Training and development technical workers in hanoi garment and textile companies

Thesis ‘Training and development technical workers in Hanoi Garment and Textiles Companies’ has achieved the research objectives, has research results and new contributions as described and analysed previously. However, the scope of the research is only limited on studying the training and development of yarn-textilesgarment workers, not covering other types of workers such as workers serving the manufacturing process in terms technology, electricity, sanitation, etc in the HN G&T companies. In addition, the research scope of the thesis is only limited on the garment and textile enterprises in Hanoi. However, the study of a comprehensive field in a larger scale of technical worker T&D in all enterprises of VN G&T industry could be an essential and practical contribution to developing the competitive competency, not only in Hanoi but also in the whole country for the several coming years. These might be directions for researches carried out after the thesis.

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Ministry of Education and Training University of National Economy NGUYỄN VÂN THÙY ANH TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT TECHNICAL WORKERS IN HANOI GARMENT AND TEXTILE COMPANIES Specific Area: HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (LABOR ECONOMICS) Code: 62340404 DOCTORAL THESIS OF ECONOMICS SUMMATION Hanoi, 2014 2 THESIS TO BE COMPLETED IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMIC UNIVERSITY The scientific mentor: 1. Ass. Pro. Dr. Trần Thị Thu 2. Ass. Pro. Dr Cao Văn Sâm Reviewer 1: Pro. Dr. Phan Văn Kha Reviewer 2: Dr. Nguyễn Hữu Dũng Reviewer 3: Dr. Nguyễn Văn Thành The thesis has been defended before the Council to protect her State-level doctoral thesis at the National Economic University Take place at: 17 h 00 on the 20th Mar, 2014 Thesis can be found at: - Library University of National Economy - National Library 3 INTRODUCTION The rationale and significance of research Currently, the garment and textile companies in Hanoi (HN G&T companies) have been employing about 111,600 labors and contributting about 17,3% GDP of Hanoi every year. Economic integration brought more business opportunities to HN G&T companies but also more challenges which are from fierce competition, technical innovation, and customers’ stricter requirements. To survive and grow sustainably, the HN G&T companies really need to invest into training and development in order to posse a number of technical workers1 which meets the requirements in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes and professional development. Theoretical framework for training and development (T&D) the technical workers are extracted and developed from researches on human resources (HR) training and development. On the world, researches on HR T&D can be basically divided into 4 main groups: (i) training system design theories, (ii) learning theories, (iii) motivational based approaches, and (iv) training evaluation models. In Vietnam, there are 2 main approaches of studies on worker T&D. First is macro approach: researches on vocational training for certain areas, provinces or industries. Second is micro approach: studies on training and development technical workers in the companies. Generally, most of studies concentrated on vocational training (the macro approach). The micro approach, studies on training and development technical workers in companies, which implemented by the companies themselves in order to satisfy their labor needs, has not been paid much attention. In this micro approach, the studies did not focus on evaluating and measuring the effectiveness of T&D in 1 To be shortened by “workers” from here. 4 all dimensions, did not investigate objective and subjective factors that affect the T&D effectiveness. Moreover, in the practice, the training and development technical workers in HN G&T companies has not implemented well enough, thus, did not enable the workforce respond the urgent challenges of business properly. Due to the above reasons, the chosen topic of dissertation on “Training and development technical workers in Hanoi garment and textile companies” is of urgent necessity. Research questions are: - Which is the theoretical framework applied into studying the training and development technical workers in companies? - In the practice, how has the worker T&D in HN G&T companies been implemented? How well do the trained workers respond to job requirements? Why? - Recommendations for improving technical worker T&D in HN G&T companies? Based on the approach of human resource management and of competency-based, enterprises need to conduct training aimed and development activities in order to assure the capacity of the workforce of technical workers to meet requirements current jobs and of the direction of organisational development. Thesis is to achieve the bellowed purpose of studying: - Systemizing the theories on human resources T&D and developing the theoretical base for T&D technical workers in companies. - Investigating, analyzing and evaluation the practice of T&D technical workers in HN G&T companies: contents of T&D, methods, effectiveness, objective and subjective factors that influence the T&D effectiveness. - Proposing some recommendations in order to improve the T&D technical workers in HN G&T companies. 5 The research subjects and scope: the training and development technical workers ( who are specialized in garment, textiles and yarn manufacturing)2 in HN G&T companies from 2009 to 2012. The new contribution of research Based on the studying the training evaluation models, the dissertation suggested evaluating the effectiveness of the T&D technical workers of companies through evaluating the responding extents to job requirements of trainees in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes and professional development possibilities. Proposing the “professional development possibilities” of trainees to the assessment criteria is the new contribution of the thesis in compared to previous researches. The results from studying the successful career development cases of technical workers HN G&T companies showed that: (i) background of vocational training and other T&D activities have positive influence to career development of workers, (ii) career development and promotion opportunities play a motivating role to workers. Thus, T&D should be seen as important non-monetary rewards that motivate workers. The results from investigating the factors that affect the effectiveness of T&D in HN G&T companies showed that the trainees only meet requirements in terms of skills and attitude, but they do not meet the requirements in terms of knowledge and professional development possibilities due to some main reasons. First, knowledge and teaching capabilities of trainers are limited. Second, the training policies, the monetary and non-monetary rewards are not well motivated to trainees. Third, workers are mainly trained by on-the- job methods but knowledge and skills basically and systematic equipped. Forth, companies do not want to invest in T&D due to wondering of losing well-trained workers and can not recover the training costs. 2 To be called G&T worker in following parts. 6 Thesis suggested the HN G&T companies should consider T&D technical workers as solutions for enhancing competitive competency, ensuring sustainable growth and motivating tools as well, and should change the training points of view and methods to the competency approaches. The new contributions in recommendations include: improving training methods in order to meet professional competency standards, using the career development activities for workers as non-monetary motivating tools and retention, and improving the system of assessing the worker T&D effectiveness. The thesis also suggested some recommendations to relating authorities to facilitate and support the worker T&D in HN G&T companies. The thesis structure includes 4 chapters. Chapter 1 displays the theoretical framework of worker T&D in companies. Chapter 2 describes research methodology and data that serve the study. Chapter 3 analyses and evaluates the practice of worker T&D in HN G&T companies. Based on these analysis’s, the chapter 4 proposes recommendations for improving the technical worker T&D in HN G&T companies. CHAPTER 1: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF TECHNICAL WORKER TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN COMPANIES 1. 1. Definitions 1.1.1. Definitions of technical workers Technical workers are the ones who accomplished at least a professional training program in a vocational school (including enterprises) and granted professional certificate(s) or officially recognized by prevailing regulations to posse implementing capacities that meet the complex job requirements. That means technical workers are those who have been trained at different mastering levels in vocational schools or enterprises in order to ensure that they are qualified enough to accomplish the complex requirements of production process. 7 1.1.2. Definition of technical worker training and development in companies Technical worker training in companies refers to planned and systematic activities designed by companies to provide workers with implementing capacities in order to respond to complex requirements of production jobs. Worker training in companies includes skill training and vocational training, which are: vocational training, skill training, bad performers’ retraining, orientation training. Technical worker development in companies refers to planned and systematic activities designed by companies implemented in order to develop employees’ professional capacities and respond to organizational development. Worker development in companies includes career development and management development (promotion) activities, which are: worker upgrading training, training 2nd job for workers who are mastered in the 1st job; job rotation and transfer; skill competitions; promoting good workers to trainers, technical staff, managerial staff. In the Career stages and important needs theories, Ivancevich explained the relationship between training and development and need changes of any individual in 4 career development stages in which he/she experienced during working life. Stage 1- Apprenticeship: to observe, learn and follow instructions of more experienced people. Stage 2-Advancement: accumulating knowledge, experience, being mastered in the job, employees now can work independently. Stage 3-Maintenance: to serve as mentors of those who are in stage 1, and interact with other people. Individuals who can not cope with this challenging may shift back to stage 2. Stage 4–Strategic thinking: very few people who have strategic thinking and involve in shaping the direction of the organization itself can progress from stage 3 to stage 4. Most of professionals will maintain in the stage 3 until retired. 8 1.2. Implementing training and development technical worker in companies 1.2.1.Training needs analysis and developing master training plans: Firstly, in order to accomplish a certain production volume, firms identify the needs workers to be trained in terms of number and categories. Secondly, based on job specifications, firms identify the requirements in terms of knowledge and skills. Thirdly, assess the actual capacities of workers. Comparing specific job requirements with actual capacities of each individual worker help managers identify the gaps in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes or career development activities. Fourthly, identifying specific training objectives in terms of: (i) categories and number of workers needed, and (ii) necessary knowledge, skills, attitude and career development possibilities. Then, developing the master technical worker T&D plans to serve for current requirements and directions for organizational development. 1.2.2. Training and development design: firms chose the appropriate training methods and prepare infrastructure including equipments, raw materials. The training methods includes: (i) on-the-job training, which are job instruction, apprenticeship, coaching and counseling, and job rotation and transfer; (ii) off-the-job training, which are: vestibule training, sending workers to vocational school. 1.2.3. Implementation: firstly, choosing trainers from experienced workers of the firms or inviting outside trainers. Trainers should meet requirements in terms of knowledge, skills, teaching capabilities, and attitude. Secondly, using training policies and monetary and non-monetary tools to motivate trainees before, during and after the training process. Thirdly, HR unit should organize and manage training programs effectively. 1.2.4. Assessing effectiveness of technical worker T&D is assessing the extents that worker T&D to production requirements in terms of: (i) categories and number of workers needed and (ii) professional 9 capacities of trainees. In which, firms should clearly assess the extents that trainees respond to job requirements in term of knowledge–necessary knowhow, skills-the mastering levels in handling the operation activities, attitude and behavior– professional attitudes and positive behavior, and career development possibilities- possibilities to move up on the career path or promoted into managerial positions. 1.3. Factors influencing technical worker T&D in companies can be considered as 3 major groups: (i) factors related to worker T&D design and implementation, (ii) individual factors, and (iii) external influences (chart1.1). Chart 1.1: Theoretical framework of worker T&D in companies Amongst these, the group of design-implementation factors is entirely controlled by firms so it can be improved to increase the Training methods Trainers’ quality T&D policies Extents trainees respond to job requirements in term of: • Knowledge • Skills • Attitude/behavi or • Career development possibilities Training programs management T&D need analysis Situation assessment Design Implementation Effectiveness Evaluation Các yếu tố thuộc về cá nhân CNKT • Tuổi • Giới tính • Thâm niên • Trình ñộ lành nghề Individual factors • Age • Gender • Seniority • Mastering levels 10 effectiveness of worker T&D. Therefore, these factors have been concentrated by the thesis. The design-implementation factors includes: A. Worker training need analysis. B. Choosing suitable training methods. C. Trainers’ quality. D. Training policies, and E. Training programs management. Individual factors which have certain influences on effectiveness of worker T&D include: age, gender, seniority and mastering levels. Considering the external influences, thesis focused on impacts of international integration and some factors such as: (i) employability and opportunities to raise income after training (ii) State’s policies about vocational training and (iii) high school background. CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DATA 2.1. Qualitative research  Researching the practice of worker T&D in 7 typical HN G&T companies in order to: (i) evaluate the T&D practice and investigate the following contents in each company: training need analysis, training program designs, methods choosing, trainers’ quality assessment, T&D effectiveness evaluation; (ii) compare, generalize the common characteristics, difficulties or advantages, also consider different problems and problem solving.  Deep interview to typical cases of technical workers who have very successful career development to describe their career path, thus, analyze the relationship between vocational training-skill training-professional development and analyze the need changing of individual workers in each stage of their career progresses.  Deep interview to managerial staff and specialists to gain the evaluations from different cuts about worker T&D in HN G&T companies. Interviewees are: policy makers, researchers, managers at all levels of firms, and trainers. 2.2. Quantitative research 11 Thesis studied the extents of impacts of design-implementation factors to effectiveness of worker T&D. Survey has been carried out in 60 HN G&T companies, which include: 33 garment firms (equivalent to 55,1%) and 27 G&T firms (44,9%). Respondents: (1) technical workers who are serving garment, textiles and yarn production machines; (2) HR staff, trainers, functional staff and (3) Managerial staff: directors and vice directors of plants, Heads of shift, team leaders and other immediate supervisors. However, in practice, most of worker T&D activities in HN G&T companies is on-the-job. That’s why all immediate supervisors, some middle managers are trainers at the same time. Therefore, the research merged group number (2) and (3) of respondents into only one group that’s called ‘managers/trainers’. Their opinions on worker T&D reflect two side of a coin: (i) evaluations of implementators and (ii) evaluations of users. Research framework: displayed in chart 1.1. - Dependent variables: effectiveness of worker T&D in HN G&T companies which measured by the extents that trainees respond to job requirements in terms of: knowledge, skills, attitude/behavior, and career development possibilities. - Independent variables: A. Worker training needs: identified reasonably, sound training program; B. Systematic training methods chosen: instruction (and other coaching and mentoring), apprenticeship, vestibule training, sending workers to vocational schools. C. Trainers’ quality: assessed by knowledge, skills, teaching capacities, and attitude; D. Training programs management: infrastructure serves T&D, training programs management; and E. Training policies. Monetary and non-monetary motivating tools, training policies, and cares of top management Research hypothesizes: 1.The more identified reasonable training needs, the more effective worker T&D. 12 2. The more systematic the training methods, the more effective worker T&D. 3. The more qualified trainers, the more effective worker T&D. 4. The better the training programs managed, the more effective worker T&D. 5. The more motivated the policies, and the more cares of top management, the more effective worker T&D. Data collected by 2 ways: direct interviewers and through mails. In each firm, there were 2 questionnaires for workers and 1 questionnaire for manager delivered. Finally, the survey covered: - Delivered 800 questionnaires for technical workers (code BH-CN), recovered 636 acceptable questionnaires - Delivered 400 questionnaires for managers (code BH-QL), recovered 321 acceptable questionnaires Data processed by the statistic software SPSS. A. Evaluate the extents of impacts of design-implementation factors to effectiveness of worker T&D: Pearson’s Chi-square test (χ2): applied to all pairs of one independent variable vs one dependent variable. Then, calculate the P value, comparing to the significance α=0,05: - If P value these two variables are related - If P value >0,05 => these two variables are not related Gamma (γ ) test: to measure the impacts of design-implementation factors to effectiveness of worker T&D. When 2 variables are related, the value of γ refers to strength of impact of independent variable X to dependent variable Y: γ X has nearly no impact on Y 0,5 X has little impact on Y 0,8 X has a strong impact on Y B. Evaluate the extents of impacts individual factors to effectiveness of worker T&D by using the crosstabs. 13 C. Evaluate the extents of external factors to effectiveness of worker T&D based on statistic descriptive analysis. 2.3. At desk document analysis method Some other research methods were also applied to the thesis such as: at desk document analysis method, comparing, generalizing. CHAPTER 3: PRACTICE OF TECHNICAL WORKER TRAINING AND DEVELOPPMENT IN HANOI GARMENT AND TEXTILES COMPANIES 3.1. Some major characteristics influence worker T&D in HN G&T companies 3.1.1. Some general characteristics of Vietnam Garment & Textiles industry The Vietnam G&T industry has been exploiting more business opportunities due to international economic integration, but also facing with more challenges such as international regulations, reduces of State’s subsidiaries, technical barriers, stricter requirements from customers, thus, facing with the risk of being backward due to a series of weaknesses. First, production structure imbalance and asynchronous in the level of technological development between garment, textile and yarn production leads to an imbalance in the structure of T&D sewing workers compared to textile and craft yarn manufacturing workers becomes more severe. Second, the uneven firm distribution across regions, enterprises concentrated in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city lead to difficulties such as increased production costs, fierce labor competition amongst G&T companies versus firms of other industries in the areas. 3.1.2. Some characteristics of labor force of HN G&T companies influence worker T&D Demand-supply imbalance in the labor market leads to fierce labor competition amongst the HN G&T companies themselves. Being afraid of losing trained workers, wasting time, efforts and cost, firms 14 tend not to invest in intensive worker training or only to train superficially that serve simple operations. After several working years, the work becomes more complex, knowledge and skills of many workers do not meet the strict production requirements because they have not been adequately and systematically trained. Consequently, productivity reduced leaded to low wages make workers feel disappointed. That’s why they quit to find other better opportunities. Low remuneration reduces the attractiveness to labor of HN G&T companies compared with other industries in the area. Therefore, HN G&T companies are always in labor shortages, difficult to attract and recruit new employees and difficult to retain well-trained workers and proficient workmanship. Typical characteristics of workforce of HN G&T companies are: large labor scale (G&T workers occupied the big proportion), high turnover rate, female and young workers are majority, but labor quality is low (low skilled, mostly short -term trained). Immediate supervisors are old, limited in professional capabilities so HN G&T companies are in need of succession planning and development for replacing these supervisors. 3.2. Practice of technical worker T&D in HN G&T companies 3.2.1. Overview about T&D in HN G&T companies Every year, due to constant product design changes, large scale of technical workers who directly involved in production, as well as high turnover rate, HN G&T companies percentage need to conduct a large amount of worker T&D activities. Worker training includes: (1) Vocational training for new recruits: most of HN G&T companies train sewing and cutting workers by apprenticeship method (short theoretical study, then practice directly in the shop 15 floors) or instructions (direct mentoring in production). Because the textile-dyeing and yarn manufacturing operations are more complicated, firms usually applied apprenticeship methods to trainees for a period of 2-3 months. (2) Retraining the bad performers: by direct mentoring in production for a period of 1-3 months. (3) Skill training: due to fashion trend changes so skills training for technical workers to serve producing the new series of goods takes place very often. Training method is coaching and mentoring. Worker development includes: (1) Upgrading training and tests are conducted yearly in large scale firms. Workers learn theories and practice needed opreations by themselves. Based on Job specifications, firms organize the tests. (2) Train the 2nd job for workers mastered the 1st job helps firms be more flexible in cases of labor surplus or shortages. Workers can increase their incomes, develop their professional capacities. Training methods are coaching and mentoring in about 2-3 months, costs about 1 mil to 1.8mil VND per textile-yarn worker or approximately 1 mil VND per garment worker. (3) Skill competition looking for good workers to foster development and encourage the movement of skill improvement. The contents of the tests are more complicated than upgrading tests and product must be completed within the shortest time (4) Developing technical workers to managerial positions and technical-functional staff in companies Studies in 7 typical HN G&T companies showed that 94,9% supervisors and 28,1% middle managers promoted from technical workers. Studying the 16 cases of successful career development (pp.76-82) concludes: firtst, workers are able to be promoted to technical-functional staff, supervisors or middle managers, or even top management if they are trained properly. Second, basic 16 backgrounds from vocational training help worders develop their career better and advance to higher positions more easily. Third, if workers’ backgrounds are not basic and systematic due to inadequte vocational training, firms need to add supplemental short or long- term courses to assure workers’ professional developments. Forth, in the advancement stage, being trainers help technical workers get better understanding and job awareness, more love and commitment, better career development and more advancement opportunities. Fifth, combination of off-the-job training and on-the-job training, especially the methods like mentoring, job rotation or transfer creates positive impacts to career developmetn and management advancement of employees. Therefore, vocational training-skill training-professional development on the one hand are to develop the professional capacities of technical workers and motivate them as well, on the other hand, to create and develop quality human resources in order to assure the sustainable development of firms. 3.2.2. Practice of technical worker training need identification The training needs in terms of number and categories of workers to accomplish a given workload are well identified in HN G&T companies. However, due to lacking of Job specifications or poorly written Job specifications, some firms have difficulties in determining the required levels of knowledge, skills that trainees need to satisfy. The results of the performance evaluation is not used effectively to identify gaps in knowledge and skills of technical workers need to be trained. Most supervisors do not know how to make up a personal development plan for an individual worker. 3.2.3. Practice of technical worker training design On the basis of the identified training needs and objectives, considered to the infrastructure, the companies often use methods of instruction and apprenticeship (typical case: coach and mentoring at Dalat JSC.). The vestibule training or sending workers to vocational schools are rarely used. The instruction is evaluated as the least 17 systematic method. Sending workers to vocational schools is assessed the most. However, the instruction and apprenticeship are evaluated the most economic and time saving. Assessing the dimension of practical and easy to learn, the four methods are equivalent. That means the methods of instruction and apprenticeship are suitable with the financial condition and facilities of firms and still considered quite good. Vestibule training is the best in terms of systematic, practical, relialistic and easy to learn but a large amount of investment to infrastructure required (typical case: ‘vocational school within the firm’ at Garment 10). 3.2.4. Practice of worker training implemetation  Evaluating the quality of trainers Most trainers of HN G&T companies mainly are part-time (counted to 95,7%), high seniority but qualifications are generally limited. Number of technical staff, supervisors, and high-skilled technical workers (grades 5-6) counted only to 33,2%. Medium-skilled technical workers (grades 3-4) are majority (counted to 47,9%).  Evaluating the motivating policies and cares of top management to worker T&D Most workers participate training courses due to pressure of work and supervisors’ requirements. There are few who find learning desires themselves. In the invetigated companies, support policies to workers during the training course and compensation policies after the courses are not well motivated. The different between assessments of supervisors and workers shows that supervisors do not aware of the real situation adequately. This might be one of causes explain the problem of many well-trained workers quit the jobs after being trained. To solve this problem, besides binding contracts for the minimum serving time after training signed by workers, the companies make provisions on compensation for training costs. However, they still can not retain the well-trained workers. 18  Evaluating the training course management Since most HN G&T companies use instruction or apprenticeship train methods, so machinery and equipment being used in production are served for practical session of the training course. Quantity and quality of machinery and equipment serving for practice are quite good. Also, time arrangement are quite reasonable, learning materials are quite enough, and classroom management are quite good. 3.2.5. Assessing effectiveness of technical worker T&D in HN G&T companies Generally, extents that trainees respond to job requirements in terms of skills and attitude and behavior are just satisfied but responding levels in terms of knowledge and career development possibilities are poor. 3.2. Assessing the impacts of influencing factors to effectiveness of technical worker T&D in HN G&T companies 3.3.1. Assessing the impacts of group of design-implementing factors to effectiveness of technical worker T&D in HN G&T companies Results of Chi-square test confirm the hypothesizes 1, 3, 4 and 5 but ignore the hypothesis 2. Amongst the group of design-implementing factors, quality of trainers has the strongest impacts on effectiveness of technical worker T&D. Especially knowledge, skills and teaching capacities of trainers has a very strong relationship with knowledge, skills, and career development possibilities of trainees. The motivated the policies, and the more cares of top management has the 2nd strong impacts to effectiveness of worker T&D, especially to knowledge and career development possibilities of trainees. The elements of training needs identification and training course management has slight impacts to effectiveness of worker T&D. Besides, it’s impossible to conclude that the more systematic the 19 training methods, the more effective worker T&D. The instruction and apprenticeship are not systematic, not effective in terms of career development possibilities but they are effective in terms of skills. The vestibule is considered as the best due to systematic and effectiveness in terms of knowledge, skills, attitude career development possibilities. 3.3.2. Assessing the impacts of individual factors to effectiveness of technical worker T&D in HN G&T companies Analyzing the effectiveness of technical worker T&D by gender shows the extents that male and female trainees satisfy the job requirements in terms of knowledge are nearly equivalent. However, the extents that female trainees satisfy the job requirements in terms of skills, attitude and behavior and career development possibilities are better than the male workers because the yarn - textile - garment job requires details, carefulness that fit more with female workers. Analyzing the effectiveness of technical worker T&D by age and seniority shows the group of over-45-year-old workers are good at knowledge, skills and attitude but limited in career development possibilities. Group of from-33-to-45-year-old workers, those who have 15 to 20 years of seniority, are good at knowledge, skills and attitude, especially are the best in terms of career development possibilities. Group of under-25-year-old, those who have short-term seniority are the worst in terms of knowledge, skills, attitude, and career development possibilities. Analyzing the effectiveness of technical worker T&D by mastering levels, the group of grades 5-6 worker shows the superiority of knowledge, skills, attitudes and career development possibilities compared to others. Group of grades 3-4 workers has the self-assessment of meeting the job requirements in terms of knowledge and skills. Group of grades 1-2 workers are low at knowledge and skills after being trained. 20 In summary, impacts of individual factors to the effectiveness of technical worker T&D as follows: (i) female workers meet the job requirements in terms of skills, attitudes and career development possibilities better than male workers; (ii) the older and the more senior workers are, the better they meet the job requirements in terms of knowledge, skills and attitude; (iii) the higher grade workers are, the better they meet the job requirements in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes and career development possibilities. 3.3.3. Assessing the impacts of other external factors to effectiveness of technical worker T&D in HN G&T companies Session 3.1 analyzed the impacts of international integration, some characteristics of VN G&T industry, some characteristics of labor force to effectiveness of technical worker T&D in HN G&T companies. Besides, assessing the impacst of 3 factors such as: (i) employability and opportunities to raise income after training (ii) State’s policies about vocational training and (iii) high school background shows that the employability and opportunities to raise income after training has greater impacts to effectiveness of technical worker T&D the remain two factors. CHAPTER 4: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING THE TECHNICAL WORKER TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN HANOI GARMENT AND TEXTILES COMPANIES 4.1. Viewpoints on technical worker T&D in HN G&T companies Viewpoint 1: investment in technical worker T&D in G&T industry is in accordance with the ‘intellectualization working class’ policy of Party and State Party and State has policy of ‘promoting and improving the quality of vocational training, intellectualization working class gradually’. ‘Intellectualization working class’ refers to implementing technical worker T&D activities in order to have ‘a well educated expertise 21 skillful workforce which are capable of quickly acquire and master new technology, enhance productivity, quality and efficiency of production and business’. Vocational training, retraining, career development, management development are to meet requirements of organizational development, improve quality of technical workforce of G&T industry, contribute to ‘intellectualization Vietnamese working class gradually’. Viewpoint 2: Technical worker T&D is not only solutions for sustainable development to HN G&T companies but also and non- monetary motivating tools to their employees. On the one hand, technical worker T&D is the solution for sustainable development to HN G&T companies, help firms adapt to the context of globalization, seize opportunities of shifting G&T production from industrialized countries to developing countries, including Vietnam. On the other hand, technical worker T&D Worker should be seen as non-monetary motivating tools to employee, used in combination with the monetary tools to enhance motivation and retain skillful workers. Viewpoint 3: Change the technical worker T&D in HN G&T companies to competency-based approach Competency-based approach is primarily to determine the capacities needed to handle operating activities, translate them into training objectives. The technical worker T&D in HN G&T should be changed to competency-based approach in order to cacht up with trend of domestic and world. Firstly, analysing jobs to determine neccessary capacities for all operating activities, then, developing competency framework to yarn-textile-garment workers. Secondly, developing teaching tools including kits of training and assessment standards, curriculum system, documentations, reference manuals to serve teachers and learners. Thirdly, improving training methods to learner-centered training methods. Fourthly, implementing training for trainers. Fifly, investing in infrastructure and facilities. 22 4.2. Solutions to improve technical worker T&D in HN G&T companies 4.2.1. Improving training need identification in HN G&T companies At first, firms need to identify their business strategy very clearly, develop the medium-term and long-term business plans which including T&D master plans. Step1: Identify need for technical workers in terms of number and categories in order to accomplish an amount of planned production volume. Step 2: Develop the competency framework, in which, requirements in terms of knowledge, skills are clearly defined. Step 3: Assess performance of workers periodically, thus, assess the current capacities of workers. Compare the current capacities with competency framework to find out the gaps of knowledge/skills in order to identify the training needs. Step 4: Develop the T&D master plan. 4.2.2. Improve technical worker T&D design in HN G&T companies  Improve training methods Instruction should not be applied into vocational training. It should be applied into skill training, retraining the bad performers, or training the 2nd job for the workers who are mastered the 1st job. Apprenticeship should be applied to vocational training the simple jobs like sewing, product finishing. Training program includes theoretical session: practical session equal to 30%:70%. In order to be effective, firms should have good curriculum system, teaching plans, documentations for theoretical sessions, and also good infrastructure and facilities for practical sessions. Vestibule training should be applied into vocational training for complicated jobs such as cutting, yarn-textile-dyeing, or QA/QC. The firms who have large labor scale e.g. more than 1,000 workers should invest in 23 infrastructure for vestibule training. The small scale firms could make up an alliance for sharing the infrastructure in vestibule training. Vestibule training should also be applied into upgrading activities. If there too few learners and infrastructure is poor, firms should send workers to vocational schools. Job rotation and transfer could be applied into career development and management development.  HN G&T companies should have the long-term investment in infrastructure and facilities that serve worker T&D. 4.2.3. Improve technical worker T&D implementation in HN G&T companies  Improving quality of trainers: train the trainers the followings contents: (i) developing the training programs , explained the training objectives, (ii) using the specialized materials: teaching guidebooks, assessment guidelines, (iii) instructional planning, (iv) preparing lesson plans and following lesson plans, (v) applying the evaluation forms, (vi) teaching skills in using the computer, projector, flipchart, video, camera, ... Trainers should use modern training methods proficiently, guide and facilitate the learning process of trainees. Besides, trainers should be fostered the professional competency. Recruit trainers: attract young capable trainers, and contract with the old skillful and knowledgeable workers.  Improving the motivating policies: pay raise, pay tuition fee when workers get certifications, bonus for good training results, upgrading, promotion, recognize workers’ contribution, empower. Firms should also increased the levels of compensation for training costs if the employee quit before the contract expires and strengthen individual responsibilities to employees.  Improving the training course management: firm should cooperate with vocational schools, iinvite the consultants, combined with the internal resources to implement reviewing and evaluating quality of the curriculum, lesson plans, lectures, 24 references, writing new textbooks, lectures, training manuals for trainers, supporting materials for learning and practice guidelines for the workers. 4.2.4. Improve the effectiveness assessing system of technical worker T&D in HN G&T companies Conduct annual reviews, in two aspects : (1)Evaluate the effectiveness of overall technical worker T&D of company Option 1-The indicator of assessing the overall and detailed effectiveness of technical worker T&D of company: measure the extents that trainees respond to job requirements in term of knowledge, skills, attitude, and career development possibilities. Option 2-Quick Review: use the Satisfactory Performers Ratio Rd, calculated by dividing the number of qualified skilled technical workers after training in the year divided by the total number of workers participate T&D activities of the companies in that year (unit : % ). (2)Training program evaluation: apply the 4 level training evaluation models proposed by Kirkpatrick. 4.2.5. Improve the career development for workers in HN G&T companies. supervisors Supervisors should make up the personal development plan for each individual workers, and cooperate with HR department to implement the plan. Individual’s need are also satisfied. Stage 1- Apprenticeship: Learners are coached or trained by trainers. Needs for wage, working conditions, job security should be satisfied. Stage 2-Advancement: workers are semi-skilled (grades 2- 3) and can work independently (grades 2 – 3). Supervisors can train the 2nd job or apply job rotation or transfer to satisfy the needs of achievement, self-management and self-esteem. Stage 3- Maintenance: the workers at grades 4-5-6 would serve as mentors or trainers. Some could be promoted to supervisors. Some could be technical staff. Individuals who can not cope with this challenging 25 may shift back to stage 2. To facilitate workers to move from stage 2 up to stage 3, supervisors should identify the right potentials of workers, HR dept. should provide suitable T&D activities. Needs for self-esteem and self-actualization should be satisfied. Stage 4- Strategic thinking: Most of professionals will maintain in the stage 3 until retired. Very few people who have strategic thinking and involve in shaping the direction of the organization can progress from stage 3 to stage 4. In this stage, professionals could be promoted to middle managers, or even top managers of the firms. Needs for self-actualization should be satisfied at this stage. 4.2.6. Other solutions to support technical T&D in HN G&T companies almost focus on enhancing the recruitment and motivating activities to retain the skilled workers. 4.3. Some suggestions Some suggestions are proposed to Government. First, there would be developing strategies for the suitable G&T production areas, and investing strategies for developing the vocational system in the areas. Second, there would be policies to encourage the firms who have eligible infrastructure provide in-door training activities to their technical workers such as: training subsidiaries, developing training fund in the enterprises… Third, there would be regulations on enterprises’ cooperating and supporting obligations with vocational schools in order to improve the extents that graduates meet the requirements of practice. Fourth, improving the system of education and training in order to balance the outcome structure in proportion: undergraduates/ professional secondary/ technical workers is 1/4/10. Fifth, sponsoring the researches in human resources development in G&T Institutes, vocational schools to meet the international agreements. In addition, the thesis also proposed some recommendations to the People Committee of Hanoi; some recommendations to the authority bodies should coordinate to implement the improving vocational training system programs and support the technical worker T&D in 26 HN G&T companies; some recommendations to Vinatex as the body who coordinates foreign and domestic training institutions to carry out the human resource development programs, connects with vocational schools to provide consultancy services on technical worker T&D to HN G&T companies. CONCLUSION Thesis ‘Training and development technical workers in Hanoi Garment and Textiles Companies’ has achieved the research objectives, has research results and new contributions as described and analysed previously. However, the scope of the research is only limited on studying the training and development of yarn-textiles- garment workers, not covering other types of workers such as workers serving the manufacturing process in terms technology, electricity, sanitation, etc in the HN G&T companies. In addition, the research scope of the thesis is only limited on the garment and textile enterprises in Hanoi. However, the study of a comprehensive field in a larger scale of technical worker T&D in all enterprises of VN G&T industry could be an essential and practical contribution to developing the competitive competency, not only in Hanoi but also in the whole country for the several coming years. These might be directions for researches carried out after the thesis. 27 LIST OF RELATED RESEARCHES AUTHOR AND PARTICIPATED 1. Nguyen Van Thuy Anh, Difficulties of technical worker training and development in enterprises: causes and solutions. Labor and Social Affair Magazine, no. 438, Sept. 2012, author. 2. Nguyen Van Thuy Anh, Developing the base of competence for students in colleges, universities, Labor and Social Affair Magazine, no. 436, Aug. 2012, author. 3. Nguyen Van Thuy Anh, Sharing experience in developing the base of competence for students in the International Bachelor Degree at NEU. National workshop on ‘Developing and improving the bachelor training programs in Business Administration in Vietnam’, 12th Oct, 2011, author. 4. Human Resource Management Course book, modified 2 chapters: chapter 1. Roles of Human Resource Management in Organizations, chapter 9. Human Resource Training and development, NEU published in 2011, participated. 5. Organizational Behavior Course book, modified chapter 7. Leadership and Power, NEU published in 2009, participated. 6. Nguyen Van Thuy Anh, Training and development technical workers in light industry enterprises of Hanoi. The sciencetific research for PhD. Candidates in 2010, code NCS2010.01, author. 7. Nguyen Van Thuy Anh, Motivating employees by monetary rewards, Economics and Development Review, no. 331, Aug.2008, author. 8. Nguyen Van Thuy Anh, Team leaders and their roles in enterprises, Economics and Development Review, Nov. 2001, author. 9. Employment solutions for farmers affected by urbanization in Thanhtri– Hanoi, The sciencetific research by Ministry of Education and Training, code B2003.38.58, participated.

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