Tóm tắt Luận án Strategy for sustainable trourism development of Nghe An province to the year 2020

Nghe An is a potential area for tourism development with rich potential development of marine resort, cultural tourism, spiritual tourism, ecotourism Through the development phases, the tourism industry of Nghe An has achieved many remarkable achievements especially on domestic tourists. However, in recent years, the economic crisis has been affecting many sectors including tourism. Nghe An Province has had many positive actions to partly limit the influences of the economic crisis through the promulgation and implementation of programs and projects for tourism development in the province. However in order to develop the province's tourism industry in a sustainable way, it is necessary to establish the strategy for tourism development with more specific orientations and activities.

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summing up the dissertation for sustainable tourism development and strategies for sustainable tourism development, the project has identified the objective and subjective factors that influent to strategic tourism development of a province, the objective factors include: state policies and local development of sustainable tourism, environmental law and local state of sustainable tourism development, the advantage compare geographical location and role for sustainable tourism development, the comparative advantages of geography and natural potential for sustainable tourism development, the development trend of demand for domestic and foreign sustainable tourism, social infrastructure in general and local in particular for sustainable tourism development and awareness of local communities about sustainable tourism. Group subjective factors include: Awareness of the role and importance of formulating strategies for sustainable tourism development of local leaders; local investment for sustainable tourism development; level of management staff and direct construction, implementation planning, tourism development strategy; workforce of the local tourism 5 industry; competitiveness of local tourism businesses; promote the dissemination and promotion of tourism development. - Building data and objects survey information (including enterprises, tourism managers, tourists and locals), ensuring the representativeness, objectiveness, as basis for evaluating the conditions of strategic sustainable tourism development in Nghe An province and analyzing the influence of objective and subjective factors related to the strategy for sustainable tourism development of Nghe An province. * Practical contributions drawn from research results - Analyzing topic and learning experience through previous studies in the field of sustainable tourism development as well as related documentation inside and outside abroad in order to draw experience lessons for the building strategy of sustainable tourism development of Nghe An. - On the basis of secondary data, the subject has generalized the situation of tourism development of Nghe An province on a number of criteria such as the number of tourists, the contribution of tourism to the socio-economic development of province . - Based on the data and survey information objects (including business, tourism managers, tourists and locals), subjects were shown the existing problems, limitation and reasons as well as issues that need to continue to improve in order to build strategy for sustainable tourism development of Nghe An province. - Making recommendations in order to support the implementation of solutions for strategy sustainable tourism development in Nghe An province include: Improving environmental assessment of tourism development, completion of work planning, tourism development plan, including promoting regional links and tourist areas, perfecting the institutions and policies for implementing the strategy and mobilize all resources for the development of sustainable tourism, improvement evaluation strategy for sustainable tourism development - Proposed some recommendations for enterprises and concerned organizations. Solutions and recommendations of the research is basically consistent with the general development trend of the field of sustainable development in the tourism industry, and in line with the strategy, planning and tourism development of Vietnam in general and Nghe An province in particular until 2020. Above is the contribution of theoretical and practical aspects of the project contribute to improving the theoretical and practical strategy for sustainable tourism development in Nghe An Province 6. Overview of the Study There are some research on tourism and development strategies inside the country and in the world. A common characteristic of these studies published was limited to the study of tourism development on some certain aspects, referring mainly to the solution of sustainable tourism development at a local . The research strategy of sustainable tourism development of 6 Nghe An is a matter yet to be drill works on research ... To fill that knowledge gap, there should be an in-depth study more comprehensive and relevant to the sustainable development strategy of tourism in Nghe An province. So it can affirm that the research: "Strategy for sustainable tourism development in Nghe An province to the year 2020" is not identical to the study published in the country and abroad. 7. Structure of the Thesis In addition to the cover page, table of contents, list of tables, figures, abbreviations, overview of the research, conclusions, list of references and appendices, the Thesis were structured into 3 chapters as follows: - Chapter 1: Some basic theoretical issues about sustainable tourism development strategies of a local. - Chapter 2: Current status of the construction and implementation of the sustainable tourism development strategy of Nghe An. - Chapter 3: Suggested solutions to partly contribute in construction and implementation for the strategy for sustainable tourism development in Nghe An up to 2020, vision 2030. 7 CHAPTER 1 SOME BASIC THEORETICAL ISSUES ABOUT SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF A LOCAL 1.1. BASIC CONCEPTS AND ROLES OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY Synthesis, analysis and unified view of sustainable tourism development (STD) and strategy for STD, includes: - The concept of sustainable development; - The concept of sustainable tourism; - The opinions of sustainable tourism development in the world. - The concepts of strategy - The concepts of strategy for STD: Based on the synthesis and analysis of relevant concepts, the author introduced the concept of strategy for STD as follow: "Strategy for sustainable tourism development is a common path and the key and overall solutions to develop tourism in a sustainable way". 1.2. CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTION PROCESS OF STRATEGY FOR STD OF A LOCAL Contents of a strategy for STD includes: - Building strategic targets: + Analyze the environment for STD + Building strategic targets - Master plan tourism development of a local in a sustainability way. - Make a plan of sustainable tourism development. - Build institutions, policies of a local to implement the strategy for STD. - Implement, assess and amend the strategy. 1.3. STANDARDS FOR ASSESSING THE STRATEGY FOR STD AT A LOCAL - According to quantity - According to quality 1.4. FACTORS AFFECTING THE STRATEGY FOR STD OF A LOCAL - Objective factors: + Development trends of tourism demand towards the factors of sustainable development + Policies for sustainable tourism development of government and local. + Competitiveness in tourism business + Natural potential advantages for sustainable tourism development + Comparative advantages of geographical location for sustainable tourism development 8 + Social infrastructure in general and local in particular for sustainable tourism development + Awareness of local communities in developing sustainable tourism + Legal Environment of the State and local for sustainable tourism development - Subjective factors: + Awareness of local leaders about the role and importance of building the strategy for STD. + Financial capacity for sustainable tourism development of the province. + Qualification of management officials in constructions, direction and implementation the strategy for STD. + Competitiveness of tourism enterprises. + Human recourse of tourism of the local. + Promotion and marketing 9 CHAPPTER 2 CURRENT STATUS OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF NGHE AN 2.1. GENERAL FEATURES OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC OF NGHE AN PROVINCE INVOLVE IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT 2.1.1. Natural features of Nghe An province concerning tourism development Nghe An province has good natural characteristics for tourism development with a coastline of 82km, 6 bays facilitate for maritime transport, road infrastructure, railway, waterway and airway. Nghe An is located in the tropical monsoon with cold winters and divided into two seasons: summer is hot, humid, rainy and winter is cold, little rain. Regarding tourism potential, Nghe An has plentiful, varied which are not much affected by human exploitation. Typical landscapes can be listed as Pu Mat National Forest, Pu Huong, Pu Hoat. The diversity of plants and animals, as well as the diversity of the cave system, waterfalls, etc. combined with clean and flat coastline, fresh environment with a diversity of natural tourism resources and humanities is favorable conditions for tourism development. 2.1.2. Socio-culture features of Nghe An involve in tourism development - Cultural values for tourism development: There are over 1,000 monuments have been identified, including 125 monuments are nationally ranked, 109 relics are provincial ranked, 24 typical festivals popular with community activities. - Population and labour source for tourism: The province has abundant labor source with over 1.5 million people, of which 1.38 million people work in the economic sector. Every year more than 30 thousand people added. The province has 7 tourism training organization, which has three colleges and two vocational schools. Every year, there are about 2,000 students graduated from these training organizations. There human resources has not met the demand both in quality and quantity. - Transportation system: Transportation system in Nghe An can be invested to upgrade, extend in order to create preconditions for attracting tourism investment projects in operating some key destinations, particularly the Western region. However, up to now many routes connecting with major economic areas, urban areas, industrial zones ... have not yet completed. - Other tourism potentials: + Education, training and health care: There are 6 universities, 17 colleges and 8 secondary schools at the province. University has diversify faculties with 30 different faculties with capacity 15.000 students/year; 10.000 students/year from colleges; the school trained technical workers and vocational training and the vocational training centers in the districts. The province has quite good network of provincial hospital, district and regional polyclinics and health centers network communes relatively well + Telecommunication: There are relatively complete branches of all postal service providers and telecommunication network coverage most of the communes in the province. Regarding the application of information technology, all the localities in the province has 10 applied electronic mail system with locale names, electronic office. Local authorities already have web portal and initially provide online public services. Information technology has also been applied in production, business and social cultures to varying degrees depending on the characteristics and conditions of each local and each fields. + Electricity, water and communication: Basically meet the requirements of tourism destinations. However, there has been difficulty in the dry season when the general power shortage in the country will be affected to the use of electricity in the area, tourist destinations. 2.1. CURRENT STATUS OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE PAST TIME OF NGHE AN PROVINCE 2.2.1. Growth in tourism and tourism's contribution to Socio- economic growth of Nghe An province According to the data of Nghe An Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism, revenue and contribution of tourism to the province's GDP increased continuously during the past 10 years. From 385.4 billion VND and contributed 1.3% of GDP in 2005, total tourism revenue in 2014 reached 2,381 billion (not including revenue from transporting passengers by rail, aviation) increased by 13% compared with same period of 2013 and reached 106% of the plan year in which sales of international tourists reached 11.9 million, contributing 4.2% to the GDP of the province. Tourism development of Nghe An has also contributed to improving the living standards of the people, to solve many social problems, create more job chances for the people. For tourists to Nghe An recent period, according to statistics, in 2014 the total number of tourists staying in the province reached 5.9 million, equal to 109% compared with 2013, of which international tourists reached 155.70 respectively, by 112% over the same period in 2013. Table 2.1: Times of tourists come to Nghe An in the period 2005-2014 Unit: thousand times of tourists Year International Domestic Total 2005 40,90 1.359,92 1.400,82 2006 47,02 1.543,56 1.590,58 2007 69,74 1.852,69 1.922,43 2008 84,28 2.074,07 2.158,35 2009 86,85 2.115,00 2.201,85 2010 104,82 3.903,00 4.007,82 2011 105,26 4.191,01 4.296,27 2012 122,09 4.819,78 4.941,87 2013 138,82 5.327,85 5.466,67 2014 155,70 5.834,00 5.986,70 Source: Nghe An Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism 2.2.2. The reality of infrastructure for tourism development The province has one 5-star hotel, five 4-star hotels 5, fifteen 3-star hotels and nearly 100 rated from 1 to 2 stars hotels with over 1,500 reception staff are trained from various schools 11 but different qualification. However, they had made great efforts in performing their duties. In terms of distribution, hotels concentrated in Vinh City and Cua Lo Town, in other areas, accommodation facilities not currently meet the requirements of both quantity and quality.. Table 2.2: Accommodation infrastructure of Nghe An in the period 2000 - 2014 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of accommodation bases 86 201 455 500 572 608 665 Number of rooms 2.470 5.219 10.392 11.440 12.704 13713 15.138 Source: Nghe An Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism The shopping centers, entertainment points are also being built to serve tourists. Although it is facilitated with the policies of attracting investment but at present a modern shopping center in Cua Lo has not been built yet. This is a weakness in infrastructure. 2.2.3. Situation of human resources for tourism of Nghe An Up to December 11/2014, total number of labour working in the tourism sector in Nghe An province was approximately 11,300 people. It is estimated that to the end of 2015 the number of labour will be about 39 278 and in 2020 this figure could reach 80 284 people. However, there are still many shortcomings in tourism human resources in Nghe An and has not meet the demand of integration trend. Regarding quantity, tourism enterprises are mostly small scale so the average number of employees is low. Besides, the weakness in the foreign language skills of the majority of cadres and workers make them face many difficulties in communication, promotion and expansion market of international visitors. Most enterprises tourist in the province of Nghe An is currently small, seasonal activities so they did not pay much attention to training high skilled workers. 2.3. ANALYSE, ACCESS THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRATEGY FOR STD OF NGHE AN. 2.3.1. Analyze the environment for doing tourism business, master plan and making plan of tourism development. The work of analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, challenges has been started but just stopped at some basic contents, not to be done methodically, professionally and frequently. From analytical work to the option to make strategic model for STD still limited. Nghe An province need to further improve the work of identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the tourism industry, leveraging the strengths and limitations of weakness when building strategy for STD. The forecast of domestic tourists to Nghe An perform relatively well, the figures forecast in the plan, program or scheme for STD was relatively closed to the real results. However, due to fluctuations of the international tourism market and the impact from the world economic crisis should forecasts international tourist arrivals to Nghe An have significant deviations. Regarding the work of building targets of tourism development, tourism target of Nghe An basically ensure the proper and specific, consistent with the overall objectives of Vietnam, the province in the neighborhood and socio-economic objectives of the province 12 Overall planning for tourism development up to 2020 of Nghe An province is the foundation to build programs and projects of tourism development of the province and other localities in the province. Nghe An has planned key tourism areas such as Cua Lo Beach, Vinh City, Nam Dan ... The master plan for those tourism area are conducted according to the right order, starting from calling for investment in tourism, have created favorable conditions for natural resource management, tourism product development and partly contribute to the socio- economic efficiency. However according to the evaluation, planning work was slow deployment, planning is difficult to perform or improper performance of the approved content. Regarding the work of building tourism development plan, in general it is seen that Nghe An tourism development program period 2006 -2010 has basically met the requirements of the tourism development of the province. The projects such as sea-island tourism development of Nghe An up to 2020, the project of tourism development of the western Nghe An in 2007-2010 also had the basic orientation to the sustainable tourism development. However, these STD activities have not been implemented effectively. 2.3.2. The real implementation of tourism development efforts of Nghe An in the time being Regarding the dissemination of tourism development targets of Nghe An to enterprises has been concerned and implemented well. However, it should be more specific in implementing dissemination and propagation tourism development targets for businesses, tourism management levels. In the future, need to continue to enhance the effectiveness of this work, ensuring tourism enterprises in the province get relating necessary information, contributing to the development of Tourism Industry of Nghe An. Regarding the investment and attracting investment for facilities serving tourism development, the province was interested in investing in infrastructure for the tourism industry, and gradually invested additional services such as restaurants, entertainments and shopping points but this work is still limited by the difficulty in calling for investment. Accommodation bases mainly concentrated in the major tourist destinations and only focused on operating marine tourism as well as cultural tourism therefore attracted mostly domestic visitors. Investment activities on tourism development: Land transport, air transport are continue to be upgraded, expanded. It continuously to invest in projects of marine tourism, resorts, and interested in invest in building and conserving of cultural and historical relics, improving qualification of tourism staff. In additions, investments in security, safety guarantee for tourists as well as environmental protection. The limitation of investment budget is one of the biggest problems of the province. Besides, there is no public toilets in any tourism regions, no huge investment projects, particularly foreign investment projects, shopping points with poor souvenirs. Regarding investments for tourism human resources: The province has actively promoted the work of training human resources on environmental protection, improve foreign languages skills (including the rare languages such as Thai, Korean, Japanese, etc.), as well as sending officers to abroad for training. However, enterprises in Nghe An are mostly small scale therefore the average number of employees is low, the workforce is affected by seasonality, labor quality is not high, lack of management skills. Besides, the course is not close to reality, 13 the training program is not unified that affected the output quality. Enterprises also faced difficulty in keeping their qualified staff after be trained due low and poor salary policies. Source: Author’s survey Figure 2.1:Assessment of the tourism enterprises in some policies of training and attracting tourism personnel of Nghe An Regarding investment in improving the quality and diversifying tourism products: Most companies and managers informed that quality of hotel services is low, staff qualification in the province's tourism industry is at normal level and can not meet the request. Besides, the management staff level is not high, the quality of accommodation services stayed at low level and was inadequate. In the future, the province should further enhance the investment in improving the quality of accommodation services to meet the requirements of tourism development. According to the survey, the tourism products of Nghe An are mainly grow in breadth with not high quality & efficiency, monotonous, no typical tourist products, no large investment projects, difficult to attract international tourists. Conducting traveling tour of Nghe An enterprises is poor with no innovation to attract visitors. There are many possible causes including: Mechanisms and policies of tourism, tourism promotion, tourism investment, product links ... The factors affecting diversity of tourism products includes: the promotion of tourism, tourism investments, human resources, tourism seasonality, policy mechanisms, tourism product links. Regarding the quality of tourist services, the majority of enterprises said that the quality of tourism services is low, the survey also showed that factors affecting the quality of tourism services including business management skills in tourism is low, tourism human resources is normal and inadequate infrastructure for tourism. The province had issued legal documents to protect environment for tourism. At the same time, localities had also issued and performed relatively well on environmental protection regulations such as building tourist models of people involve in environmental protection in the wards, communes, etc. tourism areas was equipped with public bins, signposts to raise 14 awareness of local people. Maritime rescue work has been paid much attention to be invested to ensure safety for tourists. The remaining problems of such systems are listed as inadequate public toilets at tourist sites, no common areas for rubbish processing; traditional villages excess wastewater that causes environmental pollution, management team has poor understanding of environmental protection activities. Source: Author’s survey Figures 2.2: Some criteria affecting tourism services quality of Nghe An Province. Tourism promotion has been continuously invested and get significant achievements. Images, destinations, tourism products of the province have been widely advertised; many events, promotional activities are organized, particularly the province has signed a tourism development agreement with several provinces, cities as Ho Chi Minh City, Da Nang city and so on. The province also worked with other international tourism organizations to coordinate tourism promotion for Nghe An image, attract more international tourists to visit in Nghe An Some remaining still exist, such as the promotion of international tourism is still low, the number of international tourists knew about Nghe An Tourism is not high, due to the market research are not formal, not clearly identified potential beneficiaries leading to waste in advertisement and not effectively... Source: Author’s survey Figures 2.3: Evaluate the effectiveness of tourism promotion of Nghe An province 15 Mechanisms and management policies, the province has issued a number of mechanisms and policies to attract investment, reform administrative procedures, training officials, enhance promotion in order to create the more attractive investment. The management officials has paid more attention in the label, the criteria of STD such as a sustainable tourism labeled “Blue lotus flower”. Some limitations remained: the administrative procedures are cumbersome, lead to difficulty for investors; some localities are lack of creative initiation in propaganda of seeking investment partners, limited clearance etc. Connection activities in tourism development between Nghe An tourism and other provinces as well as among localities within province has remained to be weak. However, the connection between tourism and other sectors in the province has certain advantages. In recent years, the province has also actively conducted many joint activities, promote tourism at home and abroad, initially yielded positive signs. Source: Author’s survey Figures 2.4: Tourism Enterprise’s evaluation on tourism connection activities of Nghe An province. Additionally, Nghe An province are facing many difficulties in the attraction of local communities in tourist activities due to low income, seasonality of tourism, the ineffective people support policy, lack of dissemination of knowledge on tourism ... The province has issued various legal documents to steer on state management for tourism businesses in the area, environmental protection and security protection at the tourist points Constantly improve the quality of the advisory steering management agencies meet mission requirements and conducting inspections, checks on the situation of security, order and safety, food hygiene, sanitation schools in the district sights key tourism of the province; Working interest in ensuring food safety and travel security order. Some problems still exist as the tram system management, price management policies of tourist services is inadequate. 2.3.3. Assessment status of the plan’s implementation and strategic objectives for STD in Nghe An Province The assessment of conditions for STD in the province has gradually been more concerned over specific activities. About tourism potential, the province assessed and master planed the key 16 areas for tourism development including Vinh City, Cua Lo Town, Nam Dan, corresponding with tourism products are the strength in cultural tourism, festivals, tourist beach resort, cultural and historical exploitation. The province is also interested in assessing specific objectives as the number of tourists at home and abroad, tourism market forecasts etc. Besides, the province has organized numerous meetings and seminars in order to remove difficulties for tourism enterprises. Some problems still exist as only evaluation in the basic criteria, the system does not have specific criteria to assess STD ensuring overall tourism activities; information collection has not been paid much attention; qualified management is low etc. 2.4. OVERALL EVALUATION 2.4.1. Obtained achievements By analyzing the situation, the subject has concluded on the results of the strategic deployment of developing national tourism in specific conditions develop strategy for STD in Nghe An on the following issues: - Analysis of business travel environment - forecast of tourism development - Building objectives for tourism development - tourism development plan of the province - plans and programs for tourism development - The dissemination of tourism development objectives of Nghe An province to travel companies - Investment and attracting investment for facilities to serve the development of tourism - Investment in human resources of tourism - Investment to improving the quality and diversity tourism products - Investment for environmental protection activities - Tourism promotion - Management policy to ensure support and monitor the implementation of the objectives of tourism development in Nghe An province - The evaluation of the implementation plan and strategic objectives for sustainable tourism development in Nghe An Province 2.4.2. The limitations and reasons * Besides these achievements, some limitations should resolve include: First, the environmental objectives are not mentioned and set clear, specific data were not available to clarify the results to be achieved in the province's goal of tourism development for environmental protection and embellishment tourism resources etc. Second, the planning work was slow and difficult or improper performance of the basic contents approved. Unexploited tourism potential, no linked programs to construct together specific tourism products, monitoring the implementation of plan was weak leading to investment did not comply with the plan 17 Third, investment in implementing elements of tourism development goals not met requirements. Fail to attract visitors from the high market, the quality of accommodation are not really good and unequal, the supplementary services such as shopping centers, entertainment are weak, provincial revenues from tourism remains low compared to the country. * Causes of the limitations: - First, Nghe An province is difficult area, uneven literacy, tourism operators affected by seasonality. Natural disasters occur frequently. - Second, the resources of the provincial tourism distribute unfocusedly but scattered all over the province, It makes difficulty to invest in infrastructure and transport. - Third, infrastructure and technical facilities are limited and can not meet the full requirements of the traveler. It’s no key investment projects. - Fourth, the system of accommodation are small and lack of amenities, the additional services are poor, the accommodation primarily concentrated in the major tourist sites and lack of Entertainment As Well As Shopping center. - Fifth, the global economic crisis led to tourists spend more limited, usually tourists in transit. - Sixth, the majority of enterprises are small, weak competitiveness, link together limited, lack of staff, management, foreign languages, skilled workers. The enterprises are not really serious about training of skilled personnel. The enterprises in the province are difficult to retain good employees. 18 CHAPTER 3 SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS TO PARTLY CONTRIBUTE FOR CONTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION THE STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN NGHE AN UP TO 2020, VISION 2030. 3.1. ECONOMIC STATUS, CONCEPTS AND TARGETS OF NGHE AN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT TO 2020, VISION 2030 3.1.1. Identify the advantages and disadvantages from the context of domestic and international economy, for the development of tourism. - The tourism sector is growing and bringing positive signals for the economy. - Some issues related to political instability, conflict are the causes affecting the development of the tourism industry worldwide. - In the country, the political situation, society is stable, reputation and image of Vietnam was improving as the favorable conditions for tourism development. However, shortcomings in the organization of management, human factors are hindering the development of tourism. 3.1.2. The concept of tourism development of Nghe An towards sustainability. - Continue to exploit the strengths of tourism resources to make tourism development become a key economic sector, connect Nghe An tourism with other tourism region in a sustainable way. - Tourism development towards professional, modern, focus on key points. Tourism development in depth to ensure efficiency, rebranding and competitiveness. - Expanding and combining forms of tourism in order to create a diversity of tourism products. - Enhancing socialization of tourism industry to mobilize domestic and foreign resources - Tourism development need to be tied with conservation and promotion the nation's cultural values, preservation of landscapes, protection of environment, security and defense. 3.2. SOME SOLUTIONS TO PARTLY BUILD THE STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT OF NGHE AN 3.2.1. Suggested models of STD strategy of Nghe An The author would like to suggest the choice of models of STD strategy as follow: Table 3.1: Suggest to analyze SWOT and choose strategy model of STD of Nghe An province SWOT Opportunity (O) Threats (T) O1: The open door policy of integration of Vietnam. O2: The world’s concern of Vietnam O3: Vietnam has plenty of famous landscapes O4: The Government pay attention and create favorable condition for T1: Nghe An tourism industry is in the early stage of development. T2: The world varied badly (terrorism, pandemics, natural disasters ...) T3: Competition from other countries within area. T4: Weak connection 19 tourism development. O5: The trend of international travelers to countries with stable political situation among tourism industry and with other industry. T5: Weak diversification of tourism products. T6: Not synchronized legal documents on tourism. T7: Over exploitation of natural environment. Strength (S) + Combine S1, S2, S3, S8 and O1, O2, O3, O4, O5, strategic choice to focus attracting domestic and foreign tourists, especially international tourists to Nghe An. + Combine S3, S4, S7 and O1, O2, O4, choose strategy to leverage internal and external investment to the tourism sector. Especially to tourism infrastructure + Combine S1, S2, S3, S4, S7, S8 and O2, O3, O4, O5 strategic choice to diversify tourism products, affiliate products inside and outside the province to create competition for parks and tourist areas. + Combine S1, S2, S3 and T1, T2, T3: Choose strategy to continue focusing on attracting domestic tourists, gradually attracting international tourists. + Combine S1, S2, S3, S4, S7, S8 and T1, T3, T4, T5: Choose strategy of diversification of tourism products, affiliate products inside and outside the province to create competition for tourist areas. + Combine S4, S5, S7 and T6, T7: Choose the strategy to complete legal documents on tourism and environmental protection. S1: Favorable geographical location S2: Rich tourism resources S3: Favourable infrastructure and technical base for tourism development. S4: Master plan for Tourism development was paid much attention. S5: Legislation system is completing by time. S6: Big potential of labour for tourism of Nghe An. S7: Preferential policies for tourism development in the province is quite favorable. S8: Good experience of tourism development. weakness (W) + Combine W2, W3, W7, W8 and O2, O4, O5: Choose the strategy to preserve, embellish and development of tourism resources. + Combine W4, W8 and O1, O2, O4, O5: Choose the strategy of developing human resources both in quality and quantity. + Combine W1, W2, W5, W8 and O2, O3, O4, O5: Choose the strategy to diversify tourism products, affiliate products inside and outside the province to create competition for + Combine W1, W2, W5, W8 and T1, T3, T4, T5: Choose strategy to diversify tourism products, affiliate products inside and outside the province to create competition for tourist areas. + Combine W2, W8 and T1, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7: Choose the strategy to strengthen the effectiveness of state management of tourism activities in the province. To strengthen the organizational structure of the state. + Combine W5, W6, W8 W1: Not good condition of climate for tourism development. W2: Less effective management and exploitation of tourism resources. W3: Infrastructure, technical base have not met the requirement of the industry. W4: Lack of high- qualified-labour. W5: Tourism products monotony, lack of connection between the 20 tourism products. W6: Less effective activities of tourism promotion. W7: Limitation in capital and technology investment. W8: State management of tourism also present shortcomings. tourist areas. + Combine W4, W5, W6, W7, W8 and O1, O2, O4, O5: Choose the strategy to enhance tourism promotion both internal and external. + Combine W7, W8 and O1, O2, O4, O5: Choose the strategy to enhance investment in capital and technology for tourism activities. + Combine W8 and O1, O4: Choose the strategy to improve the effectiveness of state management on tourism activities. and T1, T3, T4, T5: Choose strategy to strengthen the connection among tourism activities including tourism products inside and outside of province, connection between tourism industry and other industries, with other organizations. Source: Suggestion of the author. 3.2.2. Complete the master plan and plan for tourism development - Improving the system of legal documents related on the basis of the Law on Tourism to suit the conditions and circumstances of local investment attraction - Apparatuses tourism management organization from the provincial to the local level, creating favorable conditions for tourism development planning, creating strong links, ensuring the rights and interests between localities. While enhancing inter-agency coordination to enhance management efficiency. - Investigate, assess and classify, manage the province's tourism resources, forming a database of local tourism service for the construction of tourism development plan - The Department of Cultural, Sports and Tourism direct to check, making plan of the order of priority for development planning tourist areas, major tourist attractions, the national tourist destinations. - Continue to improve the qualification of tourism management officials, state officials relating tourism industry. - The Department of Cultural, Sports and Tourism cooperate with other relating organization to solve obstacles and difficulties in building and implementing the master plan for STD strategy. - Encourage the connection activities among localities within a region; the construction and implementation of the strategy should be based on the connection of tour, tourism promotion. - Enhance the connection with other North Middle Provinces as well as the provinces of the country; cooperation with key markets such as Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, Japan, Western 21 Europe ..., in order to enlist support tourism resources and promote the image of tourism in Nghe An. 3.2.3. Iimprove quality and diversify tourism products and services - Market expansion solutions: Promote research and selection of new target markets, use marketing policies to penetrate markets where the province's tourism industry forward. Apply strategy to diversify, attract and develop in the market group. Strengthening the promotion activities in depth in the key international markets such as the ASEAN countries, the countries in the Greater Mekong Sub region and the East-West Corridor, Northeast Asian market. - Improve quality of tourism products and services: Development focused typical tourism products on the basis of bringing in to full play the strength of the province's tourism potential which is unique, distinctive and prominent. Diversifying tourism products aiming to overcome seasonality. Strengthening connection of tourism product development, that is high competition, avoiding duplication. Emphasis on improving the quality of tourism services and the conditions for development of tourism products, make them be competitiveness with good brand. The tourism product group should be focused on development in the future, including: - Historical relics, cultural travelling: Kim Lien relic, Nam Dan. - Marine resorts: Cua Lo beach, Dao Ngu Island, Lan Chau Island, Cua Hoi beach. - Eco-tourism: Pu Mat National Garden; Pu Hoat Nature Reservation area. - Heritage Travel: Concentrate in Vinh city such as Quyet mountain; Phuong Hoang Trung Do, Ho Chi Minh Statue, Ho Chi Minh Square, Hong Son Temple, Can Linh pagoda, Vinh ancient citadel, general museum of Nghe An, So Viet Nghe Tinh museums, Museum of military Region IV, the historic cultural relics at Ben Thuy junction, Vinh power plant ... Formation of shopping malls, conferences, services establishments and entertainment for visitors. Building capacity to meet the demand of visitors to travel in a long time, using the advantage of marine tourism to develop products more attractive for tourists. Focusing on protecting the environment during exploitation, product development, protection of the marine environment. In addition, it is necessary to develop the field of food & beverage for visitors, especially in special and traditional food, like eel porridge, grilled fresh squid ... cuisine and specialty items as a gift of Nghe An to serve tourists. The tourism management agencies should conduct an investigation and assessment of the current state of the tourism products and the unexploited potential to develop feasible plans of creation for good quality tourism products, able to compete with tourism products in other areas, countries and the world. 3.2.4. Increase investment in tourism development 22 - Increase investment in tourism infrastructure; attract private sector to invest in tourism infrastructure, technical facilities, increase State budget to invest in tourism development, especially the potential areas. Enlist the support of foreign countries to strengthen tourism potential, environmental protection and so on. - Mobilize and diversify financial resources from internal and external invested in tourism training institutions, restore, mining tourism resources, diversify tourism products and so on. Establish policies to attract available capital from people for tourism development investment. 3.2.5. Complete institutions, policies for tourism development - Policies and institutions solutions: + Policies relating investment: Give priority for the development of transport infrastructure (especially roads and air transport), with the support of the land tax, ground clearance, environmental pollution treatment and research of clean energy sources etc. Special offers for new tourist destinations, simplify administrative procedures in tourism etc. + Priority for tax exemptions, free tax for some limited tourism investment projects in key areas of the province like Vinh City, Cua Lo Town, Nam Dan district, Western Region of Nghe An ... in order to attract investment, develop tourist destinations + Market policy: Need to support budget for market research activities, strengthen financial support and socialize tourism promotion activities in the short and long term. Simplifying procedures for insurance, banking .. + Immigration policy, customs: Improve procedures to create favorable condition for domestic and international tourists, Improve the security equipment at the borders as well as convenient services for foreigners such as currency exchange, duty free shops, ... + Policy of tourism socialization: to encourage all economic sectors engage in tourism in many forms, encouraging economic sectors to invest in protecting, restoring historical relics, landscape, conservation festivals. + Mechanisms of linking branches and localities in the province and country: develop tourism products base on the connection in their promotional activities, tourism investment. Encourage regional cooperation, build mechanisms. + Constructing and conserving existing forms of tourism are the key mission of the province. At the same time, to develop ecotourism base on principles and specific criteria . - Improve the effectiveness of state management of tourism. + Strengthening the capacity of the State management agencies on tourism from all levels in order to meet the development requirements of tourism. Clearly defining functions and creating strong links between the state management agency on tourism and associations; travel clubs + Strictly manage the master plan of tourism development to attract investment, create connection within the province, continue to improve tourism statistics system, track tightly 23 international tourists as well as domestic tourists to go immediately to improve the quality of tourism activities in the province 3.2.6. Strengthen connection, promotion, marketing for tourism Strengthen connection, promotion for tourism includes: Investment for tourism development; Construction of tourism programs of the local; Promotion and marketing the image of local, training and development of personnel; Connection with Thanh Hoa and Ha Tinh provinces to combine beach tour, spirit and cultural tour on the heritage route of the Middle region among three provinces,... These methods would create favourable condition for researching to develop the province’s tourism. Strategy for tourism promotion of the province should be paid attention with deep development, focus on branding province's tourism, taking the strategy for product development as the content of building strategy and promotion plan to set up position for Nghe An tourism in the tourism market tourists both domestic and international. Using messages and appropriate communication channel, focusing on the communication channel through the electronic media, the Internet, etc. Develop plans to promote tourism long-term from 5-10 years and as well as annual. Actively participate to promote tourism image of Nghe An tourism at any Tourism Fairs at home and abroad, cooperate with mass media, TV channels, establish Nghe An representative office at important potential countries, raise the people's awareness in promoting tourism with rich diverse, attractive content. 3.2.7. Develop human resource for tourism Complete the policies relating to labor in the tourism sector; Continue to develop a network of tourism training, invest more in infrastructure and operation conditions, diversify the tourism training institutions by encouraging to open the training facilities at companies, particularly focus on folk music in the form “ vi dam”of Nghe An. It is necessary to set up a training program according to common standards base on the collaboration of multiple agencies Ministry of Education and Training, Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, etc. Training programs should be paid special attention to factors of STD, research long-term programs on tourism base on the program of developed nations. Enterprises also need to actively organize training programs about tourism for staff and should have policies such as salary, bonuses, training opportunities abroad etc. to attract and retain employees. 3.3. RECOMMENDATIONS To facilitate the construction strategy for sustainable tourism development in the province of Nghe An to 2020 and vision to 2030, the Thesis would like to suggest following recommendations: - The recommendations to the state authorities. - The recommendations to the local authorities. - The recommendations to relating enterprises and organizations. 24 CONCLUSION Nghe An is a potential area for tourism development with rich potential development of marine resort, cultural tourism, spiritual tourism, ecotourism Through the development phases, the tourism industry of Nghe An has achieved many remarkable achievements especially on domestic tourists. However, in recent years, the economic crisis has been affecting many sectors including tourism. Nghe An Province has had many positive actions to partly limit the influences of the economic crisis through the promulgation and implementation of programs and projects for tourism development in the province. However in order to develop the province's tourism industry in a sustainable way, it is necessary to establish the strategy for tourism development with more specific orientations and activities. To help managers with an overview of the strategy for sustainable tourism development of a local as well as analyze and evaluate the state of development of the tourism industry as well as the conditions to build strategy for sustainable tourism development of the province in several years, as a basis for the proposed strategy for sustainable tourism development in Nghe An province to the year 2020 and vision to the year 2030. With the obtained results, the authors hope to help the management authorities in Nghe An’s tourism sector with suitable decisions and appropriate actions to develop the province's tourism industry rapidly and sustainably in the coming period. Thereby enhancing the competitiveness of the tourism industry in Vietnam in general and in Nghe An in particular. References Vietnamese documents (65) English documents (16) From Internet (3) The appendix Appendix1: Sample survey questionnaire for tourism enterprises. Appendix 2: Sample survey questionnaire for state managers of tourism in Nghe An Appendix 3: Sample survey questionnaire for tourists about sustainable tourism development of Nghe An. Appendix 4: Sample survey questionnaire for local people about sustainable tourism development of Nghe An Appendix 5: Preliminary results of the survey Appendix 6: Some analyzed results of the survey data Appendix 7: List of surveyed enterprises

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