[Tóm tắt] Luận án Hoạt động thương mại và truyền giáo của Bồ Đào Nha tại Ấn Độ, Trung Quốc (thế kỷ XVI - Thế kỷ XIX)

Along with the establishment of the commercial firm system, commercial activities and propagation, Portugal acted as a bridge making the cultural exchanges and connections between the East and the West in many aspects: language, architecture, religion, science, engineering, anthropology, geography. The achievements of culture, science and technology in Western countries were integrated into the Eastern society by traders and priests and brought a major influence. However, this process also caused negative consequences such as the policy forcing religious or racial discrimination, showing the advantages and disadvantages of the integration from the Western nations to the Eastern society

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hội Rome (Goa, Malacca, Macao) đánh dấu thành tựu to lớn của công cuộc truyền giáo về phương Đông. Nếu ở Ấn Độ, truyền giáo và thương mại đi song song và hỗ trợ chặt chẽ thì tại Trung Quốc các linh mục phải đối diện với những khó khăn hơn gấp nhiều lần. Một thể chế tập quyền cao độ với sự bảo lưu bền chặt hệ tư tưởng Nho giáo đã trở thành chướng ngại ngăn cản quá trình truyền giáo. Vì thế, cách thức truyền giáo của các linh mục thời kỳ này là hết sức uyển chuyển, linh hoạt để phù hợp với sắc thái văn hóa của từng quốc gia, từng dân tộc. Do đó phản ứng của cư dân Ấn Độ hay Trung Quốc trước ảnh hưởng của Thiên Chúa giáo cũng phần nào cho thấy quá trình bảo vệ bản sắc dân tộc trong buổi đầu của thời đại toàn cầu hóa. 6. Cùng với quá trình xác lập hệ thống thương điếm rồi hoạt động thương mại và truyền giáo, Bồ Đào Nha đã đóng vai trò là chiếc cầu nối tạo nên sự giao lưu và gắn kết văn hóa giữa phương Đông và phương Tây trên nhiều lĩnh vực: ngôn ngữ, kiến trúc, tôn giáo, khoa học kỹ thuật, nhân chủng học, địa lý học Những thành tựu văn hóa, khoa học kỹ thuật phương Tây cũng đã theo chân các thương nhân, linh mục xâm nhập vào xã hội Ấn Độ, Trung Quốc tạo nên những dấu ấn đậm nét. Tuy nhiên, quá trình trên cũng để lại khá nhiều hệ quả tiêu cực mà nổi bật trong đó là chính sách cưỡng bức tôn giáo hay phân biệt chủng tộc góp phần nói lên tính hai mặt trong sự xâm nhập của các quốc gia phương Tây vào xã hội phương Đông. HUE UNIVERSITY HUE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCES ----------------- NGUYEN THI VINH LINH TRADE AND MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES OF PORTUGUESE IN INDIA, CHINA (XVI CENTURY – XIX CENTURY) Field: World History Code: 62 22 03 11 Summary of History PhD dissertation Supervisors: 1. Assoc. Prof. Dr.Le Van Anh 2. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dang Van Chuong HUE, 2015 1 A. INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale Geographic discovery is one of the most substantial achievements of human being, “an actual innovation” in the fields of transportation and wisdom. As a pioneer in the Discovery Age, Portugal had contributed to raise the first page of the Western Colonialism when established trading stores along the coast from Western Africa to Orient and created the regime of the first oversea trading system in the early modern era – Estado da India. Hence, this is not only a history turning-point of Portugal but also a fierce movement toward the core alteration in the relationship between the Western and the Eastern. In the concession chain of Portuguese in Asia, commercial firms in China and India were featured and unique. Focusing on trading and aiming to establishing the “Double” trade industry, Portugal remained two parallel trading routes: External and Internal, within a complex interrelation. However, Cochin, Goa, Malacca and Macao, etc was flexibly connected and fruitfully generated in the first international trading network of the early modern era. Thus, through representation the actual picture of the history period, the paper has its remarkable contribution as well as offering a critical analysis based on the characteristics of Portuguese Empire in India and China (in the comparison to its counterparts as Dutch, British Empire). On the other hand, despite of having the similarity in the administration theme and process of development, Portuguese trade stations in India and China employ the violence to invade the land right or build the fortress to control the goods exchange in China but used a softer method to encounter this country: Accepted to be middleman, connecting businesses between China and Japan. The feature of Portuguese businessmen in Macao was undertaking a peaceful way of trading, escaping from the control of Estado da India. The similarity and difference between these trade stations which shared the same owner is not only an exciting academic topic but also a unique lesson for history academia. The combination between trading system and indoctrination of Portuguese in India and China had been described as “two wings of a bird”. While in trading, businessmen played an important role in 2 every step of process of purchasing – transporting – selling goods within utilizing the “narrow gap” of exclusive empire, in the aspect of indoctrination, most of the congregation’s activities were under the administration of Portuguese Kingdom (According to ordinance issued by Pope in Rome). Therefore, researching about indoctrinating of Portuguese in India and China allows us to understand the adaption of religious to different culture and political regime. Nevertheless, current researches toward international trade and indoctrination of Portuguese in India and China are still in the gap. In most of history course disciplines at the level of under grade and post under grade, knowledge of the process of Portuguese oversea trade establishment offered for students is quite common. The understanding about the roles of Portuguese priests in China and India is considerably scared. Based on previous critilization, we strongly would like to do this research on the topic “Trade and missionary activities of Portuguese in India and China (XVI-XIX)” as a PhD thesis, major in the World History. 2. Literature review 2.1. In Vietnam The success of Portuguese in opening the route on the sea to Asia and establishing the trade and commercial in India and China is a vital turning-point in the history of human being. However, this issue is sparely presented in several books about international history. The history of geographic discoveries is mentioned in the book: Nguyen Gia Phu, Nguyen Van Anh, Do Dinh Hang, Tran Van La (2003); “Medieval international history”, Education Publication, Hanoi; Luong Ninh, Dang Duc An (1976), “Medieval international history” (Issue 2, version 1, Europe in Late Middle Age) Education Publication, Hanoi, etc. The progress of empowerment of Portuguese is also illustrated in some publications major in Indian and Chinese history as: Nguyen Thua Hy, “Empires of India”, Education Publication; Vu Duong Ninh (Co-authors, 1995), “History of India”, Education Publication, Hanoi; Nguyen Hien Le, “History of China” (two issues, 1982). The history of Portuguese’s indoctrination in India and China is mostly in the gap. We only found some poor representation in some 3 book as follow: “History of indoctrination in Vietnam” (issue 1 – The Jesuits Priests (1615-1665)), 1959; The process of contact between Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch with Dai Viet in the XVII, XVIII century”, Journal of History – Geography Research, Nguyen Khac Ngu; “The church history” I, II by Bui Duc Sinh O.P, In some history journals as Journal of History Research, Europe Research, South East Asia Research, Religious Research, Military History Research, etc mainly bring information about indoctrination in Asia in general. Therefore, the phenomenon of trade and indoctrination of Portuguese in India and China still lacks of a deep research. 2.2. In foreign countries Because of the scare of documents in Vietnamese, this research gathers data in English as the core source. We divide the paper into different directions as follow: 2.2.1. Research works about the process of Portuguese penetrated into Asia. This is an interesting academic topic, attracting the attention of history experts through the number of publication relating to this topic. Highlights as B.W.Diffie & G.D.Winius (1977), Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415-1580, University of Minnesota, Mineapolis; A.R.Disney (2009), A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire: From Beginnings to 1807, volume 2: The Portuguese empire, Cambridge University Press, London, M. D. D. Newitt (1986), The First Portuguese Colonial Empire, University of Exeter Press, etc. Although a majority of these researches presented a holistic picture of the progress of empowerment of Portuguese at stations in Western Africa, India, Southeast Asia and Orient but the approaches are various. Currently, several books about “Age of discovery” have been translated and publicized in Vietnamese as: Vu Boi Tuyen (1997), “Most Ten International Well-known Explorers”, Thanh Nien Publication; Truong Quang Tri (2003), Phong Dao, “Best Ten International Explorers”, Culture & Information Publication; Van Sinh Nguyen, “Stories of Western History – exploring New Continent”, Labor Society Publication, Hanoi. In summary, researching about invasion of Portugal from a small country in the coast of Atlantic to become a powerful empire is not a 4 new exploration. Globally, many researchers have paid attention to this topic. Our responsibility is review certain literature to complete our thesis. 2.2.2. Reseach works about trade activity of Portuguese in India and China Within the wide spreading of relating knowledge, there are a number of publication mentioned about the trading relationship between Portugal and India as: J.C.Boyajian (2007), Portuguese Trade in Asia under the Habsburgs, 1580-1640, JHU Press or Merchants, Companies and Trade: Europe and Asia in the Early Modern Era of Chaudhury Sushil & Morineau Michel (2007); F.C.Danvers (1988), The Portuguese in India: Being a History of the Rise and Decline of Their Eastern Empire, London: W.H.Allen & co, limited; The trend of doing research toward the largest trade stations as Goa, Cochin, etc was shown in following books: Portuguese in the Tamil coast: historical explorations in commerce and culture, 1507-1749 (1998), Jeyaseela Stephen; Goa-Kanara Portuguese Relations, 1498- 1763 (2000), B.S.Shastry; C.J.Borges, Oscar Guilherme Pereira, Hannes Goa and Portugal: History and Development, Concept Publishing Company.If comparison with Indian materials, the researches about trade of Portugal in China are limited. The books which focus on analyze the influence of Portuguese in China, make up a few percentage. Most of the books only mention generally. Based on the writings of Chinese history, we selected historical events related to the Portuguese as: The Cambridge History of China: Volume 8, The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) của Denis C. Twitchett, Frederick W. Mote (1998); hay Willard J. Peterson (2002) với The Cambridge History of China: Volume 9, Part 1, The Ch'ing Empire to 1800. The activity of the Portuguese merchants in China was mentioned in some books: Tianze Zhang (1933), Sino-Portuguese Trade from 1514 to 1644: A Synthesis of Portuguese and Chinese Sources; “The Survival of Empire: Portuguese Trade and Society in China and the South China sea 1630 - 1754 by G.B.Souza 2.2.3. Reseach works about spreading Christianity of Portuguese priests in India and China. The works reseach about spreading power of Roman Catholic Church as well as the founding of the parishes, the dioceses in India: Stephen Neill (2002), A History of Christianity in India, 1707 - 1858, 5 Cambridge University Press; Stephen Neill (2004), A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707, Cambridge University Press; Historical Sketch of the Christian Tradition in Bengal by Md.S.Farid(2011); Francis Xavier and Portuguese Administration in India by J.Elisha (2004). The works which study about the Jesuits in China, was devided two trends: Firstly, activity of the Jesuits in continental China. Secondly, the developed process of the Jesuits in Macao. The books in the first trend include: Standaert(2008), Jesuits in China, Cambridge University Press,169-185; I.Pina (2001), The Jesuits missions in Japan and in China: two distinct realities. Cultural adaptation and the assimilation of natives, Bullettin of Portuguese/Japanese Studies, ano/vol2, 59 - 76; Anders Ljungstedt, An historical sketch of the Portuguese settlements in China; and of the Roman Catholic Church and mission in China, 1836, Boston Although, Macao was influenced deeply by Portuguse Christianity but we have had conditions to approach the works which research about this issue. There are responsible for the situation, but the most important cause start from the feature of Macao settlement. While Macao became the diocese of Roman Catholic Church (1576), it was built like the centre for missionary administration and priest training which led to form the first Christian college in the Southern Asia. Therefore, most of books study according this trend. Inshort, in international side, there are not any work which has the same content or the same topic as well as my thesis. However, small sides of the issue were studied deeply through many books. It is the advantage but is also disadvantage because English researches is only resource which support us to perfect the thesis. Based on the works were published, we want to find out about: Trade and missionary activities of Portuguese in India and China (XVI-XIX). 3. Aims and Objectives 3.1 Aims Discussing honestly the commercial and missionary activities of the Portuguese in China and India from the sixteenth century to the nineteenth century; analyzing formation bases, features, and comparing the similarities and differences in the field of trade and religion of the Portuguese in India, China, as well as assessing the impact of these activities on Portugal, India and China 6 3.2 Objectives Learning about the penetration process of the Portuguese in India and China, and their establishment of the trade system in the two countries. Discussing the operation modes of the Portuguese maritime trade in coastal areas in India and China: the application of institutional entrenched monopoly in the Indian Ocean coast as well as the mediating role of Portugal traders in Macao in the trade route Macao - China - Japan. Analyzing the missionary methods of the Portuguese missions in India and China (including Macao), of which emphasizing the role and influence of the Jesuits in the spiritual life of local residents. Analyzing the basis, characteristics and consequences of commercial and missionary activities of the Portuguese in India and China (18 th – 19th century). 4. Objects and scope of the research 4.1. Study objects - The thesis focuses on the commercial and missionary activities of the Portuguese in India and China from the sixteenth century to the nineteenth century. 4.2. Scope of Research About space, the thesis focuses on three subjects: Portuguese, Indian and China. About time, the thesis is concentrated on commercial and missionary activities of the Portuguese in India, China from the sixteenth century to the nineteenth century. The reason for taking the time sixteenth century as the starting point for the study is that after Vasco da Gama carried out geographic discovery trip to India (1497 - 1499) was a prelude to the invasion and the establishment of Portugal's colonies in Asia. Nineteenth century is considered the end- time of the research because this is the period in which the role of the Portuguese trade in India, China almost expiry, except the trade with Goa and Macao. About the content, the thesis focuses on the commercial and missionary activities of the Portuguese in India and China. 5. Data Resources and Methods 5.1. Data Resources To complete the thesis, the author has referred to the following 7 resources: The research works, which are published abroad in English, are about the Portuguese activities in Asia, India and China from the sixteenth century to the nineteenth century. The studies are about Chinese history, Indian history, activities of the Portuguese and Spanish congregation in expanding Catholic Church beyond Europe, and the history of Catholic Church in China and India. The monographic works and the study are published in journals such as: Historical Research, Southeast Asian Studies, Religious Studies, Military History... Websites 5.2. Research Methods Starting from the point of view that the Portuguese commercial activities and mission in India and China are regarded as an integral part of the Portuguese Empire in Asia, so systematic-structural method plays an important role in the implementation of the thesis. Historical method and logic method are considered key methods used to carry the study. On the other hand, the thesis is also studied on interdisciplinary scientific methods such as analysis method, synthesis method, contrastive method, statistics, forecasts... 6. Contribution of the thesis 6.1. In terms of science The thesis analyzes the causes of Portugal’s success in exploring new sea route to India and China, and the establishment of Estado da India – a first colonial state of Western countries in Asia. The thesis studies the establishment of Portuguese maritime trade regime in India and China, represented as: Carreira da India... and the process of gaining a monopoly in the maritime trade of the Portuguese Royal through applying compulsory policy, Cartaz and effort in establishing the Portuguese East India Company in the seventeenth century. Thereby, the thesis points out the basis, the characteristics, the differences and the influences of the Portugal in India and China in particular and Asia in general. The thesis also gives systematic and comprehensive assessments on trade and missionary activities of Portuguese in India and China from the sixteenth century to the nineteenth century; thereby the author analyze the characteristics and consequences, as well as make 8 a comparison of the Portuguese implementation of trade and missionary activities in India and China. 6.2. In terms of reality The thesis has analyzed the role of the Portuguese in the formation of world’s first marine trade systems - one of the origins of the trend of today globalization. The research results of the thesis will be perfect for teaching world history. The thesis is also necessary references for those who are interested in the Portuguese activities in Asia in general and India and China in particular. It can be used as basis for new further research in Portuguese Empire in Asia Through the relations between Portugal - India and Portugal - China on trade and mission, many valuable lessons have been learned. For example: During the contact between the countries which have cultural and historical differences, trade has become a bridge connecting and opening up worldwide wide exchanges. However, commercial activities must be based on cultural and historical characteristics of each country. 7. Organization of the thesis Besides Introduction, Conclusion, References and Appendices, the thesis concludes 3 chapters: Chapter 1. Commercial activities of the Portugal in India and China (sixteen century - early nineteenth century) Chapter 2. The mission of the Portuguese congregation in India and China (sixteenth century – nineteenth century) Chapter 3. Comments on the Portuguese commercial activities and mission in India and China (sixteenth century – nineteenth century) 9 B. CONTENT CHAPTER 1. COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES OF PORTUGAL IN INDIA AND CHINA (SIXTEENTH CENTURY – NINETEENTH CENTURY) 1.1. Trade of Portugal in India (sixteenth century – nineteenth century) 1.1.1. Trade of Portugal in India (sixteenth century – mid- seventeenth century) 1.1.1.1. The first commercial firms of Portugal in India (1502 - 1510) By the early sixteenth century, Portugal had established the two most important commercial firms (Diu and Goa) in the four strategic objectives in India and the Persian Gulf. This is an important basis led to the birth of the Estado da India, the first colonial state of Portugal in the East. 1.1.1.2. The formation of Casa da India and Estado da India Casa da India: located in Lisbon, is the central administrative office taking in charge of all trading ships between Portugal and India. It is the descendant of Casa Da Cueta, which is generated in 1434 for the mission of managing all issues of royal agency at Elmina and since then, Kongo kingdom is formed. In 1506, Casa is divided into two units, in which Casa Da India acts as the official body for trading management between Lisbon and Asian ports under trading monopoly policy of Portuguese Empire. Estado da India (the United state of India): is named for all cities, forts and territories under the control of the Portuguese in Asia and Africa. In some cases, the concept of Estado da India is referred to broader meaning, including all coastal areas and islands in East of Cape of Good Hope from the East-Southernmost of Africa to low-lying land of Yangtze estuary. It is, in reality, excepted for some regions, for instance, Macau – China, which is not under Estado aa India. 1.1.1.3. Portuguese Royal Trade (sixteenth century - mid- seventeenth century) During this period, the activities of the Portuguese Royal in India mainly focused on implementing monopoly regime in trade of pepper and horses. By the end of the sixteenth century, Indian silk, cinnamon and indigo became key goods of Estado. Furthermore, from the late sixteenth century to the first half of the seventeenth century, in order 10 to confirm monopoly power in maritime trade, the Portuguese Royal constantly controlled the trade activities of Indian traders and built Goa as a Estado da India's capital. 1.1.1.4. Private Trade of Portugal from early sixteenth century to the middle of the seventeenth century Under the view of the Royal of Portugal, there are two main private trades, i.e. licensed and non-licensed. The majority of merchants licensed for trading in India are the personnel of government. Meanwhile, the operation of non-licensed commerce (chatin) is likely sounded. These business activities are mostly undertaken by two stakeholders: discharged soldiers and new Catholic traders. Till the end of XVI century, the private trade of Portugal in India has counted for 5 million cruzado and taked aprrox. 90% of goods exchange. 1.1.2. Commercial activities of the Portuguese in India (the seventeenth century – the early nineteenth century) 1.1.2.1. Royal Trade accounted dominance in Estado da India In response to the aggressive competition of other European merchants, the Royal of Portugal conducted changes in foreign relation strategy, most importantly, established trading alliance with British. Goa still plays role of central body in Portuguese trade in India with two objectives: actively carries out commercial affiliations with inland territories and undertakes trading of goods such as ivory, slave and opium. With the aggrement in 1878, the economy of Indian territories under Portuguese colony passively depends on Britain government in India. 1.1.2.2. The Portuguese Private Trade in India (between the seventeenth century - the second half of the nineteenth century) Contrasting to the unchanged and tendentiously declined trade of the Royal of Portugal in Goa, the private trading activities shows themselves in very vivid pictures, with the increasing participation of different merchants: Portuguese-Indian, Goa Christians, Saraswat Brahmin and Banias, and the orthodox Portuguese. In general, till the end of XIX century, trading community of private Portuguese traders in Estado Da India was not limited in single economic transaction with a particular goods exchange, but spread out of Portuguese Empire’s border and placed in international commercial network 1.2. Portuguese trade in China (lately half of XVI century – early XIX century) 11 1.2.1. Initial activities of the Portuguese traders in China from early XVI century to early half of XVII century 1.2.1.1. The process of penetration of Portugal in China The communication from 1513 to 1520 did not come with expected outcomes. Till mid-1550, the officers of Minh dynasty allow the Portuguese adopting places in coastal Guangdong, firstly at Shanchuan, lately at Lampacao and Macao followed in 1557 for business operation. 1.2.1.2. Administrative authority of Portugal at Macao The reason behind the administrative legislation of Portugal at Macao is to operate ships connecting sea trading between China and Japan in which the Portuguese traders act as intermediaries. It is noted that, the trading model of Portugal in China, which is based on triangle determinants: management, finance and law, significantly differs from that in India. 1.2.2. Trading activities of Portuguese-Macao traders and Chinese continent 1.2.2.1. Macao traders in the competition of the Spanish and Dutch in China (lately half of XVI – early half of XVII centuries) Due to power setting of Hasburg kingdom in Portugal (1580-1640), from middle of XVI century, Portugal finds remarkable difficulties in preventing the penetration of the Spanish in Chinese trade. The relationship between Macao (Portugal) and Manila (Spain) gets improvement since early of XVII century in the context of Holland, another powerful competitor, taking into place. VOC Company does not gradually just takes its role as Portuguese intermediary in Chinese – Japanese trade, but, directly focuses on the most important commercial firm of Portugal - Macao. 1.2.2.2. Trade between Macao and China in XVII - lately XVIII centuries In early half of XVII century, Ming - Quing war in its seriousness causes great effects on trading activities of Portugal. With the previous capital investments, Portugal carries out many contracts of guaranteeing the distribution of exported goods with Chinese officials and Guangzua merchants. Till lately half of XVIII century, the penetration of Holland, British, France in China and tight management policies of foreign exchange, the Portuguese is pushed out of Chinese market and keeps operation in Macao only 1.2.2.1. Macao Traders in the competition with Spanish and 12 Netherlands people in China (the second half of the sixteenth century - the first half of the seventeenth century) Due to the power establishment of the Hasburg monarch in Portugal (1580 - 1640), from the middle of sixteenth century, the Portuguese struggled to prevent the penetration of the Spanish into the Chinese trade. The relationship between Macao (Portugal) and Manila (Spain) was just really improved in the early seventeenth century when the other powerful enemy, Dutch emerged. Not only gradually took the mediating role of the Portuguese in China - Japan trade, VOC company also directly attacked on the most important commercial firms of Portugal - Macao. 1.2.2.2. Trade between Macao and China from the seventeenth century to the end of the eighteenth century. In the first half of the seventeenth century, the Minh - Thanh war which is in the fierce stage had significant impacts on commercial activities of the Portuguese. Based on the source of capital investment before, Portugal signed contracts with Chinese officials and Guangzhou traders to ensure the delivery of exports. By the second half of the eighteenth century, with the tightening of foreign trade management as well as the Netherlands, Britain, France pushed the penetration of the process in China, the Portuguese were pushed back from the Chinese mainland market and only maintained their activities in Macao. 1.2.3. The process of expanding trade of the Portuguese in Macao with other areas (XVII century - early nineteenth century) 1.2.3.1. Trade relations between Macao and Japan, and Southeast Asia Macao- Japan trade routes were officially closed in 1639 when the Tokugawa shogun issued the decree banning all Portuguese, though wounded or dead, or have any relationship with Japan. From the late seventeenth century, Macao traders conducted active participation in trade in Southeast Asia 1.2.3.2. Trade relations between Macao and Estado da India Trade relations between Macao and Estado were quite complex, which is shown in trade with Goa; increasingly deeper intervention of Estado da India in maritime commercial activities of Macao and the financial burden is increasingly becoming an important factor governing the relationship between the two entities. 13 1.2.4. The decline of the Portuguese trade in Macao (the end of eighteenth century - early nineteenth century) Due to the political situation, at the end of the eighteenth century, trade activities of the Portuguese in Macao almost stalled. Macao was no longer the golden key to bring prosperity to the Portuguese empire in the East. CHAPTER 2. MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES OF PORTUGUESE MISSONS IN INDIA AND CHINA (THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY – THE NINETEENTH CENTURY) 2.1. Missionary activities of the Portuguese in India 2.1.1. Initial influence of Christianity in India (the sixteenth century) 2.1.1.1. Mission from Cochin to Goa After the approval of the raja (Sultan) Cochin, in 1503, the first church of Portuguese priests was built at Cochin. And after the occupation of Goa (1510), Albuquerque built the Church of Saint Catherine in order to create conditions for the stable development of the missionary work in India. 2.1.1.2. Missionary activities of Franciscains mission in Cannanore and Mylapore Cannanore: Until the early sixteenth century, the Portuguese priests converted to 334 worshipers in the community. Mylapore: traditional habitat of Thomas Christians; then, the majority of Portuguese veterans also settled here. 2.1.1.3. Activities of the Jesuits in the Indian coast and the formation of Inquisition in Goa Along with the arrival of Francis Xavier (1506 - 1552), the missionary work in coastal regions has prospered. By enthusiastic and simple lifestyle, he baptized children, women and people of different classes. After a while at the coast, he received the trust and support of the residents in Paravas. In Coromandel, if in 1552, the only priest Henriques Henry was in charge of this large coastal area, five years later, there were 10 priests and some apprentices to settle. 14 In 1560, the Inquisition was established in Goa. According to the statistics: within 63 years (from 1561 to 1623), there are 3.800 cases heard by the Office of religion in Goa. 2.1.1.4. Activities of the Jesuits in the Mogul dynasty (1579 - 1605) Despite going through three extremely difficult mission stages in the Mogul dynasty, the greatest contribution of the priest were language and education. Most conversions were carried out in the class of poor and the impoverished who do not have any freedom in the Hindu society. 2.1.1.5. The Portuguese missions in the Thomas Christian community in Mangalore The complex background right from the beginning caused contradictions and downs in the relationship between Portuguese priests and Thomas Christian. First, there was inconsistency in the implementation of the Catholic ritual. The second is a conflict of jurisdiction between the diocese of Goa and representative of the Syrian Orthodox Church in India 2.1.1.6. Missions under the auspices of Portugal in India (the second half of the sixteenth century) At the end of the sixteenth century There was an astonishing increase of missionary delegations in India such as: Carmelites, Oratorians, Theatines and Capuchins. Meanwhile, the missions as Franciscains, Dominicains and Augustinians still affirmed their important role. 2.1.2. Activity of Portuguese priests in India in century XVII 2.1.2.1. Activity of the Jesuits in Mutharai and the coastline of Fishery coast After laying the foundation of spreading Christianity in Paravas community in the coastline of Fishery Coast, the Jesuits widened their activities deeply inside the mainland of Mutharai. If Francis Xavier was seen as the pioneering priest forming Christian community Paravas, Robert Nobili laid his traces in Mathurai. Meanwhile, in Christian community Paravas the activities of the Christian priests were rather firm. In 1644, priest Lopez, in the report sending to Dong Ten province in Malabar informed that in all region of Fishery Coast, there were any remnants of other religions. 2.1.2.2. Activity of the Jesuits in Mogul in Mogul court century XVII Immediately after Akbar had died, Nuruddin Salim Jahangir 15 (1569 - 1672) came to the throne with the aim to reaffirm the absolute power of Islam in spiritual life of empire citizens. However, Jahangir still did not have any actions aggressing the issue of Catholic spreading of the Portuguese priests. 2.1.2.3. Disagreements and Conflicts in community Thomas in century XVII Century XVII marked uncontrolled disagreements between western congregation and Syrian official congregation. Because of the complication and differences in the origin as well as the way to show Christian rituals, the region of propagation of Portugal in Christian community was always in intense situation. This made century XVII become the century of Serra with endless conflicts between arch-bishop and vice-head of a religion 2.1.2.4. Activity of the Portuguese priests in Tibet The issue of spreading Christianity at the beginning got a lot of benefits when the authorities of Tibet allowed congregation freely Catholic spreading, and constructed a small church. However, in 1633, the war between Ladakh and the kingdom of Tsaparang made the issue of Catholic spreading completely stop. 2.1.3. The decline of Portuguese congregations in India in century XVIII In the middle of century XVIII, there were 3 main Christian regions in India: Goa and other concessions of the Portuguese, Malabar and Fisher Coast. Among regions belong to Hindu community; the Jesuits owned 2 churches in Delhi, one in Agra Other regions such as: Mogul, Mylapore, Madras completely belong to congregations of the British or French. Portugal completely lost its first role in sponsoring the issue of propagating Christianity in the East. 2.2. Activity of spreading Christianity of Portugal in China 2.2.1. The process of spreading Christianity of Portugal in Macao 2.2.1.1. The penetration of the Jesuits into Macao Following trading boats of Portuguese merchants, priest started to reach Macao in the middle of century XVI. Priest Belchior Nunes Barreto (1519-1571) – an embassy of Portugal was sent to Japan and he was the first priest of the Jesuits to board in Macao on Nov. 29, 1555. 2.2.1.2. The process of foundation and operation of Macao diocese Together with the development of the activities of spreading 16 Christianity in Japan and China, in the year of 1576, Pope Gregory XIII (1502 – 1585) decreed that Macao was the only one considered diocese of Christianity (equivalent to the hierarchy of Goa) with the first bishop is Carneiro. 2.2.2. The activity of Catholic spreading of Portugal in Chinese continent 2.2.2.1. The activity of the Jesuits from 1579 to 1594 If it were seen from 1513 when the Portuguese firstly came to trade in a coastline harbor in China, Dong Ten had to spend nearly a whole century to penetrate into the Chinese society and propagate their religion. This showed the difficulties which Portuguese priests had to go through and proved their unlimited encouragement in order to propagate Christianity to many different regions in the mainland of China. 2.2.2.2. Mateo Ricci and the changes in the way to Catholic spreading (late century XVI – first century XVII) In the ending years of century XVI, first years of century XVII, Mateo Ricci became ‘the soul” of the issue of Catholic spreading in China. With the use of scientific knowledge, Mateo Ricci succeeded in forming the image “missionary scholar” – a new method to penetrate into traditional Chinese society. 2.2.2.3. The process the Jesuits widened the area of administration and “the issue of Nanjing” To the beginning or century XVI, the number of Chinese Christians gradually increased from 1000 people (1606) to 2500 people (1610), and to 5000 people (1651). In that condition, “the issue of Nanjing” occurring in the period from 1616 to 1623 caused many disadvantageous factors for the issue of Catholic spreading the Jesuits in China. 2.2.2.4. The Christian community of China became Vice-Provincial From 1619, Chinese Catholic Church was separated from Japan with the position as Vice-Provincial. The most important thing is the financial source supplying the issue of spreading Christianity in China, and Japan equally. To 1613, the Jesuits owned 11 shelters in 8/15 of province through the empire: Peking, Jiangzhou (Shanxi), Xi'an (Shaanxi), Kaifeng (Henan), Shanghai (Jiangnan), Gia Dinh (Jiangnan), Nanjing, Hangzhou (Zhejiang), Nanchang (Jiangxi ), Kien Xuong (Jiangxi), and Fuzhou (Fujian). 17 Converts were performed more frequently. In 1630s, Gaspar Ferreria announced there were 260 Christians in Jianchang, while in the area of Shanghai, Perdo Ribeiro reported that there were under 14 communities. In the later year, the total of Christians was 1786 cases. 2.2.2.5.The war between Ming - Manchu and the opportunity to spread of the Jesuits in the middle of century XVII From 1630s, the war situation between Ming and Manchu people turned to be very toughly. Weirdly, this tough time brought many chances for the Jesuits priests with the operation focus is the rural areas around urban ones. 2.2.2.6. The conflict between the Jesuits and Spanish, French priests In the early second of the XVII century, The Jesuits had to face with new challenge – appearance of the Franciscains and Dominicains which penetrated into Fujian coast from Manila. They mobilized “Chinese Rites” to protest the Jesuits all over the world. 2.2.2.7. Activity of the Jesuits under Qing dynasty Estimate from 1663, the Jesuits made convert for over 105.000 pilgrims every year. There were 3 residential areas with 13.000 pilgrims in Peking, 2 residential areas with 51.000 pilgrims and 10 residential areas with 51 000 in Jiangnan. But Shanghai experienced the most challengingly with only 1 priest and 1 assistant who had to manage over 40.000 Christians. After 80 years spreading in China, it seemed that the patient and encouragement of the Jesuits was met. They decided to widen to the hardest regions in Guangdong, Guangzhou and Hainan Island. The work of the Jesuits in Macao was gradually covered, changing St. Paul University into new center of activities of Catholic spreading throughout South China, Tokin (the North of Vietnam), Vietnam (Cochin China), Laos, Siam, and Cambodia. CHAPTER 3: SOME COMMENTS ABOUT THE TRADE AND MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES OF PORTUGUESE IN INDIA AND CHINA (CENTURY XVI – CENTURY XIX) 3.1. The foundation establishing the trading and missionary operation of Portuguese in India and China 18 3.1.1. Policies towards marine issues of Portugal First, the great development of marine technology supplying long marine travels. Second, construct Lisbon - the capital of Portugal as an international harbor. 3.1.2. The acceptance of the Roman Catholic Church towards Portuguese colonies In the historic turning points and based on different decrees, the Pope officially accepted the special power of Portuguese royal. 3.1.3. The participation of Portugal into Atlantic trade in century XV Thus, to the middle of century XV, Portugal established two arsenals in Morroca coastline, two settlements in Maderia, Porto Santo and started to move to Azores and Cape Verde archipelago. The success in marine trade this stage paid the way for Dom Afonso to allow the use of the new gold coin – cruzado – in 1457, compared to the value of ducat Venice. 3.1.4. The roles of New Christian traders With great maritime experiences, a widespread network of trading posts, the New Christian traders were truly an important factor in promoting the exploration of Portugal. 3.2. Features of commercial activity and propagation of Portugal in India and Macao (China) First, the strong connection between commercial activities and propagation of Portuguese in India and Macau (China). Second, the nature of the Portuguese Empire in India and China is "redistribution of maritime trade" focusing on the profits from the sale of cartaz and concession voyages. Third, colonization is not the goal of Estado da India. Fourth, the trading management system of Portugal in India and China did not experience a number of changes and was still rudimentary. Furthermore, there was almost no distinction between a government official and a businessman. Fifth, while commercial activity mainly takes place in the coastal commercial firms in India and China, the propagation come inland. Sixth, the Portugal’s commercial firms in India and China created the appearance of the “first empire” and were the foundation of the “third empire”. 3.3. Portugal’s trade and propagation in India in comparison 19 with China 3.3.1. Comparisons of Portugal’s commercial activities in India and China Firstly, the methods of establishing the system of trading posts in India and China. Secondly, the methods of commercial activities organization and administration Third, the operation of the Portugal’s commercial firms network in India and China. Fourth, the impact of Portuguese on commerce in India and China 3.3.2. Comparisons of Portuguese missionaries’ propagation in China and India Firstly, the way penetrated into Chinese and India societies. Secondly, the methods of propagation. Thirdly, the locations of spreading Christianity. 3.4. Consequences of Portugal’s commercial activities and propagation in India and China 3.4.1. Portugal integrated China and India’ trade into the global trading system 3.4.2. The process of establishing the Portugal’s commercial firm system led to the immigration and the formation of new groups 3.4.3. The penetration of Portuguese in the Asian community 3.4.4. Portugal had a great impact on the cultural exchange process between the West and East 3.4.5. Portugal laid the foundation for the process of changing the ecosystem all over the world 20 C. CONCLUSION 1. In the development of human history, geographic discoveries were a great achievement, opening a new chapter in the process of exchanging between the East and the West. Thanks to the subjective and objective conditions, Portugal became the pioneer of the “Age of Discovery”. From the first explorations of Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese Royal had decided to establish the first commercial firm on the coast of the Indian Ocean. From Calicut, Cochin and Goa, the Portuguese quickly extended their powers to the Bay of Bengal, reaching the Southeast Asia and the Far East. The commercial firm system stretched from the West to the East, contributing to making the appearance of the first commercial coastal trade empire in the Mid Modern period - Estado da India as Ronald S. Love said: “This was an outstanding achievement of Portugal, a poor country with the lack of natural resources and a small population (over 1.5 million)”. The key factor to the success of Portugal was the mixture of: “ambitions; the remarkable techniques using guns and controlling ships; tactical skills; commercial interests supported by naval forces; the abilities to organize and establish effective plans; the sponsorship of the state”. In particular, the key factor was the comparative advantages of marine engineering: "When Portugal's ships equipped with cannons appeared in the coast of India, it was truly a miracle. At this time, outside of Europe, only Ottoman could create ships with artillery, but they were not in the Indian Ocean to prevent the Portuguese forces. Some Muslim states in India also had naval forces, but it was not enough to cope with the force of Portuguese. Hence, the victory of Portugal in the Indian Ocean was the evidence of the superior marine technicals. 2. The process of extending the power of Portugal in India and China was considerably influenced by the policy focusing on the sea and mercantilism of the Royal Portugal. Thus, “marine commerce was the reason for the presence of the Portugal in Asia, land occupation was not the main purpose of the expeditionary force. The isolated islands and the fortress being under the control of the local rulers were used for naval bases”. With the new strategy and military thinking, “from 1509 to 1515, under the Afonso de Albuquerque's rule, a marine commercial empire was gradually established with a 21 combination of permanent fleets, strong fortresses and naval bases in the strategic positions, which helped Portugal controlled the major trade routes in the Indian Ocean”. Within 15 years, Portugal established a new power structure in the Indian Ocean. Royal Portugal was not only pepper monopoly on the Malabar and Arab, but also transported it in a new maritime route via the Cape of Good Hope. In that power structure, the commercial firm on the coast of India played a central role, being not only the supplier of essential goods such as spices and silk but only the coordinating center of all activities of Portugal in Asia. 3. Features of Portugal trade in India were the relatively independent development and there was an opposite between Royal integrated trade band and private trade. In the first period, the Portuguese Royal had showed the dominant power, and then, flexible business strategy of private trade demonstrated the effectiveness. The integration of private commerce into the network of the Royal Portugal not only demonstrated the inside movement of Estado but also the superiority of capitalism in comparison with the conservative of feudal dynasties in Europe. It was clearer when Portugal faced challenges from other European countries such as the Netherlands or the UK. Meanwhile, commercial activities of Portugal in China had its own feature: "In a corner of the world, the Portuguese acted as peaceful, friendly traders and only use weapons for the purpose of anti-piracy”. 4. Macau was a special location in the commercial firm network under the Estado da India's control. First, along with other Portugal's commercial firm in Asia, Macau was a chain contributing to the movement of goods to ensure the stability of Portugal's commercial activities in Asia in the century XVI, XVII. Second, the process of exploring the commercial potentials of Macau was done by Portugal for a long time (due to the impacts of political factors from the Chinese feudal government), but the integration of Macau into the marine trade network of the Portuguese empire quickly achieved outstanding achievements. From a commercial firm containing goods, Macau gradually became a vital commercial position with a dual administration system. Third, the development of Portugal trade was the result of a number of factors: the formation of the merchant class being very dynamic and responsive with commercial potentials; 22 the trading demand in the area between China and Japan, between China and countries in the region; the geographical location of Macau. In summary, the combination of the traders having a strategic vision with a little fate brought the Portuguese to Macau and Portugal and made a new appearance. Macau also became one of the “pharynx” of the Portuguese Empire in Asia, contributing to bring prosperity to the empire in the century XVI, XVII. 5. Along with commercial activities, Christianity was spread through many different regions in India and China by Portuguese missionaries. Although trade can only be done on the coast of the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, south China coast, Christianity came into inland. The introduction of the three dioceses of the Roman Church (Goa, Malacca, Macau) marked the great achievement of the propagation in Eastern countries. In India, trade and propagation came together and supported each other while in China, the priests had to face with many difficulties. A highly centralized institution with the strong conservation of the Confucian ideology was the obstacle preventing the process of evangelization. So, the propagating methods in this period were very flexible in order to fit the culture of each nation. Thus, the reactions of the Indian or Chinese with the influences of Christianity also showed the effort of protecting national identity in the beginning of globalization. 6. Along with the establishment of the commercial firm system, commercial activities and propagation, Portugal acted as a bridge making the cultural exchanges and connections between the East and the West in many aspects: language, architecture, religion, science, engineering, anthropology, geography. The achievements of culture, science and technology in Western countries were integrated into the Eastern society by traders and priests and brought a major influence. However, this process also caused negative consequences such as the policy forcing religious or racial discrimination, showing the advantages and disadvantages of the integration from the Western nations to the Eastern society.

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