Tóm tắt Luận án Study of factors affecting the competitiveness of tourism enterprises of Ben Tre

The study uses both qualitative and quantitative techniques, this is to approach the hybrid method including 3 steps: Step 1, based on study objectives, the author conduct studying documents, related previous studies to propose theoretical study models and figure out the properties for the study, as the basis for setting up expert interviews and group discussions. The purpose of expert interviews and group discussions is to improve research models, scales and preliminary questionnaires. Step 2, preliminary studies, this step is to conduct a preliminary survey, test the reliability of the scale with Cronbach's Alpha coefficient; EFA - exploratory factor analysis. The main purpose of this step is to conduct a preliminary investigation for respondents to assess the reliability of the scale. On this basis, the author identifies research models and official surveys. Step 3, official study, the content done in this step is CFA (Confirmatory factor analysis) and tests the research model by analyzing structural equation modeling. The purpose of analyzing CFA is to clarify: (1) Unidirectional feature; (2) The reliability of the scale; (3) The value of convergence; (4) Discrimination value. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) method is used to test models and research hypotheses.

pdf28 trang | Chia sẻ: toanphat99 | Lượt xem: 1726 | Lượt tải: 2download
Bạn đang xem trước 20 trang tài liệu Tóm tắt Luận án Study of factors affecting the competitiveness of tourism enterprises of Ben Tre, để xem tài liệu hoàn chỉnh bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
on on competitiveness of tourism enterprises Competitiveness of tourism enterprises is the ability of such businesses to create and integrate value-added of products - services in order to maintain resources, ensure financial efficiency, maintain its position in the market, and 8 Author Views on competitiveness gain stable and sustainable development in the future. Competitiveness of these businesses are affected by the following factors: ability to compete on price; quality of products and services; marketing capabilities; organization and management capacity; trademark; human resources; social responsibility of business; local environmental conditions. Source: Documents summarized by author 2.2 A number of study models on competitiveness of businesses 2.2.1 Foreign study Table 2.3: Summary of studies on competitiveness Author Factors affecting competitiveness Foreign studies Ambastha and Momaya (2004) Competitiveness of businesses is affected by factors (1) Resources (human resources, structure, culture, technological level, assets of enterprises); (2) Process (strategy, management process, technology process, marketing process); (3) Performance (cost, price, market share, new product development). Ho (2005) The author provides model measuring administration activities in corporate through five aspects, (1) Structure of the board; (2) Stewardship; (3) Leadership strategy; (4) Centralized ownership and relationship between capital and market; (5) Social responsibility which has relations to businesses. Craigwell (2007) Competitiveness of stores in Taiwan is affected by 7 factors, (1) Business strategy; (2) Financial capability; (3) Facilities and amenities; (4) Products and goods; (5) Quality of services; (6) Marketing; (7) Human resources. Craigwell (2007) Competitiveness of small tourism island developing in the United States is affected by: (1) Competition in price; (2) Human resources in tourism; (3) Infrastructure; (4) Environment; (5) Technology; (6) Openness; (7) Social aspects Lee and King (2009) Research has shown three groups of factors that affect competitiveness of thermal springs based on Delphi techniques including: Group 1, resources of hot springs, including 7 factors (natural resources, cultural assets, special features, accommodation, food, transportation, safety and security) with 27 observed variables. Group 2, strategy of hot springs consists of 7 factors (capability of hot springs, planning and development, marketing management, human resource development, service quality management, environmental management, price) with 33 observed variables. Group 3, environment of hot springs includes 7 factors (economic development, cultural and social changes, interaction in the industry, demand conditions, attitudes and community involvement) with 16 observed variables. Tsai, Song and Wong (2009) Statistical analysis of factors affecting competitiveness of tourist destinations in relation with competitiveness of hotels. First, factors affecting competitiveness of tourist destinations include: (1) Engineering and infrastructure renewal; (2) Human resources; (3) Price; (4) Environment; (5) Publicity; (6) Social development; (7) Tourism staff; (8) Government; (9) History and culture; (10) Macro environment; (11) Micro environment; 9 Author Factors affecting competitiveness (12) Destination management (marketing); (13) Circumstances / situations; (14) Demand; (15) Customer satisfaction; (16) Psychology and society. Second, factors affecting competitiveness of hotels include: (1) Human resources, Education and training levels; (2) Engineering; (3) Strategy; (4) Yield; (5) Capital; (6) Customer satisfaction - service quality; (7) Brand image; (8) Alliance strategy; (9) Operating costs (environment); (10) Market conditions; (11) Demand; (12) Marketing; (13) Price; (14) Physical characteristics; (15) Management process. Bessant and Tidd (2007) Continuous innovation is very important for hotels to enhance competitiveness, innovation starts from product; procedure; location and model. Berkenveld et al (2005) To improve competitiveness for hotels, hoteliers need to be creative in many fields such as: (1) Product development; (2) Marketing; (3) Technology; (4) Green environment of hotels. Mechinda et al (2010) Competitiveness of Koh Chang Resort in Thailand is affected by 12 factors: (1) Destination environmental management; (2) Quality of services, (3) Cultural heritage and hotels at locality; (4) Infrastructure; (5) Shopping and nightlife; (6) Natural resources; (7) Activities; (8) Competitive price; (9) Food; (10) Cleanness; (11) Safety; (12) Location. Ivanovic, Mikinac and Perman (2011) Research shows that doing business in field of hotel and tourism is not similar to other business sectors; to enhance competitiveness, tourism businesses need especial customer care regime and get feedback from tourists. Therefore, the application of CMR with factors such as applying new technologies, developing technological infrastructure, building strategic management, training human resources, collection and processing information with customers, caring for customers, ... will create good relationships with customers, improve brand and image. Williams and Hare (2012) Competitiveness of small hotels in Jamaica are affected by factors: (1) Innovation; (2) Brand; (3) Organization and management ability; (4) Environmental conditions; (5) Service quality; (6) Knowledge of the sector; (7) Ability to adapt to competition. Review, Assistant, and Dubrovnik (2013). Study results have showed that competitiveness of tour operators in European tourism market are affected by factors: (1) Quality of service; (2) Price; (3) Value obtained in comparison with expenses; (4) Environmental issues; (5) Social issues; (6) Security. Sauka (2014) Research results have identified 7 factors measuring competitiveness affecting companies, including: (1) Capacity to access resources; (2) Staff working capacity; (3) Financial resources; (4) Business strategy; (5) Environmental impact; (6) Doing business capacity compared with competitors; (7) Use of communications network. Domestic studies Nguyen Cao Tri (2011) Competitiveness of tourism businesses in HCM City is affected by (1) Material facility; (2) Organization and management; (3) Information system; (4) Human resources; (5) Market; (6) Marketing; (7) Capital; (8) Internally competitive situation; (9) Undertakings and policies. 10 Author Factors affecting competitiveness Nguyen Duy Mau (2011) Research has analyzed, assessed the status of tourism activities in Tay Nguyen. The author has evaluated the nature, culture, economy - society, tourism market, material foundations, tourism investment and development, promotional activities, investment attraction policies, ... From this analysis, the author has pointed out strengths and weaknesses as a basis for building solutions for tourism development in Tay Nguyen until 2020. Mai Thi Anh Tuyet (2006) Research has analyzed and assessed the situation of tourism development in An Giang. The author has assessed expenditure and the number of visitors to An Giang, quality of products - services, revenue from tourism, investment in tourism, assessed environmental impact on tourism industry (micro and macro environment). Tran Bao An et al (2012) The study results have showed that, competitiveness of 4-star hotels in the province of Thua Thien Hue includes elements: (1) Reputation and image; (2) Coordination of marketing; (3) Technical facilities; (4) Level of organization and customer services. Tran Van Thi (2011) The study results have showed that two groups affect competitiveness of Vietnamese enterprises with investment in Cambodia: Group 1, a number of internal factors constituting competitiveness of enterprises, including 7 factors; Group 2, a number of environmental factors affecting competitiveness of enterprises, including 7 factors. Tran Huu Ai (2013) The author has given 10 factors affecting competitiveness: (1) Capacity to develop business relations; (2) Human resources; (3) Financial capacity; (4) Capacity of marketing; (5) Competitiveness of prices; (6) Capacity to handle trade disputes; (7) Capacity of research and development; (8) Management capacity; (9) Competitiveness fo brand; (10) Capacity of production technology. Source: Documents summarized by author 2.3 Proposed research model and hypotheses 2.3.1 Factors affecting the competitiveness of tourism enterprises 2.3.1.1 Competition on price Competing on price in tourism depends on respective value of goods and services to serve the needs of tourists (Dwyer, Forsyth and Rao, 2000). Prices should go hand in hand with the quality of products and services. Therefore, value provided in products or services is one of the main challenges any tourism businesses face. Price competition affects competitiveness of business studied by the authors Dwyer, Forsyth and Rao (2000); Qu, Xu, and Tan (2002); Dwyer and Kim (2003); Mattila and O'Neil (2003); Lockyer (2005); Craigwell (2007); Tsai, Song and Wong (2009); Mechinda et al (2010); Tran Van Thi (2011); Review, Assistant, and Dubrovnik (2013); Tran Huu Ai (2013). On that basis, the H1 hypothesis is proposed as follows: H1, the ability to compete on price positively impacts competitiveness of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre. 2.3.1.2 Product and service quality According to Central Economic Research Institute and the United Nations Development Program (2002), competitiveness of products and services is measured by the market share of products and services. But according to Barkema (1993); Levins (2000); Schweikhardt (2000) and Babcock (2002), research and development of new products, product quality control combined with 11 the assurance of input quality, reliability, time to provide products and services, are important factors affecting competitiveness. Quality of products and services affects competitiveness based on studies by Lewis and Booms (1983); Berry, Zeithaml and Parasuraman (1990); Barkema (1993); Levins (2000); Schweikhardt (2000); Babcock (2002); Dwyer and Kim (2003); Berkenveld et al (2005); Akbaba (2006); Chang et al (2007); Lee and King (2009); Tsai, Song and Wong (2009); Mechinda et al (2010); Williams and Hare (2012); Review, Assistant, and Dubrovnik (2013). On that basis, the proposed hypothesis H2 is as follows: H2, quality of products and services positively impacts competitiveness of tourism businesses in Ben Tre. 2.3.1.3 Marketing capability According to Kotler et al (2006), marketing is an activity aiming at satisfying the needs of customers to achieve business goals. According to Nguyen Dinh Tho and Nguyen Thi Mai Trang (2011), marketing capacity is built based on four basic components, (1) Satisfy customers; (2) Response to competitors; (3) Adaptation to the macro environment; (4) Quality of relationship with partners. Marketing capabilities affect corporate competitiveness based on studies by Berkenveld et al (2005); Kotler et al (2006); Chang et al (2007); Homburg et al (2007); Lee and King (2009); Nguyen Cao Tri (2011); Tran The Hoang (2011); Tran Bao An et al (2012); Tran Huu Ai (2013). On that basis, the proposed hypothesis H3 is as follows: H3, marketing capabilities, has a positive impact on competitiveness of tourism businesses of Ben Tre. 2.3.1.4 Management and organization capability According to Porter (1980), organization and management capacity in enterprises is considered determinants for the survival and development of enterprises in general and competitiveness of enterprises in particular. According to Ho (2005), administration in enterprises is defined as arranging organization structure of enterprises (management board, board of directors and departments) and functions related to managing, implementing strategies, objectives ensuring high efficiency. According to Preble, Reichel and Hoffman (2000); Hwang and Chang (2003); Pine and Phillips (2005), the ability to organize and link plays an important role in tourism and hotel competitive strategies. Organization and management capacity affects competitiveness of businesses based on studies by Porter (1980); Preble, Reichel and Hoffman (2000); Hwang and Chang (2003); Ambastha and Momaya (2004); Ho (2005); Pine and Phillips (2005); Lee and King (2009); Tsai, Song and Wong (2009); Mechinda et al (2010); Nguyen Cao Tri (2011); Tran Van Thi (2011); Tran The Hoang (2011); Williams and Hare (2012); Tran Huu Ai (2013). On that basis, the proposed hypothesis H4 is as follows: H4, organization and management capacity positively impact competitiveness of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre. 2.3.1.5 Brand According to Kotler, 1994, brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, design... or a combination of all the above factors to distinguish goods or services of one seller from goods and services of competitors. And Knapp (2000) said that brand is the sum of impression received from customers by position to be distinguished in their minds based on functional benefits and emotional sense. According to Kotler (2006), brand is emotional, it's personal and emotional, so it is easy to take over the minds of customers. Brands affect competitiveness of businesses based on studies by Keller (1993); Gundersen and colleagues (1996); Keller (1998); Prasad and Dev (2000); Nguyen and 12 Nguyen (2003); Kim and Kim (2005); Tsai, Song and Wong (2009); Tran The Hoang (2011); Williams and Hare (2012); Tran Bao An et al (2012); Tran Huu Ai (2013). On that basis, the H5 hypothesis is proposed as follows: H5, brand positively impacts competitiveness of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre. 2.3.1.6 Human resources Human resources of an organization include all efforts, skills and abilities of the people who work for the organization (Manmohan, 2013). The quality of human resources in the enterprise will impact the productivity they provide (Porter 1980). Wayne (2010) argues that humans are a critical component for any business, without people, the organization cannot exist. In the tourism sector, Bueno (1999) argues that, since the competition among enterprises is determined by skills, human resources are the central element in achieving competitiveness. According Fantanariu and Andra (2011), tourism human resources play the leading importance in the development of competitiveness of tourism businesses. Human resources affect competitiveness of businesses based on studies by Porter (1980); Bueno (1999); Brian et al (2001); Ambastha and Momaya (2004); Chang et al (2007); Craigwell (2007); Lee and King (2009); Tsai, Song and Wong (2009); Wayne (2010); Ivanovic, Mikinac and Perman (2011); Nguyen Cao Tri (2011); Tran The Hoang (2011); Vesna et al (2011); Fantanariu and Andra (2011); Tran Huu Ai (2013); Sauka (2014). On that basis, H6 hypothesis is proposed as follows: H6, human resources has positive impact on competitiveness of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre. 2.3.1.7 Social responsibility According to Bowen (1953), social responsibility of business is defined the responsibility of all businesses to not harm the rights and interests of others; business owners must have charity and offset damage caused by their business when doing harm to society. And Sethi (1975) has said that the social responsibility of businesses is to improve corporate behavior to a level consistent with common social norms, values and expectations. According to Spenceley (2008), tourism is quite a complicated sector as visitors come from different places and they have different behaviors and attitudes. It would be good if traveler can participate in protecting the environment in their travel itinerary. Social responsibility affects competitiveness of businesses based on studies by Ho (2005); Craigwell (2007); Tsai, Song and Wong (2009); Review, Assistant, and Dubrovnik (2013). On that basis, the proposed hypothesis H7 is as follows: H7, social responsibility, has positive impact on competitiveness of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre. 2.3.1.8 Environment of destinations There are many external factors affecting the competitiveness of enterprises. Applying the diamond model of Porter (1980), there are 3 elements of the external environment affecting the competitiveness of enterprises which are: market, legislation and policies, infrastructure and supporting services. In the tourism sector, according to Kim and Lee (2005), the environment of a tourist destination includes the environment and natural resources. According to Mihalic (2000), environmental quality of tourist destinations is the quality of the natural features there, it might be degraded through human activities. According to Mihalic, maintaining a high degree of beautiful scenery, natural hydrological structure, clean water, fresh air and species diversity is important for the competitiveness of businesses at tourist destination. The environment of destinations affects 13 competitiveness of businesses based on studies by the authors Berkenveld et al (2005); Craigwell (2007); Lee and King (2009); Tsai, Song and Wong (2009); Mechinda et al (2010); Nguyen Cao Tri (2011); Tran Van Thi (2011); Tran The Hoang (2011); Williams and Hare (2012); Review, Assistant, and Dubrovnik (2013); Sauka (2014). On this basis, the proposed hypothesis H8 is as follows: H8, environment conditions of destinations positively impacts competitiveness of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre. 2.3.2 Proposed research model and hypotheses According to Tashakkori and Teddlie (2010), model is a combination of trust formed from theories of researchers with research methods to understand and explain ideas. Based on theoretical approach from the researches above, the author orients to research factors affecting competitiveness of Ben Tre tourism enterprises on the basis of inheriting studies by Craigwell (2007) ; Chang et al (2007); Williams and Hare (2012); Review, Assistant, and Dubrovnik (2013); Nguyen Cao Tri (2011). Based on that, the author proposes a model for the study as follows: CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH DESIGN 3.1 Research process 3.1.1 Research steps 3.1.2 Research diagram The whole process of research is described in the diagram: Competitiveness of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre Trademark Product and service quality Environmental conditions of destinations Marketing capacity Human resources Social responsibility Organization and management capacity Price competition Figure 2.9: Proposed research model 14 3.2 Research methodology 3.2.1 Qualitative research 3.2.1.1 Qualitative research methods In this thesis, the author uses expert interviews and group discussions to finalize the research model and verify theoretical bases of the model if they fit the minds of business managers at locality. The purpose of qualitative research is in order to improve research models and finish the scale in accordance with local characteristics. Ways applied are through direct meeting, documents Step 1 1st expert interview 1st group discussions, adjust proposed research model 2nd expert interview 2nd group discussions, complete scale, observed variables Complete preliminary scale and observed variables Draft questionnaire, complete scale Overview of theory, propose research model Consolidate comments Preliminary questionnaires Step 2 Preliminary investigation N= 244 Evaluate reliability with Cronbach's Alpha Remove observed variables EFA analysis Remove variables, group variables Redefine formal research model Official questionnaires Step 3 Formal investigation N=359 Analyze CFA confirmed factors Inspect the suitability of the scale; synthetic reliability; extracted variance; unidirectional properties; convergence and discrimination Linear structural model SEM Analyze the situation and causes of influencing factors Test the theoretical model and hypotheses Conclusion and proposed solutions Figure 3.1: Research process 15 and questions are sent in advance to respondents via email and mail tools. Respondents are experts at universities, professional management agencies, tourism businesses in the province of Ben Tre. 3.2.1.2 Qualitative data analysis method According to Mayring (2000), qualitative data analysis is an experimental approach. In this thesis, research data obtained through expert interviews are grouped according to research objectives and are analyzed in the following order: (1) raw data; (2) group data; (3) Synthesize important comments. 3.2.1.3 Qualitative research and complete research model  Results of qualitative research to establish model Synthesis of expert opinions and opinions in group discussions show that the majority of comments agrees with factors affecting competitiveness of Ben Tre tourism enterprises proposed in the interview outline including (1) Competitiveness in price; (2) Quality of products and services; (3) Capacity of marketing; (4) Organization and management capacity; (5) Brand; (6) Human resources; (7) Social responsibility; (8) Environmental conditions at destinations (policy mechanism, natural environment). However, in terms of the environmental conditions at destinations, experts propose adding human elements in Ben Tre such as friendly, hospitable, hometown of heroic patriots "Dong Khoi - Ben Tre".  Preliminary quantitative research model Based on the proposed research model and qualitative research results from expert interviews, group discussions, research model for preliminary study of factors affecting competitiveness of tourism businesses in Ben Tre is as follows: Competitive ness of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre Trademark Product and service quality Environmental conditions of destinations Marketing capacity Human resources Social responsibility Organization and management capacity Price competition Policy mechanisms Local people Natural environment Figure 3. 2: Preliminary research model 16 3.2.1.4 Qualitative research result and complete scale  Scale of price competition Aggregate results show that most experts agree with the components of this group, including: (1) Price commensurates with the quality of products and services provided (Dwyer and Kim, 2003; Mattila and O'Neil, 2003; Parasuraman, Berry and Zeithaml, 1999); (2) Prices of products and services are competitive with rivals (Dwyer and Kim, 2003); (3) Prices of products and services always offer discount based on number number of tourists (Synthesis of expert opinions); (4) Prices of products and services of businesses are flexible and suitable with the needs of each customer’s income (Qu, Xu, and Tan, 2002; Tsai, Kang, Yeh and Suh, 2005; Lockyer, 2005).  Scale for tourism product - service quality Aggregate results of expert opinion show that this factor should be added with components such as products - services must tie with coconut trees and coconut products, products - services must introduce unique features of Ben Tre. The components of this scale include: (1) The products and services provided by enterprises must always associate with products from coconuts (Synthesis of expert opinions); (2) Products and services provided are very rich, diverse (Choi and Chu, 1999; Mittal, Kumar, and Tsiros, 1999; Ratchford, 1975; Ladd and Zober, 1977); (3) The products and services provided ensure quality and credibility (Lewis and Booms, 1983; Berry, Zeithaml, and Parasuraman, 1990); (4) The products and services provided by businesses are innovative (Barkema, 1993; Levins, 2000; Schweikhardt, 2000; Babcock, 2002); (5) The products and services provided offer unique features of ecotourism of Ben Tre (Synthesis of expert opinions); (6) The products and services provided are friendly with the green environment of Ben Tre (Oh, 1999; Dube, Enz, Renaghan, and Siguaw, 1999, and synthesize expert opinion).  Marketing capacity Aggregate results show that most experts agree with the components of this group, including: (1) The ability to meet the needs and tastes of customers is always guaranteed (Kotler et al , 2006; Homburg et al, 2007; Nguyen Dinh Tho and Nguyen Thi Mai Trang, 2011; Nguyen and Barrett, 2007; Nguyen et al, 2006; Nguyen, 2007); (2) Enterprise always successfully responds to competitors (Kotler et al, 2006; Homburg et al, 2007; Nguyen Dinh Tho and Nguyen Thi Mai Trang, 2011; Nguyen and Barrett, 2007; Nguyen et al , 2006; Nguyen, 2007); (3) Enterprise has the ability to adapt to changes of environment (Kotler et al, 2006; Homburg et al, 2007; Nguyen Dinh Tho and Nguyen Thi Mai Trang, 2011); (4) Development strategies of tourism marketing activities of enterprises are always effective (Keh et al, 2007; Benedetto et al 2008); (5) Relationship quality of enterprises with customers is always guaranteed (Nguyen Dinh Tho and Nguyen Thi Mai Trang, 2011).  Organization and management capacity Aggregate results show that most experts agree with the components of this group, including: (1) The enterprise has effective and flexible organization structure, taking advantages of Ben Tre (Porter, 1980; Ho, 2005; Synthesis of expert opinions); (2) The enterprise can plan strategies, business development plans (Porter, 1980; Ho, 2005); (3) The arrangement and replacement of personnel always guarantees service activities (Porter, 1980; Ho, 2005); (4) The enterprise can organize alliances, can cooperate with partners inside and outside the province (Shaw and Williams, 17 1990; Preble, Reichel and Hoffman, 2000; Heath, 2000; Hwang and Chang, 2003; Pine and Phillips, 2005); (5) The organization structure of the enterprise expresses the cultural, people and homeland characteristics of Ben Tre (Synthesis of expert opinions); (6) Alliance, linking always brings benefits to consumers and business and supplement lacking resources (Bernini, 2009; Erkus, 2009).  Brands Synthesizing opinions shows that, apart from components of this group, experts also suggest adding elements to build and develop specific brand of their business. The components of this scale include: (1) The corporate brand is well known (Crompton, 1979; Rossiter and Percy, 1987; Keller, 1998; Lassar et al, 1995; Aaker, 2000; Knapp , 2000; Lim and O'Cass, 2001; Konecnik, 2006); (2) The corporate brand is built and managed methodically (Kim and Kim, 2005; Boo et al, 2009); (3) The corporate brand ensures confidence and feelings with customers (Hosany et al, 2006; Konecnik, 2006; Knapp, 2000; Rossiter and Percy, 1987); (4) The main components in corporate brand (name, logo, symbol, character, slogan, music) is attractive and easy to understand (Crompton, 1979; Clifton and Simons, 2003); (5) The corporate brand is environmentally friendly (Baloglu and McCleary, 1999).  Workforce Aggregate results show that most experts agree with the components of this group, including: (1) Human resources have been trained (Porter, 1980; Narasimbha, 2000; Vesna et al, 2011); (2) Human resources ensure skills for tourist activities (Porter, 1980; Narasimbha, 2000; Vesna, 2011) (3) Effective strategies to use and manage staff (Bueno, 1999; David, 2001; Manmohan, 2013); (4) Human resources are always trained, upgraded with skill and knowledge (Narasimbha, 2000; Fantanariu and Andra, 2011).  Social responsibility Aggregate results show that most experts agree with the components of this group, including: (1) Enterprise pays full taxes (Michel and Fr. Quairel, 2009; Archie and Kareem, 2010); (2) Enterprise guarantees employees’ legal rights, benefits (and Fr. Quairel Michel, 2009; Archie and Kareem, 2010); (3) Enterprise ensures hygiene, food safety (Fr. Michel and Quairel, 2009; Archie and Kareem, 2010); (4) Enterprise ensures customers’ interests (Michel and Fr. Quairel, 2009; Archie and Kareem, 2010); (5) Enterprise is conscious of environmental and natural resource protection (Dangerfield, 1999; Grgona, 2005; Michel and Fr. Quairel, 2009; Archie and Kareem, 2010).  Environmental conditions of destinations  Policies Aggregate results show that most experts agree with the components of this group, including: (1) Tourism development policies (strategy, vision, planning) of locality encourage development (Porter, 1980; Ritchie and Crouch, 2003; Kim and Lee, 2005); (2) Investment funds for tourism development (infrastructure, personnel training, environmental protection) of locality are abundant (Porter, 1980; Ritchie and Crouch, 2003; Kim and Lee, 2005); (3) Tourism management mechanism (tax, administrative management, service prices) is transparent, clear (Porter, 1980; Ritchie and Crouch, 2003; Kim and Lee, 2005).  Locals 18 Aggregate results show that most experts agree with the components of this group, including: (1) The hospitality of local people (Mihalic, 2000; Camelis and Maunier, 2013); (2) The traditional cultural characteristics of locals (Mihalic, 2000; Camelis and Maunier, 2013); (3) The characteristics of the locals (heroic in war and ingenuous, creative in life) (Synthesis of expert opinions).  Natural environment Aggregate results show that most experts agree with the component of this group, including: (1) Beautiful natural scenery thanks to coconut trees, dunes and rivers (Mihalic, 2000; Go and Govers, 2000; Ritchie and Crouch, 2003; synthesis of expert opinion); (2) Clean water and fresh air thanks to coconut trees (Mihalic, 2000; Go and Govers, 2000; Ritchie and Crouch, 2003; synthesis of expert opinion); (3) Cultural and historic monuments express the history, local culture (Mihalic, 2000; Go and Govers, 2000; Ritchie and Crouch, 2003; synthesis of expert opinion).  Competitiveness scale of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre Aggregate results show that most experts agree with the components of this group, including: (1) The competitiveness efficiency of business increases scalability and market share (D'Hartserre , 2000; Hassan, 2000; Ramasamy, 1995; Li, 2011); (2) The competitiveness efficiency of business increases positions, image on the market (D'Hartserre, 2000; Hassan, 2000; Ramasamy, 1995; Li, 2011); (3) The competitiveness efficiency of business increases financial efficiency (Porter, 1980; Buhalis, 2000, Ramasamy, 1995; Li, 2011); (4) The competitiveness efficiency of business increases stability and sustainable development in the future (D'Hartserre, 2000, Hassan, 2000; Dwyer, Forsyth and Rao, 2002, Ramasamy, 1995; Li, 2011) . 3.2.1.5 Design preliminary questionnaire 3.2.2 Preliminary quantitative research 3.2.2.1 Methods assessing preliminary scale Preliminary survey results will be encrypted and SPSS software will be used to evaluate the Cronbach's Alpha reliability and exploring factor analysis (EFA). 3.2.2.2 Test preliminary scale by analyzing Cronbach's Alpha reliability factor Reliability testing results show that Cronbach's Alpha coefficients of the scales have value greater than 0.7 (lowest is scale of price competition with α = 0.784). Total variable Correlation coefficient is greater than 0.3. However, SP4 variable has total variable correlation coefficient of 0.181 <0.3 and the coefficient of SP4 = 0.873 larger than overall coefficient α, so SP4 is eliminated. 3.2.2.3 Test preliminary scale by exploring factor analysis EFA Part 1, the analysis of 7 factors affecting competitiveness (excluding environmental conditions of destination as it is dependent intermediate variable) consists of 34 observed variables. First results of factor analysis is unsatisfactory because observed variable has TCQL2 = 0.481 < 0.5 and appears in two factors (factors 1 and 5), so this variable will be disqualified. Second analysis results show that variables are extracted into 7 groups, with a total variance extracted = 63.337%> 50%, the scale is accepted. KMO coefficient = 0.831 in the range of 0.5 ≤ KMO ≤ 1, factor analysis is appropriate. Bartlett testing with Sig.=.000, showing a high level of significance. All values of Factor loading of observed variables are greater than 0.5; λiA- λiB weight difference is greater than 0.3, so they are accepted. 19 Part 2, analysis for environmental conditions of destinations includes affecting 3 factors and 9 observed variables. Results of factor analysis show that variables are extracted into 3 groups, with a total variance extracted = 63.796%> 50%, the scale is accepted. KMO coefficient = 0742 in the range of 0.5 ≤ KMO ≤ 1 , factor analysis is appropriate. Bartlett testing with Sig. = .000, demonstrating the high level of significance. Factor loading value of all observed variables is greater than 0.5 and is accepted. Part 3, analysis of competitiveness of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre includes 4 observed variables. Factor analysis results show that total variance extracted = 65.771%> 50%, the scale is accepted. KMO coefficient = 0794 in the range of 0.5 ≤ KMO ≤ 1, factor analysis is appropriate. Bartlett testing with Sig. = .000, demonstrating the high level of significance. Factor loading value of all observed variables in this group is greater than 0.5 and is accepted. 3.2.2.4 Official research model and research hypotheses Official research model includes 8 factors affecting competitiveness of tourism businesses of Ben Tre. The model has no change from the original proposed model. However, observed variables in formal study change compared to the preliminary survey model as 2 variables SP4 and TCQL2 are excluded. Hypotheses: Qualitative research results show that there are new elements, new scale and location disturbance between factors affecting competitiveness when analyzing exploring factors. Therefore, research hypotheses will be redesigned to suit new situations, as follows: H1: Marketing capacity; H2: Brand; H3: Organization and management capacity; H4: Social responsibility; H5: Quality of products and services; H6: Human resources; H7: Competition on price; H8: Environmental conditions of destinations cause positive impact on competitiveness of tourism businesses in Ben Tre. 3.2.2.5 Design official survey questionnaires 3.2.3 Official quantitative research 3.2.3.1 Official research program  Sample size Research model of the thesis has 10 independent variables, two dependent variables with a total of 46 observed variables, minimum sample size is 130 samples (according to Tabachnick and Fidell, 2007); 230 samples (according to Hair et al, 1998). However, the more sample size, the more reliable the study is. From the above arguments, the research uses 400 samples.  Methods of investigation To increase the rate of inquiry, the chosen investigation method of the dissertation is interviews in person. Survey forms are sent in advance directly or through emails, letters and appointments for interview are made. Time for preliminary investigation is from October to the end of November 2014. The number of forms sent is 400, the number of forms collected is 378, and valid forms are 359.  Subjects of investigation 20 Respondents in the thesis are individuals holding positions from chief or deputy chief of department upwards. Scope for sample taking is enterprises, establishments in travel services with headquartered in the province of Ben Tre. 3.2.3.2 Methods to test the official scale for the research model of Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling. CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH RESULTS 4.1 Reasearch results 4.1.1 Analysis of samples 4.1.2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis CFA 4.1.2.1 CFA results of marketing capacity scale 4.1.2.2 CFA results of brand scale 4.1.2.3 CFA results of organization and management capacity scale 4.1.2.4 CFA results of social responsibility scale 4.1.2.5 CFA results of product and service quality scale 4.1.2.6 CFA results of human resources scale 4.1.2.7 CFA results of price completion scale 4.1.2.8 CFA results of scale for environmental conditions of destinations 4.1.2.9 CFA results of competitiveness scale of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre CFA testing results for each concept in the scale show that all chi-square has P-value> 5%; All CMIN/df ≤ 3, all values GFI, TLI, CFI ≥ 0.8. In particular, TCQL5 is eliminated due to not satisfying the conditions for the compatibility of the model. Thus, CFA results of each concept in the scale are unidirectional, ensure convergence value, ensure reliability, and differentiated value 4.1.2.10 CFA results of critical model CFA results of final measurement model show that the model is consistent with the data, chi- square = 1361.918, degrees of freedom = 906, P = 0.000; CMIN/df = 1.503 <3. Other measures are satisfactory (GFI = .860; TLI = .951; CFI = .956 are greater than 0.8; RMSEA = 0.037 <0.8). 4.1.3 Test research model and hypotheses 4.1.3.1 Test research model by Structural Equation Modeling SEM The estimation results (standardized) of research model show that the model is consistent with the data (detail in Figure 4.1), chi-square = 1436,524, degrees of freedom = 909, P = 0.000; CMIN/df = 1.580 <3. Other measures are satisfactory (GFI = .855; TLI = .944; CFI = .949 are greater than 0.8; RMSEA = 0.040 <0.8). 21 Figure 4.1: SEM results (standardized) of research model 4.1.3.2 Estimated testing for research model by bootstrap Estimated results by bootstrap with N = 500 are averaged and show that bias appears but it is very small. Thus, we can conclude that, estimation in the research model can be trusted. 4.1.3.3 Test research hypothesis using structural equation modeling SEM The estimation results of research model show that the relationship suggested in the official research model has statistical significance as p has highest value of 0.028 less than 0.05, gaining the necessary level of significance ( at reliability of 95%). In other words, the assumption in the official research model is accepted (Detail in Table 4.1). Table 4.1: Regression coefficient of official research model Relationship Coefficient Coefficient (standardized) S.E. C.R. P NLCT <--- TH 0.088 0.113 0.031 2.875 0.004 NLCT <--- TN 0.088 0.104 0.040 2.201 0.028 NLCT <--- SP 0.236 0.247 0.045 5.243 *** NLCT <--- GC 0.182 0.214 0.040 4.553 *** NLCT <--- TCQL 0.175 0.191 0.042 4.163 *** 22 NLCT <--- NNL 0.282 0.266 0.041 6.899 *** NLCT <--- MT 0.185 0.202 0.048 3.824 *** NLCT <--- MAR 0.093 0.108 0.040 2.311 0.021 From SEM analysis results, standardized regression coefficients of other variables are not zero but positive (+), showing favorable relationship between elements and competitiveness with significance level P 0; meaning that all theories are accepted by experimental data. This proves that, competitiveness of Ben Tre tourism businesses are affected by 8 elements in the model. However, the degree of influence of each factor on competitiveness of enterprises is different. 4.1.3.4 Test the difference of factors affecting competitiveness of Ben Tre tourism enterprises by size and type Testing results show no differences in factors affecting competitiveness by scale and type of enterprises. 4.2 Analyze situation and causes of factors affecting competitiveness of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre 4.2.1 Reality of tourism resources affecting competitiveness of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre 4.2.1.1 Natural tourism resources 4.2.1.2 Humanity tourism resources 4.2.2 Business situation of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre 4.2.3 Analyze situation and causes of factors affecting competitiveness of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre 4.2.3.1 Situation of human resources 4.2.3.2 Situation of quality of tourism products and services 4.2.3.3 Situation of environmental conditions of destinations 4.2.3.4 Situation of marketing capability 4.2.3.5 Situation of socially responsible of tourism businesses 4.2.3.6 Overall assessment of operations of tourism enterprises CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND SOLUTIONS 5.1 Conclusion The study results show that there are 8 factors affecting competitiveness of tourism businesses in Ben Tre. The degree of influence of each factor on competitiveness of businesses is different. Firstly, human resources have coefficient of 0.282. Secondly, the quality of products and services has coefficient of 0236. Thirdly, environmental conditions of destinations has coefficient of 0.185. Fourthly, competition on price has coefficient of 0.82. Fifthly, organization and management capacity has coefficient of 0.175. Sixthly, marketing capacity has coefficient of 0.093. Seventhly, brand has coefficients of 0.088. Eighthly, social responsibility has coefficient of 0.088. 23 5.2 Proposed Solutions 5.2.1 Basis for proposed solutions 5.2.1.1 Objective of tourism development until 2020 in Ben Tre 5.2.1.2 Perspective for solutions proposed 5.2.2 Specific proposed solutions 5.2.2.1 Group of solutions to improve factors with large affecting competitiveness of Ben Tre tourism businesses with γ >0,150  Solution 1: Professionalize tourism human resources  Solution 2: Diversify tourism services, products  Solution 3: Introduce Ben Tre characteristics to destinations  Solution 4: Bond tourism businesses - Compete fair price  Solution 5: Improve organization – management capacity, implement business strategies - competition strategies 5.2.2.2 Group of solutions to improve factors with not very large influence extent on competitiveness of tourism enterprises in Ben Tre with γ <0,150  Solution 6: Improve marketing capacity of tourism businesses in Ben Tre  Solution 7: Popularize Ben Tre tourism business brand  Solution 8: Enhance social responsibility to contribute to business socialization of tourism enterprises In Ben Tre 5.3 Recommendations 5.3.1 For the State 5.3.2 For Ben Tre Province 5.4 Main contributions of the thesis 5.4.1 Theoretical contributions This study conducted contributes to systematize the theoretical basis of competitiveness of businesses and systemize some research models of competitiveness in the field of tourism. With the aim of research and research questions, the thesis has made scientific contributions: Firstly, the study has systematized the theoretical basis of competitiveness of tourism businesses and a number of study models on competitiveness of enterprises in tourism sector. Secondly, the study has identified eight factors affecting competitiveness of Ben Tre tourism businesses and tying to specific economic - social and natural conditions of the locality. Such factors include: (1) Marketing capacity; (2) Brand; (3) Organization and management capacity; (4) Social responsibility; (5) Product and service quality; (6) Human resources; (7) Competitive price; (8) Environmental conditions of destinations (policy mechanisms, local people, natural environment). Thirdly, the study has adjusted and supplemented in order to develop scales of factors affecting competitiveness of Ben Tre tourism businesses. Fourthly, the study has tested models as well as scales for factors affecting competitiveness and the results are satisfactory and ensure reliability. The study also identifies the degree of influence of each factor on competitiveness of Ben Tre tourism enterprises as the basis for solution building. 24 5.4.2 Practical contributions The study has built a model of factors affecting competitiveness and has determined the degree of influence of each factor on competitiveness of Ben Tre tourism business. The results of this study are important practical resources for the province's tourism businesses to build development strategies when taking into account 8 factors affecting competitiveness. The study has analyzed situation and causes of factors affecting competitiveness of Ben Tre tourism businesses. Analysis results have portrayed the panorama of Ben Tre tourism, have helped businesses, authorities see the strengths, weaknesses, and reasons to do better. The study has proposed solutions based on study results and situation analysis as a basis for tourism businesses in Ben Tre to develop strategies to enhance competitiveness and sustainable development. The study also gives some recommendations to the State management agencies in term of mechanisms and policies, infrastructure investments serving local tourism development. 5.5 Limitations of the study and subsequent studies 5.5.1 Limitations of the study Besides positive scientific and practical contribution, the thesis also certains limitations, requires further study, additional content so that it is more comprehensive, in particular: Currently, previous studies related to competitiveness of tourism enterprises are very limited, most are studies on competitiveness of destinations. Therefore, the search, analysis of previous studies to find space for the thesis is also limited. Studying factors affecting competitiveness is developed when research hypotheses are tested for the case of Ben Tre Province. However, Ben Tre tourism businesses are limited in number and scope. Therefore, the findings are only peculiar to Ben Tre and are not representative for other regions in the country. The study just stops at identifying factors affecting competitiveness Ben Tre tourism businesses. It has not gone into analyzing relationships among enterprises in locality to see their role in the system and then launch joint solutions to develop into a common brand for local tourism enterprise system. 5.5.2 Further study From the limitations of the study, further studies need to be supplemented based on suggestion, namely: - Firstly, the study of factors affecting competitiveness of tourism businesses will expand to Mekong Delta provinces and other localities in the country. - Secondly, subsequent studies should not just stop at factors affecting competitiveness of tourism businesses but should consider the relationship between the enterprise and other local tourism businesses to see his role in the system. - Thirdly, follow-up studies should expand studying factors affecting competitiveness of businesses in other business sectors and localities. 25 CONCLUSION The objective of this study is to identify factors affecting competitiveness of Ben Tre tourism businesses in association with local characteristics. The study starts with codifying the theoretical basis of competitiveness of business and codifying some model studies of competitiveness in the field of tourism. The study uses both qualitative and quantitative techniques, this is to approach the hybrid method including 3 steps: Step 1, based on study objectives, the author conduct studying documents, related previous studies to propose theoretical study models and figure out the properties for the study, as the basis for setting up expert interviews and group discussions. The purpose of expert interviews and group discussions is to improve research models, scales and preliminary questionnaires. Step 2, preliminary studies, this step is to conduct a preliminary survey, test the reliability of the scale with Cronbach's Alpha coefficient; EFA - exploratory factor analysis. The main purpose of this step is to conduct a preliminary investigation for respondents to assess the reliability of the scale. On this basis, the author identifies research models and official surveys. Step 3, official study, the content done in this step is CFA (Confirmatory factor analysis) and tests the research model by analyzing structural equation modeling. The purpose of analyzing CFA is to clarify: (1) Unidirectional feature; (2) The reliability of the scale; (3) The value of convergence; (4) Discrimination value. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) method is used to test models and research hypotheses. Model testing results show that all scales are unidirectional, ensure convergence value, ensure reliability, and differentiated value. Research models are consistent with market data, assumptions in model studied are accepted. Study results show that there are 8 factors affecting competitiveness of Ben Tre tourism business, namely: (1) Human resources; (2) Quality of products and services; (3) Environmental conditions of destinations; (4) Competitive price; (5) Organization and management capacity; (6) Marketing capacity; Trademark; (8) Social responsibility associated with specific characteristics of Ben Tre thanks to distinctive products - services, which are tourism products and services tied to coconut trees, coconut products, coconut natural environment. In addition, the study has analyzed situation – causes of factors affecting competitiveness of Ben Tre tourism businesses to see strengths, weaknesses and causes. Based on results of research and situation analysis, the study has suggested a number of specific measures to enhance competitiveness and sustainable development for tourism enterprises in Ben Tre in the near future.

Các file đính kèm theo tài liệu này:

  • pdftom_tat_e_6019.pdf
Luận văn liên quan