2.4.1. Economic basis Quick development of the economy after the Civil War, especially after the war with Spain (1898) together with a series of consequences like the birth and development of Trusts, Conglomerates, industrial monopoly union with huge exported capital source madethe U.S. to be a power which concerned more on the global issues, not restricted in Latin America area but reached far to Asia. This boosted the politicians of the U.S. to search for bigger markets for growing industrial production of theU.S.. 2.4.2. Social basis On explaining evolutionism of the U.S. in the period from the end of XIX to the beginning of XX century, researchers had mentioned many theories and ideas. First, “Expansionist destiny” or “Manifest destiny” of John O’Sullivan which firstly be published in 1845 to support the merger of Texas into theU.S.. Since then, this theory always had strong impact on 14 foreign policy of the U.S. in the ending years of XIX and beginning years of XX century. In 1890, the book “Influence of ocean power on history” of Admiralty T. Mahan had been published and became one of the ideas which strongly impacted the development and enforcement of naval power of the U.S. and many countries in the world. The ideas of Mahan has created a new point of view in the U.S. which usually be called “real power” point of view as it considered that navy power must be developed strongly to control the ocean not only to create a shield for protecting the country but also to create a great chance to open and expand its range of influence all over the world. This point had strong influence on the leaders of the U.S. in this period. 2.4.3. Political basis After the Civil War, the Federal State Institution had been consolidated and created power upon all of vast territory as well as strengthened the unification of the State. The U.S. didn’t have to worry much for the present and was able to focus strength to expand its influence to surrounding areas. In addition, the legalization of citizenship for black slaves had brought a democratic atmosphere and created favorable conditions for the U.S. to develop its economy strongly and quickly grow into one of the strongest country, took the first step on implementing expansionist policy on the outside. CHAPTER 3 FOREIGN POLICIES OF THE U.S. ON SOME TYPICAL AREAS IN THE PERIOD 1865-1918 3.1. General of foreign policies of THE U.S. in the period 1865- 1918 On the basis of strong development of industrial economy after the Civil War together with the constraints of ideological factors inside the society, the unity of political policies of leader class, the U.S. started to have modifications on policies in order to increase its influence, power and position on the surrounding areas. The highlights in foreign policies of the U.S. in this period were step-by-step taking Latin America under the U.S.’s sphere of influence, implementing methods in order to gain commercial benefits as well as territory in Asia whenever possible as well as interfere in Europe to break the old order of the world to make the U.S. possible to be the leader of the world. 3.2. Foreign policies of THE U.S. on Latin America area 3.2.1. Period 1865 – 1898 3.2.1.1. Expanding and affirming influence on Latin America 15 Policies of the U.S. on Latin America in this period went around 2 main issues: (1) forced France to withdraw troops out of Mexico in 1867, stopped the cabal of France to turn Mexico into a lasting colony of France; (2) conducted war with Spain in 1898 and gained the last colonies (Cuba, Puerto Rico and Philippines) of this country in America. This war brought the U.S. to be one of the most powerful nations all over the world and became a colonial country. Moreover, the U.S. had really become “King” of Latin America. 3.2.1.2. Taking control of Latin America by the Alliance Pan – THE U.S. In 1890, in the first International Convention of American countries held in Washington D.C., International Union of American Republics had been established officially. Beside the positive point of creating a cooperative environment between Latin American countries, Pan American Union (established in 1910) was also the tool for the U.S. to tightly hold this vital area. 3.2.2. Period 1898 – 1918 3.2.2.1. Implementation of Platt Amendment on Cuba After the victory in the war with Spain (1898), the U.S. turned Cuba in to a neo-colony after the U.S. Congress approved Platt Amendment (1901) attached in the Constitution of Cuba. In the next years, despite “acknowledging” the independence of Cuba, the U.S. had occupied this country for many times (in 1906, 1910, 1917) forcing Cuba to sign “Agreement between the U.S. and Cuba on leasing islands for coaling stations and navy bases” in 1903 in Guantanamo bay. In addition, the capitalists and bankers of the U.S. also massively invested into key sectors of Cuban economy such as sugar, railroad making Cuba more-and-more closely depended on theU.S.. 3.2.2.2. “Big Stick” and “Dollar Diplomacy” policies In 2 annual messages sent to the Congress (December 1904 and December 1905), President T. Roosevelt confirmed that the responsibility of the U.S. must be “prove the effect of Monroe Theory and be ready to interfere in any countries in Latin America in order to maintain the stability” and “in the Western Hemisphere, the absolute loyalty of the U.S. to Monroe Theory would force the U.S. to use the power of global police”. This is the argumentation for the U.S. to propose the “Big Stick” policy. In the years after, the U.S. had swung the “Big Stick” for many times to protect the benefits in Latin America and other areas in the world against the threat that these lands would fall onto the hands of powerful countries in Europe. The typical events were: the transfer of constructing and managing right of 16 Panama channel (1903), interfering in different countries of Latin America such as Nicaragua, Cuba, Santo Domingo After W. H. Taft was the President, he continued to implement “Big Stick” policy of the former T. Roosevelt but under a softer and cleverer form named “Dollar Diplomacy” in order to expand and open the market for the U.S. capitalists. This policy was implemented by the U.S. in many countries in Latin America area such as Honduras, Nicaragua, Haiti 3.2.2.3. Interfering policy into Mexico and Nicaragua In the first 2 decades of XX century, the U.S. continued to enhance its position in Latin America by the fierce interfering policy into Mexico and Nicaragua. The relation between the U.S. and Mexico had been put under stress while President W. Wilson didn’t admit the government of President VictorianoHureta who took power in 1913. This relationship had been worsen when Mexico arrested the U.S.’s sailors who quartered in Tampico in April 1914. Although Mexico had set free them right away but the U.S. forced them to shoot 21 cannons saluting the flag as the apology. Government of V. Hureta didn’t accept because this was just like a humiliation. To react, President Wilson sent marine to occupy Vera Cruz. With the intervention of 3 countries: Brazil, Argentina and Chile, the conflict between 2 sides had been soothed. The relation between the U.S. and Mexico had become stressful again due to the event Germany sent secret telegram (Zimmerman Diplomatic Note) to Mexico to drag it going against the U.S. in 1917. In Nicaragua, the U.S. had helped Conservative Party to hold the insurgent (Estrada insurgent) in December 1909 to overthrow the current government controlled by Liberal Party, build a new one which’s close with the U.S. to serve the benefits of theU.S., especially the permission for the U.S.’s companies to build and manage the railroad system in Nicaragua. 3.3. Foreign policies of the U.S. on some countries in Asia 3.3.1. On Japan 3.3.1.1. Period 1865 – 1905 Foreign policies of the U.S. on Japan in this period mainly revolved on 3 wars which Japan made with Taiwan (1874), China (1894-1895), Russia(1904-1905). Although always stayed outside or declared neutrality, the U.S. had always supported and helped Japan in many different ways in fact; after these wars ended, the U.S. played neutral reconciling role in order to gain some benefits in commerce and most favored nation in Asia area. It’s really like a symbiotic and mutual-beneficial relation between 2 young powers in the world trying to balance the power with different strong nations in Asia-Pacific at that time. 17 3.3.1.2. Period 1905-1918 To act with the non-stoppable growing of Japan after the victories in wars before, the U.S. had implemented policies and solutions to restrain the expansion of Japan by cooperating with England on forcing Japan to open the gate of Manchu, approving “Gentlemen’s Agreement” in 1907 to restrain the immigration of Japanese to the U.S.; implemented “Knox project” to neutralize the railroad in Manchu in order to decrease the power of Japan and Russia in this area. 3.3.2. On China Foreign policies of the U.S. on China in period 1865-1918 was shown in forcing China to sign “Additional treaty on Tianjin Convention (1868)” to expand the commercial foundation of the U.S. in China and guarantee the rights of free movement and religious activities for US people living in China; combined with England and Japan to conduct many wars to invade border areas in the East and South West of China in 2 decades 1870 and 1880. Especially, with the declaration of policy “Open Gate” in 1899, the U.S. had claimed the huge commercial benefit in China while this country was torn apart by colonial powers in Europe. The implementation of “Open Gate” policy had forced many powers having good position in China to have modest moves to theU.S.. 3.3.3. On Philippines and other countries in South-East Asia area 3.3.3.1. On Philippines The U.S. – Spain war ended with “Paris Convention” signing (10/12/1898) in which there was a clause that Spain had to transfer Philippines to the U.S. with the price 20 million USD. After claiming Philippines from Spain, the U.S. had turned this island country into a neo- colony by controlling the government and military system of this country. The occupation of Philippines was an important pedal (together with Hawaii and Guam) for the U.S. to move deeply in Asia continent, especially the lucrative market of China. 3.3.3.2. On some other countries of South-East Asia * On Thailand: Foreign policies of the U.S. on Thailand in period 1865-1918 were quite peaceful and quiet, just stopped at the establishment of commercial relation with Thailand and some other cooperation in other fields, especially in education and cultural exchange. This was an inevitable trend of the U.S. while in the beginning of XIX century, England and France had set for themselves quite firm position in Thailand in particular and in South-East Asia in general. *On Vietnam:After the Civil War until the end of World War I (1918), foreign policies of the U.S. on Vietnam was mainly shown on the 18 mediator role of the U.S. to the confrontation and tension between France and Manchurian dynasty upon the North issues. 3.4. Foreign policies of the U.S. on some countries in Europe 3.4.1. On England Since the end of the Civil war, policies of the U.S. on England had basic changes. With the strong development of capitalist production, the U.S. had expanded to the outside and become a formidable competitor with England. On England side, the strong rises of Germany and Japan in the second half of XIX century made England could not help but consider the disputes with theU.S.. The result was most of the disputes between the U.S. and England in this period was solved in peaceful way by the arbitrations set up by international courts, and the most noticeable ones were the vessel issue in Alabama, solving the dispute in trading seal fur in Bering sea, delimitation in Venezuela and Alaska. 3.4.2. On the warring parties in World War I 3.4.2.1. Neutral policy of THE U.S. in World War I In the beginning of World War I, starting from economic benefit, the U.S. continued to implement traditional neutral policy of diplomacy – staying outside the war to gain benefit from trading with both sides. However, as Germany escalated the submarine war causing many huge damage on commercial fleet of the U.S., the U.S. had the reason to step into war to protect its benefits as well as search for benefit for itself in the world after the war. 3.4.4.2 “Fourteen Points” program of W. Wilson On 08/01/1918, President Wilson had proposed the program “Fourteen Points” which, according to him, was “the only basis to create peace” for the world. With basic contents such as public signing of peace treaties, free maritime, fair trade, military cutting, considering the benefits of small countries, establishing State Joint Assembly to protect the peace and security of the world “Fourteen points” program was the first legal document confirming the ambition of taking the hegemony of the world. However, clearly seeing that the bindings in Versailles Treaty would create many consequences for the expansion of the U.S., in March 1920, the Senate of the U.S. did not approve the participation of the U.S. into this Treaty. This also meant the collapse of “Fourteen Points” program which had caused many endeavors of President Wilson, and the U.S. came back to its separating tradition. 19 CHAPTER 4 SOME COMMENTS ON FOREIGN POLICIES OF THE U.S. IN PERIOD 1865-1918 4.1. Overview of the results of foreign policies of THE U.S. in period 1865-1918 4.1.1. Achievements Over more than half of a century, foreign policies in period 1865-1918 had brought to the U.S. great achievements on many sides, they are: (1) the U.S. had confirmed the absolute superiority in Latin America area, step-by- step turned this area into its “backyard”; (2) the U.S. began to claim important benefits in Asia area, especially expanding the market here; (3) the U.S. gradually wiped away the influences of European powers from Latin America and started to force those powers to make concessions in Asia; (4) the U.S. step-by-step reached the global power, caught up with England and together with England to be the nation leading the global politics. 4.1.2. Restriction During the implementation of foreign policies in period 1865-1918, the U.S. couldn’t avoid some certain restriction like: creating the hatred of people in countries which depended in the U.S., especially those in Latin America; many policies couldn’t promote the efficiency, typically the “Fourteen Points” of W. Wilson, forcing the leaders of the U.S. to quit their ambitions in Europe and come back to traditional “neutralism”. 4.2. Characteristics 1. Foreign policies of the U.S. have shown overall practical and flexible nature of the diplomacy with the ultimate goal is gaining national benefits. 2. Planning and implementing process in this period always aims toward the throughout and important goal: actualizing the expanding ambition. 3. Through period 1865-1918, the leadership of the U.S. always created “excuse” or reasonable legal frameworks for conducting any foreign policy on one or many political subjects. 4. Foreign policies of the U.S. in period 1865-1918 were a continuous and developing process reflecting the grow of all aspects of the U.S. in the last years of XIX century and beginning year of XX century. 5. Foreign policies ofthe U.S. in period 1865-1918 stick with the roles of Presidents and politicians. 6. On the basis of the throughout goal to implement expanding policy, the U.S. made different policies and goals for each areas. 4.3. Impact of foreign policy of the U.S. 20 4.3.1. On the U.S. 1. Foreign policies in period 1865-1918 had made great impacts on the U.S.’s economy. 2. Foreign policies in period 1865-1918 had aimed the U.S. to build a strong force of navy, complete military apparatus, create dissuasive strength for theU.S.. 3. Foreign policies of the U.S. in period 1865-1918 had created great impact on the mentality – society of the U.S., lead to the formation of “Manifest destiny”- participate in solving international issues is the duty of the U.S.. 4.3.2. On the countries under the influence of foreign policies of the U.S. 4.3.2.1. On Latin America countries - First, foreign policies which the U.S. applied on Latin America area had created the mentality against the U.S., and raised many fights for independence and democracy in many countries. - Second, foreign policies of the U.S. in period 1865-1918 had turned Latin America into “backyard” despite it also made several positive impacts on Latin America countries (although it’s not what the U.S. wanted). 4.3.2.2. On Asia countries - First, foreign policies of the U.S. in period 1865-1918 had turned some countries in Asia into neo-colonies or depending on theU.S.. - Second, the strong growth of Japan since the middle of the XIX century was partially due to the help of theU.S.. 4.3.2.3. On European countries - First, the presence of the U.S. in the position of a power had created important changes in international relationships in the last years of XIX century and beginning years of XX century. - Second, in the relationship with England – the number one empire in this period, the U.S. had step-by-step claimed the important benefits in the areas which were under the influence of England, gradually declined the influence of England over many areas. CONCLUSION From the presented content above regarding foreign policies of the U.S. in period 1865-1918, we come up with the below conclusions: 1)Foreign policies of the U.S. in 53 years (1865-1918) always aimed to the throughout goal to head to the actualization of expanding ambition, to expand influence of the U.S. on the world. Under the impact of many factors such as inner strength and historical circumstance outside, foreign policies 21 of the U.S. had been adjusted to be suitable and had achieved results at different levels. In period 1865-1918, when the inner strength was not enough, the U.S. just stopped at continuing, expanding and deepening Monroe Theory which had been proposed before (1823), the U.S. has step-by-step showed its position more clearly to the powers in Europe, opposed their interventions in Latin America more substantive and not defensively like before, for example: forcing France to withdraw army out of Mexico in 1967; forcing England to have certain concessions in territorial disputes between Venezuela and Guiana; aggregating and gathering Latin America countries to be under dominant orbit of the U.S. by forming Pan-AmericaUnion in 1889. On Asia, foreign policies of the U.S. just stopped at searching for commercial benefits but there was no significant action to establish its influence here. Stepping to period 1898-1918, especially the victory of England in the war with Spain (1898) had created crucially important foundation and position for the ambition to reach the global power of theU.S.. Since then, the U.S. – a new empire – started to step in the process of expanding and disputing global marketwhich was very exciting in this period. In Latin America area, the U.S. had shown its power more clearly by implementing the policy “Big Stick” an “Dollar Diplomacy”, attached Platt Amendments to Cuba Constitution and a series of military actions intervening in many other countries in Latin America, actually turned Latin America area into “backyard”. In Asia, the U.S. increased its influence after claiming Philippines from Spain, asked for equal right in commerce and politics with other powers in China via the “Open Gate” policy (1899). On Japan, the U.S. played the role of a “mediator”not only to earn several benefits for itself but also find ways to restrain this rising power. On European powers, especially England, the U.S. had also clearly shown its power and forced England to make concessions on many issues The final result of implementing foreign policies of the U.S. in period 1865-1918 was creating a new international position for the U.S.: The U.S. really became a strong nation which joined in planning mechanisms of international relation and became one of the nations which had great influence on the peace, security and stability of the world. 2) No matter what the age was, the strategic goal of foreign policies of the U.S. since the end of Civil War until the end of World War I (1865- 1918) was to best serve the national benefits. This was the throughout and unchanged goal no matter the fact diplomatic strategy of the U.S. always changed to adapt with current circumstance. The developing reality of foreign policies of the U.S. through the period 1865-1898 and 1898-1918 22 has proved this. When it was not possible yet, especially when the national strength was not enough and the outside circumstance was not favorable, the U.S. did not hurry in expanding its influence too far away but to focus on the areas which had strategic benefits suitable with the U.S. at that time such as Latin America. After the victory in the war with Spain (1898), the U.S. stepped out of this war with the role of a victor, and together with its strength in commerce, economy and military, it had accelerated the actual intervention to the further areas such as Asia and Europe by specific actions as analyzed above. This also shows a throughout feature in the diplomatic history of the U.S.: diplomatic strategy had always been flexible but diplomatic goal had never ever changed – that was the benefit for the nation and benefit of capitalist class in the U.S. on the global scale. 3) In the proposing and implementing process of foreign policies in period 1865-1918, the U.S. always won advantages in relationship with the countries which were governed by those policies. This started from the fact that the U.S. was the stronger nation than most of the other ones regarding the aspects such as commercial economy, military power, territory, population, natural resources, strategic position and position of the U.S. in international relationship. Hence, foreign policies which the U.S. proposed always had the trend to impose and force the other countries to accept even though they didn’t want to, for example, the case of Cuba, Latin America, “Open Gate” China However, for some cases, the U.S. didn’t always use its power to oppress but had to respect and admit the position of England and somehow Japan in solving the disputes. 4) Regarding the level aspect, in foreign policies of the U.S. in period 1865-1918, Latin America had been identified to be the area which brought core benefits. The U.S. always concerned and find all possible solutions to guarantee that Latin America would always be its “backyard”. When its power grew with time, the U.S. found way to increase its influence range to other areas, at first in Asia, where there were many benefits regarding the market for a strongly developing economy of the U.S. after the Civil War. On the basis of affirming its strength in the border areas, the U.S. had promoted its intervention in Europe, participated in solving big international issues in this continent after World War I. However, after 1918, the U.S. was still not strong enough to oppress the nations here. 5) Foreign policies of the U.S. after the Civil War until the end of World War I (1865-1918) were boldly affected by the presidents as well as officers who were in charge of diplomatic affairs – these ones which had deep impact on shaping foreign policies. In period 1865-1918, most of presidents proposed suitable foreign policies with developing trend and benefits which the nation-people had to achieved, such as President T. 23 Roosevelt proposed “Big Stick” policy, W. Taft with “Dollar Diplomacy” policy, W. Wilson with “Fourteen Points” While in Latin America, the presidents of the U.S. were the ones who had great influences on the strategy and foreign policies, there was a special feature in Asia – that was the contribution of diplomats and consultants of theU.S.. In the aggressive war on Taiwan in 1874, General Charles Legendre – Consultant of Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affair had contributions in outlining the battle plan for Japan army. After the end of this war, interim Counselor of the U.S. in Beijing S. W. William was the mediator for Japan and China to sign Beijing Convention (in October 1874) with many beneficial terms for Japan. In the conflict between France and Quing Dynasty related to Vietnam, although The U.S. was not successful in the mediator role, interim Counselor of the U.S. in Beijing John Russell Young was the one who greatly contributed to those efforts of the U.S.. While in Thailand, Consultant Edward H. Strobel also had important role on the signing of France-Thailand Convention in 1907. 6) In the globalized age nowadays, the historical facts from the foreign policies of the U.S. in the mentioned periods have always been the historical lessons for nations in the relationship with this super power. To THE U.S., for guaranteeing the national benefit, the U.S. people always change the way to achieve and would not quit on any (flexible, double-side) to guarantee the largest possible benefit – which has never ever been changed no matter the U.S. was lead by any Party. Therefore, in the current context of comprehensive partnership between Vietnam and the U.S., beside taking advantage of the strength and the position which the U.S. has offered, Vietnam also has to stay very wise in order not to be depended on the U.S. to guarantee the stable development on the basis of independence, freedom, mutual respect. 24 PUBLISHED RESEARCH WORKS OF THE AUTHOR 1. Dương Quang Hiệp (2009), “Chính sách của Mỹ trong quan hệ với Pháp thời kỳ 1789 – 1815”, Tạp chí châu Mỹ ngày nay, số 10(139), ISSN 0868-3654. 2. Dương Quang Hiệp (2010), “Nền tảng của việc bành trướng ra thế giới của nước Mỹ những năm cuối thế kỷ XIX đầu thế kỷ XX”, Tạp chí châu Mỹ ngày nay, số 07(148), ISSN 0868-3654. 3. Dương Quang Hiệp (2011), “Nền tảng của việc bành trướng ra thế giới của Hoa Kỳ những năm cuối thế kỷ XIX đầu thế kỷ XX”, Các vấn đề nghiên cứu về Hoa Kỳ, Nxb Giáo dục Việt Nam, Hà Nội. 4. Dương Quang Hiệp (2014), “Từ chính sách mở cửa Trung Quốc hiểu thêm về tính thực dụng trong chính sách đối ngoại của Mỹ những năm cuối thế kỷ XIX”, Những khía cạnh lịch sử - văn hóa Việt Nam và thế giới, (tái bản lần thứ ba) Nxb. Chính trị Quốc gia, Hà Nội. 5. Dương Quang Hiệp (2014), “Chính sách của Mỹ đối với Cuba qua Tu chính án Platt (1901-1934)”, Tạp chí châu Mỹ ngày nay, số 04(193), ISSN 0868-3654. 6. Dương Quang Hiệp (2014), “Vị trí chiến lược của Philippines trong chính sách đối ngoại của Mỹ giai đoạn 1898 - 1991”, Tạp chí Nghiên cứu Ấn Độ và châu Á, số 10(23), ISSN 0866-7314. 7. Dương Quang Hiệp (2014), “Chính sách can thiệp của Mỹ đối với khu vực Mỹ Latinh trong ba thập niên đầu thế kỷ XX”, Tạp chí Khoa học và Công nghệ, Trường Đại học Khoa học Huế, số 2(2014), ISSN 2354-0850. 8. Dương Quang Hiệp (2015), “Chính sách can thiệp của Mỹ đối với khu vực Mỹ Latinh trong ba thập niên đầu thế kỷ XX”, Tạp chí châu Mỹ ngày nay, số 06(207), ISSN 2354-0745. 9. Dương Quang Hiệp (2016), “Các cuộc phân xử bằng phương thức trọng tài trong quan hệ Hoa Kỳ - Anh những năm cuối thế kỷ XIX đầu thế kỷ XX”, Tạp chí Khoa học Đại học Huế (Giấy xác nhận đăng trong chuyên san Khoa học Xã hội Nhân văn năm 2016, ngày 8/6/2016 của Tạp chí Khoa học – Đại học Huế).

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