Customer Behavior, Emotional Labour, and Employee’s Emotional Outcome in Hotel Industry in Thai Nguyen Province

As a result, an organization needs to train their managers or supervisors how to perform emotional labor when interacting with their employees. Training modules, such as “how to provide emotional support,” “how to handle employee complaints,” “how to provide feedback,” and “constructive opinions,” should be integrated into formal management training programs. With current employees, it should be increased the exchanges to share experience to understand the skills workers balance their own feelings. Employees with low emotional intelligence should be trained to learn the skills to control emotions so that they can control their emotions. The skills are: + Attention deployment. This is the skill is to orient the thinking to the other events. Employee may redirect the thinking to other things to reduce the pressure from negative emotional stimuli. For example, an employee serves a discerning client and causes many negative emotions. This employee can direct his attention to other things such that think about going shopping after the working hours to reduce pressure from stimuli

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ent Variable: SUP The results from linear regression also showed that employee’s anger felt affects positively employee’s emotional regulation-suppression. It means that when employees feel angry, because of organizational rules of emotional display, they have to regulate their emotions; they engage more on emotional suppression and display their emotions different from their true feelings. Hypothesis 4: This hypothesis stated that employees who engage more in cognitive reappraisal strategy will feel more satisfied with the job. The results from confirmatory factor analysis support this hypothesis (β=.39, p<.001). The results from linear regression also support this hypothesis. Table 4.5 indicates the results. Table 4.14. The Regression Results of SAT with REAP and SUP Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 2.027 .361 5.617 .000 REAP .376 .060 .315 6.293 .000 SUP .079 .056 .071 1.411 .159 70 a. Dependent Variable: SAT Hypothesis 5. The data analysis showed that employees who engage more on suppression strategy will less satisfy with the job. This hypothesis was not supported with t- value of 1.411 and p-value of 0.159. Hypothesis 6: The data analysis also supported this hypothesis. It means that employees who engage more on suppression strategy will become more exhaust. The results from confirmatory factor analysis support this hypothesis with (β=.19, p<.001). Hypothesis 7: This hypothesis stated that employees who engage more in cognitive reappraisal strategy will more become exhaust. The results from data analysis show that cognitive reappraisal has positive effect on emotional exhaust with (β=.18, p<.001). The results from liner regression also support two hypotheses. Table 4.15. The Regression Results of EXH with REAP and SUP Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 2.526 .321 7.860 .000 REAP .190 .053 .183 3.568 .000 SUP .149 .050 .155 3.009 .003 a. Dependent Variable: EXH 71 Table 4.16. Summary of Hypothesis-Testing Results Hypotheses Results H1: Customer injustice behavior will lead to anger feeling in employees Supported H2: Anger feeling will cause employees to engage in cognitive reappraisal strategy to regulate their emotions. Supported H3: Anger feeling will cause employees to engage in emotion suppression strategy to regulate their emotions. Supported H4: Employees who engage more in cognitive reappraisal strategy will more satisfy with the job Supported H5: Employees who engage more on suppression strategy will less satisfy with the job Not supported H6: Employees who engage more on suppression strategy will become exhaust. Supported H7: Employees who engage more in cognitive reappraisal strategy will become exhaust Supported 72 Figure 4.1. Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results * significant with p<.05 This model showed that Customer Injustice Behavior has a positive effect on Employee Anger Felt with co-efficient of .73 (p<.01). Employee Anger Felt has positive effect on Reappraisal with co-efficient of .39 (p<.01) and on Suppression with co-efficient of .48 (p<.01). Reappraisal showed positive effect on Job Satisfaction (β=.39, p<.05) and on Exhaustion (β=.19, p<.05). Suppresion also showed positive effect on Exhaustion, however, the positive effect on Job Satisfaction was not supported. Suppression Exhaustion Job satisfaction Reappraisal Customer Injustice Behavior Employe e Anger Felt .73* .39* .48* .19* .18 .39* .16* 73 CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1. Introduction In chapter 5, we will discuss about the finding that have been done in chapter 4 with more details. This chapter also includes the conclusion that can be drawn out from previous research and offer recommendation for the future research about the relationship between customer injustice, emotional labor and the outcomes. 5.2. Discussion The objective of this study is to identify the relationship between the independent variable which is the customer injustice, employee anger felt, employee emotional regulation and the outcomes. Emotional regulation consists of two strategy cognitive appraisal and emotional suppression with the dependent variable which is the outcomes that consists of job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. The result of each hypothesis will be compared with the previous research or literature to confirm whether this research result is accepted with other researcher literature. This study addressed an important issue that has received much attention in the research literature: the interaction between customer and employee in service. Although previous research studied the effect of managerial factors affecting employee’s mood and emotions, the current study went further by identifying the effect of customer injustice behavior on employee’s emotions emotional outcomes. This research also clarified the concept “emotion regulation” and analyzed the effect of emotion regulation on employee’s outcomes. By analyzing the effect of customer injustice behavior on employee ‘s emotions and outcomes, this study interpreted the phenomenon employees get into stress when they interact with customers. H1: Customer injustice behavior will lead to anger feeling in employees The first hypothesis states that customer injustice behavior will lead to anger feelings in employees. When employees were treated unfairly by customers, it is easy for them to get angry. As predicted, in cases of more customer injustice, employees engaged in higher levels of anger felt. In the service industry, customers are indeed an important source of injustice in the workplace. Our results therefore serve to extend the multifoci model of organizational justice (Cropanzano et al., 2001), making the case for customers a source of injustice. The research in human resource management focused on study the feelings of employees with organizational factors. Employees may feel angry with their bosses or their coworkers. Not 74 much research focus on customers as a source of anger felt. Customers with injustice behaviors may make employees feel angry. The findings of this study also consistent with Affective Events Theory. The study of affective Events Theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) also lends insight into how affectivity will impact emotional labor. According to the theory, trait dispositions can influence the intensity of affective reactions to events that occur at work. As Grandey (2000) noted, this means that persons who are high on negative affectivity may be more reactive to negative events that may occur during the work day. In support of this, Grandey, Tam and Brauburger (2002) found that in a diary study over two weeks, those who were high on negative affectivity reported having more negative events happen to them at work than those low on negative affectivity. Experiencing more negative events will result in a need for more frequent regulatory efforts to manage negative emotions that result. This means that negative affectivity should be positively related to both surface and deep acting. H2: Anger feeling will cause employees to engage in cognitive reappraisal strategy to regulate their emotions When employees suffer from anger felt, they will use suitable strategies to cope with anger felt. Because of organizational rules, employees try to control their emotions during service process. As above discussion, emotion regulation refers to the processes by which people manage their emotions to response to the stimuli and seek to redirect the spontaneous flow of their emotions. This process consists of two sub-processes. Employees in service firms also experience from this process. Four of these are involved in deep acting process and response modulation involves surface acting. To deal with negative emotions, employees must adopt some coping strategies. In this case, they apply cognitive reappraisal strategy. The results from data analysis support this hypothesis. To deal with negative emotions, employees have to adopt strategies to adjust their true feelings. Cognitive change can be considered as one way to cope with negative emotions. Cognitive change consists of modifying some cognitive steps or evaluations when employees suffer from negative emotion (Frijda, 1986). These cognitive steps and evaluations involve in emotion response such as denial, isolation, and intellectualization. In addition, social comparison in which one compares his/her situations with others’ to decrease negative effects. Reappraisal is considered as one way to change the sources of attention. In particular, individuals can regulate their emotions by changing some personal thoughts. For example, employee may evaluate or interpret the situations in positive ways and can reduce the negative emotions. 75 It is clearly that employees cannot show their true feelings when they get anger felt because of display rules. Change the thought can be suitable solutions to deal with their emotions. Reappraisal is one of the best ways to help them regulate their true feelings. H3: Anger feeling will cause employees to engage in emotional suppression strategy to regulate their emotions When employees suffer from being treated unfairly by customers, they intend to behave naturally in ways that help them to release the stress. However, in service process, they cannot show their anger expression because of company’s rules. Even though they are really angry, they try to suppress their anger to achieve customer satisfaction. The results from data analysis support this hypothesis. This hypothesis consistent with following studies: Morris and Feldman (1996) predicted that when the emotional response desired was positive, positive affectivity would reduce the amount of emotional dissonance present. Others have proposed that negative affectivity, on the other hand would increase the amount of emotional dissonance in that situation (Abraham, 1998). Given that emotional dissonance is a direct result of surface acting, these predictions essentially assert that positive affectivity will reduce the need or frequency of surface acting, and negative affectivity will increase the frequency of surface acting. Emotional suppression can be considered as surface acting in employees. This hypothesis also supported the conclusion of Jones (1998). Jone (1998), however, found that positive affectivity reduced the amount of dissonance experienced when the display of positive emotions was required, indicating that positive affectivity was negatively related to the frequency of using surface acting; people who are naturally positive need to fake positive emotions less often. H4: Employees who engage more in cognitive reappraisal strategy will feel more satisfied with the job The relationship between cognitive strategies and job satisfaction shows positive results. The results analyzed in the chapter 4 shows that there is a positive relationship between cognitive reappraisal and job satisfaction. The relationship between these two variables is significantly with strong relationship. As we know that cognitive reappraisal is process of regulating emotion for intentional purpose. However, this process can help employees reduce the effect of emotional events on their emotional state. Therefore, they seem to feel more satisfied with job when adopting this strategy. Cognitive reappraisal involves in experiencing positive emotion so that positive display naturally follows. The regulation of emotion through cognitive reappraisal in a good 76 faith of emotional labor may result a sense of accomplishment depending on the employee level of identification with the organization (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993). On the other hand, if an employee involves in cognitive reappraisal this may lead to feelings of individual achievement and by extension, job satisfaction (Kruml & Geddes, 2000). The findings also consistent with the conclusion of Wolcott-Burnam (2004), deep acting positive related to job satisfaction. H5: Employees who engage more on suppression strategy will less satisfy with the job Emotional exhaustion occurs when the emotional demand exceeds what an individual is able to afford during interpersonal interaction at work (Maslach, Schaufeli & Leiter, 2001). When an individual chronically works under stress that is induced by interpersonal interaction, emotional exhaustion can further result in emotional over tension. Because of the stress raising during service process and cause by unfair treatment of customers, employees seem to be exhausted and they seem to less satisfied with their job. Even though, this hypothesis was not supported, however, the results reveal that during service process there are two processes that employees applied to control their emotions. The effect of reappraisal will overweight the effect of suppression in service encounters. To suppress their emotions, employees have to spend some energy to control their emotional display. They will be easy to be depleted and they may feel tired and stressful. They seem to feel dissatisfied with their jobs. H6: Employees who engage more on emotional suppression strategy will become exhaust. The regulation of emotion can help employee to display positive emotion. According to Diefendorff and Gosserand (2003), employees involve in emotional labor to influence the emotions of others so that work goals can be achieved. This study adds to the growing literature on to sightsee the relationship of emotional suppression and the outcomes. Emotional labor can result in emotional exhaustion in long term. For example, the relationship between employee emotional labor and emotion exhaustion. Emotional labor in overall stated a positive correlation with emotion exhaustion. The means that when emotional labor is strongest, the high the emotion exhaustion (Kruml & Geddes, 2000). Previous studies show that the relationship between emotional labor and job satisfaction can be mutual since job satisfaction is believed to influence employee performance (Hallowell et al., 2003). Thus, emotional labor, an employee performance indicator, can also be expected to be influenced by job satisfaction. The other previous research suggests a direct relationship between emotional 77 labor and emotion exhaustion. For example, according to Hochchild (1983) display emotion that are appropriate in a given situation and expressing these emotions may cause alienation from one feeling and it thereby contribute to emotional exhaustion. H7: Employees who engage more in cognitive reappraisal strategy will become emotional exhaust In service process, when employees got angry, they can keep calm by change the way thinking about the events. Deep acting has strongest relation for predicting emotional exhaustion. In particular, when the flight attendance realize that the company always responds to customer complaints by supporting the client rather than the employee, the degree of deep acting is likely to increase. Therefore, airlines should consider carefully how to decrease their employees’ feeling that they must engage in deep acting; they should also consider more carefully their treatment of employees, and whether they should be more understanding and tolerant of employees. 5.3. Managerial Implications This study reveals that consequences of emotional labor can be either positive or negative, depending on how the emotional labor is performed. Therefore, emotional labor cannot be predictable. In this thriving economic, Dibble (1999) stated that employees are the most important asset in the organization. Emotions are quintessential to human experience, which influences man thought and action. In the past, Grandey (2000) said that emotion in work place is believe to hide sound judgments and thus were not perceived as workplace phenomena. The management should create the environment for the workers so that the workers can motivate themselves and be comfortable with the environment. Because firms do not really understand the quality of service and customer satisfaction therefore not aware of the role of emotions and attitudes of employees in the process of providing services to the huge influence customers’ satisfaction. This is an important factor in enhancing the quality of services so business owners must focus on this work. Studies show that an emotional regulation requires the worker to produce emotional state in another state. Research on emotional contagion has exposure to an individual expressing positive or negative emotion can produce change in the emotional state of the observer. Furthermore, a recent study stated that the employee display positive emotion is indeed positively related to the management positive affect. Deep acting can be negative also if the manager regulates the emotion negatively. The negative of deep acting can be reduced by selecting employees with the aim of reaching the best person job fit. For instance, manager 78 can recruit applicant who show a high level of positive affectivity and emotion regulation skills would be measured good job fit for jobs requiring high level of emotional strategies. These studies help manager to overcome emotional labor problem. Employee now days are having problem in displaying their emotions. In order to overcome the problem, managers can screen employees by exposing them to stimulated situation to deal with problem. This kind of alternative can guide the employee to display emotion appropriately. Manager can also reduce burnout problem through job rotation. Burnout has to be prevented because it can lead to stress and unbalanced employment in the organization. In order to help employees to get skills to control emotions while working, business owners must recruit appropriate employees. Employees who directly provide services not only should be good at knowledge but also good at emotional intelligence. Therefore, the selection process should be directed to select qualified employees with high level of emotional intelligence. These are people who have the ability to regulate their emotions better than others are so appropriate for working at customer contact positions or directly provide services. Training for Employees Service providers need to be courteous to customers. However, customers have no obligation to return empathy or even courtesy. In some situations, where customers exercise the privilege of “customers are always right,” service providers face real challenges suppressing their true feelings. It is critical for both employees and organizations to learn how to deal with such situations. In the service industry, the focal point for most of the training programs is on the customer’s feelings—how to make them feel comfortable and welcomed. These types of training are given intensively to recently hired employees. An important component of orientation programs is to convey appropriate attitudes and display rules to the new employees. Very few training programs are designed to discuss how service employees feel. However, as employees accumulate different experiences on the job, it is equally important to discuss line employees’ feelings. Openly discussing the frustration on their jobs is a cure to heal employees’ wounds when they are hurt or insulted by customers. This type of training has several effects. First, it delivers a message to employees that the company is aware of and acknowledges the emotional contribution that employees put into jobs. This positive feedback can motivate employees to increase their productivity and be more committed to their jobs and organizations. Second, it provides an opportunity to ventilate employees’ negative emotions 79 caused by their jobs. Third, by implementing this type of training, companies can develop in their line employees the ability to suppress anger or avoid frustration. Hochschild (1983) recorded the discussion of a trainer in such a training program. This trainer said: “If a passenger snaps at you and you didn’t do anything wrong, just remember it’s not you he is snapping at. It’s your uniform; it’s your role as a Delta flight attendant. Don’t take it personally”. With this type of training, focusing on line employees’ feelings, both line employees and managers can talk over the negative emotions and trade tips about the least offensive ways of expressing them. If companies do not provide formal or informal ways to ventilate employees’ anger and frustration, sooner or later, line employees will express anger to their customers. Another focus of employee training is on the deep acting technique. One of the significant findings of this study is that deep acting is a critical factor in determining the consequences of emotional labor that service employees experience. Considering the positive effects that deep acting can bring forth to organizations (i.e., increased customer satisfaction and employee job satisfaction), it is worthwhile for companies to invest in this type of training to teach employees how to “feel” in certain ways that help them reach organizational goals. Deep acting can be achieved through changing focus and reappraisal of the situation. Changing focus is one way employees can learn to evoke certain feelings. It can be done by actively thinking about events, which call up the desired emotions. This is also known as method acting. For example, employees can think about a funny movie to evoke cheerful emotions. By learning how to direct one’s attention, employees can practice skills to prompt or suppress certain emotions at will. Another deep acting technique is to cognitively reappraise the unpleasant situation so that the emotional impact is lessened (Grandey, 1999). Researchers have found that the ability to reappraise the situation is an effective way to cope with stress (Folkman & Lazarus, 1991). Employees can learn how to use an “as if” supposition to reevaluate the same incident in a different way. For example, Hochschild (1983) described flight attendants who are trained to think about difficult passengers as hungry children so that they won’t get angry with them. By integrating deep acting into employee training programs, the internal processes of emotional management are carefully regulated and external emotional expressions seem to be more genuine and spontaneous. 80 Training for Managers Line employees are not the only people performing emotional labor. Managers do a great deal of emotional labor as well. Two major tasks of a manager’s job are to deal with customers and to deal with employees. Dealing with customers takes emotional labor. Dealing with employees requires even more emotional labor. Managers’ role is similar to that of the director of a show. They monitor, control, and direct the emotional labor their cast members perform for customers. Hochschild (1983) commented on supervisors’ role in monitoring emotional labor. She said: “What is offstage for the line employees is on-stage for the supervisor” (p. 118). It is the managers’ responsibility to ensure that their cast members are in the best condition to perform. As a result, an organization needs to train their managers or supervisors how to perform emotional labor when interacting with their employees. Training modules, such as “how to provide emotional support,” “how to handle employee complaints,” “how to provide feedback,” and “constructive opinions,” should be integrated into formal management training programs. With current employees, it should be increased the exchanges to share experience to understand the skills workers balance their own feelings. Employees with low emotional intelligence should be trained to learn the skills to control emotions so that they can control their emotions. The skills are: + Attention deployment. This is the skill is to orient the thinking to the other events. Employee may redirect the thinking to other things to reduce the pressure from negative emotional stimuli. For example, an employee serves a discerning client and causes many negative emotions. This employee can direct his attention to other things such that think about going shopping after the working hours to reduce pressure from stimuli. + Cognitive Reappraisal. When an employee serve a discerning client, he may be angry because of customers, but he can control his emotion by thinking about other directions such that meeting this customer is just unlucky. Organizational Rules Service companies need to have clear rules about behavior and emotions of staff to clients. Along with training and retraining, service enterprises must have clear rules about how behavior when providing services to customers. The inappropriate attitudes or emotions can make customers dissatisfied and then that has a large impact on business performance. The rules of the company are to force employees to control personal instinct or momentary 81 anger to achieve customer satisfaction. Service firms should have some training programs to help employees know how to control their emotions. Service firms also create some areas for employees relax after service process. Negative emotions of employees if have been controlled can cause more serious consequences. Employees with negative feelings cannot be relieved of stress resulting from acts that lead to as quit his job, or left the company. The small playing area in the company will help employees regain emotional balance and start new tasks with positive emotions. Large companies often have enough room to relax with the tools for entertainment of the staff. For small businesses, a little space should be needed to relieve employee stress that gets from service situations. After the stress of work, the private rooms will help employees relax and restore normal psychological state. Support from managers and colleagues: In many cases, the emotional regulation will make staff’s fatigue and psychological problem that impact on attitudes to work. Staff is difficult to achieve equilibrium in the short term if they try to relax by themselves. The support from management in this case is essential and will help employees relieve psychological stress faster. The managers acted as family friends to say what employees themselves frustrated that encounter which will have a better psychological state. If the manager does not understand the mentality of employees while continuing stress and more pressure easily lead to negative reactions actions of employees. A few questions will help motivate employees promptly after the work. 5.4. Limitations and Suggestions for future research As with all empirical research, this study has its limitations. The limitations revolve primarily around sampling issues. First, the samples were from various hotels with different emphases on service quality. Most of the samples were from two-star hotels. Samples from three-star hotels account for small percent and there aren’t any four or five star hotels in Thai Nguyen province. As hotels with different ratings have a different emphasis on service quality and emotional labor, these different demands will affect employees’ perceptions of emotional labor consequences. For example, an employee who works at a hotel with very detailed display rules may perceive the consequences of emotional labor differently from another employee who works at a hotel that does not have display rules at all. Having more samples from four or five -star hotels may show more clearly about emotional labor, as two-star hotel employees may perform less emotional labor, compared to five-star hotel employees. 82 Another limitation associated with method is that some experimental design and employees who were asked by to fill out the questionnaires and ask to join the role playing scenario. This method may cause some biases in the study results. Hochschild (1983) suggested that there are situational and individual factors that influence the way that individuals perform emotional labor. This study did not find a significant direct relationship among individual characteristics and emotional labor. Therefore, future researchers should revise the emotional labor model proposed in this study by including some situational factors (i.e., types of emotions or employee-customer interactions) as antecedents of emotional labor. Future research should extend these preliminary efforts to map out the constructs that determine the types of emotional labor found in different kinds of service jobs. 83 CONCLUSION Emotional regulation at work is a new field of human resource management. Feelings of employees during the service providers are very important for service firms. Employees do not control their emotions can get angry themselves, affect customer satisfaction and affect the quality of service. Understanding the mechanisms as well as factors affecting the feelings of employees from offering solutions will improve the skills of employees that makes the interaction between customer and employee more efficient. The findings from this study indicate that when employees interact with customers during service process, their emotions are affected by customer behavior. If they are treated unfairly by customers, it is easy for them to get angry. Because of service firms’ rules, employees engage in strategy to control their emotions. However, when employee engage in emotional regulation, it is easy for them to feel dissatisfied with job or emotional exhaustion. To improve the services quality, service firms need to implement a number of solutions such as recruitment, training and retraining. Service firms should have clear rules about the attitude and feelings in the process of customer service provision. Managers should know how to support staff to reduce the pressure that workers suffer during service process. Improve emotional regulation skills of employees will help improve service quality and customer satisfaction. Customer who satisfied with service will be loyal to the company. This is an important factor to maintain the competitive advantage of the services firms and increase business efficiency. 84 REFERENCES 1. Austin, J. E., C. P. Dore, and K. M. 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Tsarenko (2010), “Consumer Response to Service Failures: The Role of Emotional Intelligence and Coping,” Advances in Consumer Research, 37, 304-311. 87 39. Weiss, H. M., K. Suckow, and R. Cropanzano (1999), “Effects of Justice Conditions on Discrete Emotions,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 786–794. 40. Wharton, A. S. (1993). The affective consequences of service work: Managing emotions on the job. Work and Occupations, 20(2), 205–232. 88 APPENDIX 1 QUESTIONNAIRE A Study on Employee Emotion Regulation in Service Process This questionnaire is used to test the effects of customer injustice behavior on employee emotions and emotion regulation, as well as outomes and it consists of two parts. In part 1, you will answer questions about basic demographic information. In part 2, you will be asked to engage in a role-playing exercise. You will read a scenario describing about an employee who was treated unfairly by customer in a restaurant of a hotel. Then, you will be asked to answer the questions concerning your emotions, and emtional regulation strategy you used in response to the problem. Please try to picture yourself experience situations in scenario and circle the most appropriate answers in the questionnaire. If you have any items confusing, please answer them as best as you can base on your understanding. Please feel free to refer back to the scenario in order to answer questions. Your responses to these questions will provide valuable data for this research and also provide very real and practical insights into the problems to develop effective managerial solutions for service firms. Your answers will be kept completely anonymous. Thank you for your help! 89 SCENARIO Imagine that you are a frontline employee in a restaurant of the hotel in Thai Nguyen province. One day, there were some customers from other provinces booking some meals in your restaurant of your hotel. Customers booked in advance and 11am they would have lunch. However, at 10.30, some of them came to dining room and asked for food. Eventhough you tried to ask them for wait some minutes, some of them got angry and had some impolite actions. Seriously, two of them speaked loudly and asked to meet the manager of the hotel. You try to persuade them that their meals would be ready at 11 am; they still complained and said bad words about your service. 90 I. DEMOGRAPHICS AND PERSONAL INFORMATION The following items are requested for some statistical purposes only. Please place a check mark  or write the numbers in the categories that best describes you. You are: Male Female Age: Grade: Please read the following statements and circle the most appropriate numbers. Circle the most appropriate number Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree Yes or No ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 1. In this situation, the I was treated rudely by customers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. In this situation, customers treated me impolitely 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. In this situation, I was treated with disrespect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. The personal treatment I received from customers in this case was terrible 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Circle the most appropriate number Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree Yes or No ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 1. If I was in this situation, I feel angry 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. If this problem happens to me, I really feel enraged 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. If this problem happens to me, I really feel irritated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. If this problem happens to me, I really feel frustrated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 91 Circle the most appropriate number Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree Yes or No 1. In this case, I control my anger by changing the way I think about this problem, for example, service failure is sometimes inevitable. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. In order to feel less angry, I change the way I’m thinking about the situation, for example, this problem is an unwanted accident 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. To overcome angry emotions, I consider this problem as a good experience in the future. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. In this situation, to help me feel less anger, I talk to myself that it is not serious problem and no need to pay much attention to it. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. To feel less anger, I try to consider this problem as an opportunity to learn something worthwhile 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. To feel more positive emotion, I change the way I am thinking about the situation- think in the way that customers think. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. In this situation, to face with stressful problem, I sympathize with customers as the way to help me stay calm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Circle the most appropriate number Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree Yes or No 1. In this situation, I control my anger by not expressing it, so other people cannot realize 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. In this situation, I try not to show my anger 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. I keep my anger to myself, even though I really angry 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 92 4. When I feel angry from this problem, I am careful not to show how I really feel to other people 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Circle the most appropriate number Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree Yes or No 1. In general, I don't like my job 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. All in all, I am satisfied with my job 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. In general, I like working here. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Circle the most appropriate number Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree Yes or No 1. I feel emotionally drained from my work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. I feel fatigued when I get up in the morning and have to face another day on the job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. I feel burned out from my work 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. I feel frustrated by my job. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. I feel used up at the end of the workday. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. I feel like I'm at the end of my rope. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 93 APPENDIX 2- VIETNAMESE QUESTIONNAIRE BẢNG HỎI ĐIỀU TRA Nghiên cứu về hành vi kiểm soát cảm xúc của nhân viên Bảng hỏi này dùng để thu thập dữ liệu kiểm định ảnh hưởng của hành vi của khách hàng đến cảm xúc của nhân viên và việc kiểm soát cảm xúc cảu nhân viên, cũng như hậu quả của việc này. Bảng hỏi này gồm có hai phần. Trong phần thứ nhất, người trả lời sẽ trả lời câu hỏi về các thông tin nhân khẩu học cơ bản. Ở phần hai, người trả lời sẽ tham gia vào tình huống đóng vai. Bạn sẽ đọc một kịch bản về một nhân viên bị đối xử không công bằng bởi khách hàng trong một nhà hàng ở khách sạn. Sau đó bạn được yêu cầu trả lời câu hỏi liên quan tới cảm xúc của bạn, chiến lược kiểm soát cảm xúc bạn sử dụng để đối phó với vấn đề trên. Hãy cố gắng coi bạn đã trải qua tình huống đó và khoanh tròn hoặc đánh dấu vào câu trả lời mà bạn cho là phù hợp nhất trong bảng hỏi. Nếu bạn thấy có mục nào khó hiểu, hãy trả lời dựa khả năng hiểu biết của bạn. Hãy cảm thấy tự nhiên khi đọc lại kịch bản để trả lời câu hỏi. Câu trả lời của bạn sẽ cung cấp dữ liệu cho nghiên cứu này và cung cấp thông tin thực tế và hữu dụng đối với vấn đề để đưa ra những giải pháp quản lý hiệu quả cho các hãng dịch vụ. Câu trả lời của bạn sẽ được giữ bí mật tuyệt đối. Cảm ơn sự hợp tác của bạn! 94 KỊCH BẢN Hãy tưởng tượng rằng bạn là một nhân viên trực tiếp phục vụ khách hàng tại một nhà hàng ở một khách sạn tại Thái Nguyên. Vào một ngày, có một vài người khách từ tỉnh khác đặt suất ăn tại nhà hàng của bạn. Khách hàng đặt trước và 11 giờ họ sẽ dùng bữa. Tuy nhiên, lúc 10h30 một số người trong số họ đi xuống phòng ăn và yêu cầu đồ ăn. Mặc dù bạn đã cố gắng yêu cầu họ đợi thêm chút vì theo như đặt hàng lúc 11 giờ nhưng một số người tỏ ra bực mình và có những hành động bất lịch sự. Trầm trọng hơn nữa là hai trong số khách đó còn lớn tiếng và yêu cầu gặp người quản lý của khách sạn. Bạn đã cố thuyết phục họ rằng đồ ăn sẽ sẵn sàng lúc 11h00 nhưng họ vẫn phàn nàn và nói xấu về dịch vụ của nhà hàng. 95 I. NHỮNG THÔNG TIN CƠ SỞ Những mục hỏi dưới đây được chỉ dùng cho mục đích thống kê. Hãy đánh dấu stick hoặc viết con số vào mục mô tả đúng nhất về bạn. Bạn là: Nam Nữ Tuổi: Hãy đọc những câu dưới đây mà khoanh tròn vào số phù hợp nhất. Hãy khoanh tròn vào ô phù hợp với bạn Rất không Có hoặc không Rất đồng ý đồng ý ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 1. Tôi nghĩ tình huống được mô tả trong kịch bản thực sự có thể xảy ra với ai đó. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. Tôi nghĩ tình huống trong kịch bản là thật. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. Tôi tưởng tượng mình như là nhân viên trong tình huống này 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. Tôi nghĩ tình huống mô tả trong kịch bản là quen thuộc trong thực tế 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. Trước đây tôi đã gặp phải tình huống này rồi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. Tôi nghĩ kịch bản mô tả một trường hợp đã xảy ra 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hãy khoanh tròn vào ô bạn cho là phù hợp nhất Rất Có hoặc không Rất Không đồng ý Đồng ý ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 1. Trong tình huống này, nhân viên đã bị đối xử thô lỗ bởi khách hàng. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. Trong tình huống này, khách hàng cư xử bất lịch sự với nhân viên. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. Trong tình huống này, nhân viên bị đối xử thiếu tôn trọng. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 96 4. Cách đối xử mà nhân viên nhận được trong trường hợp này là rất tệ. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hãy khoanh tròn vào ô bạn cho là phù hợp nhất Rất Có hoặc không Rất Không Đồng ý đồng ý ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 1. Nếu tôi ở trong tình huống trên, tôi sẽ tức giận 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. Nếu tình huống trên xảy ra với tôi, tôi sẽ nổi khùng lên 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. Nếu tình huống trên xảy ra với tôi, tôi sẽ cảm thấy bực mình 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. Nếu tình huống trên xảy ra với tôi, tôi sẽ thấy chán nản 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Bạn sẽ làm gì nếu bạn ở trong tình huống này Rất Có hoặc không Rất Không đồng ý Đồng ý ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 1. Trong trường hợp này, tôi sẽ kiểm soát sự tức giận bằng cách thay đổi cách suy nghĩ về vấn đề này, ví dụ, đây là tình huống không thể tránh khỏi. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. Để cảm thấy bớt bực mình, tôi sẽ thay đổi cách tôi suy nghĩ về tình huống này, ví dụ, vấn đề này là một tai nạn không mong muốn. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. Để vượt qua được cảm xúc tức giận, tôi coi vấn đề này như là một kinh nghiệm tốt cho tương lai. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. Trong tình huống này, để giúp tôi cảm thấy bớt bực mình, tôi tự nhủ đó là một vấn đề không 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 97 nghiêm trọng và không cần thiết phải chú tâm vào nó. 5. Để cảm thấy bớt bực mình, tôi cố gắng coi vấn đề này như là môt cơ hội để học hỏi cái gì đó đáng giá 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. Để cảm thấy cảm xúc tích cực hơn, tôi thay đổi cách suy nghĩ về tình huống này-nghĩ theo cách mà khách hàng họ suy nghĩ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. Trong tình huống này, để đối mặt với vấn đề căng thẳng, tôi thông cảm với khách hàng như là một cách để giúp tôi bình tĩnh 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hãy khoanh tròn vào ô bạn cho là phù hợp nhất Rất Có hoặc không Rất Không đồng ý Đồng ý ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 1. Trong tình huống này, tôi kiểm soát sự tức giận của tôi bằng cách không biểu hiện sự tức giận, vì thế người khác không thể nhận ra được 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. Trong tình huống này, tôi cố gắng không thể hiện sự tức giận của mình 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. Tôi giữ sự tức giận cho riêng mình, mặc dù tôi thực sự bực mình 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. Khi tôi cảm thấy tức giận từ vấn đề này, tôi sẽ thận trọng không biểu hiện tôi thực sự cảm thấy thế nào cho người khác biết 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hãy khoanh tròn vào ô bạn cho là phù hợp nhất Rất Có hoặc không Rất Không đồng ý Đồng ý ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 1. Nói chung tôi không thích công việc này 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 98 2. Về tất cả, tôi hài lòng với công việc của tôi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. Nhìn chung, tôi thích làm việc ở đây 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hãy khoanh tròn vào ô bạn cho là phù hợp nhất Rất Có hoặc không Rất Không đồng ý Đồng ý ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 1. Tôi cảm thấy kiệt quệ cảm xúc do công việc. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. Tôi cảm thấy mệt mỏi khi tôi thức dậy vào buổi sáng và phải đối mặt với một ngày khác trong công việc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. Tôi cảm thấy kiệt sức vì công việc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. Tôi cảm thấy thất vọng vì công việc của tôi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. Tôi cảm thấy tôi sử dụng hết sức lực vào cuối ngày làm việc của tôi. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. Tôi cảm thấy tôi làm việc quá mệt công việc của mình 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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