Confucianism “three obediences and four virtues” theory and its impacts on vietnamese women nowadays

Confucianism appeared as an ideology in China in the Spring – Autumn and the Warring States period and was introduced into many Asian countries, including Vietnam. Confucianism is an ethical doctrine which Confucian has advocated "using ethics to control men". Therefore, Confucianism has focused on educating ethics for people. For women, Confucianism has used “three obediences” and “four virtues” din educating them. Confucianism was propagated to Vietnam in the period of domination by Northern invaders. Vietnamese feudal class acquired and applied theory of Three obediences and four virtues as a tool for educating psychology and ethics so that they could create a typical model for women in the society. This theory has demonstrated both positive and negative effects. Its positive values are to educate women to achieve good standards as gentle,well-mannered, responsible and skilful. Meanwhile, its negative effects are to form male chauvinism and paternalism in people's minds, etc. These thoughts have been an obstacle to the progress of Vietnamese women in the modern society. Nowadays, women have many conditions to promote their talents. However, it is also an extreme harsh period of market economy; thus, women’s moral qualities are toughly challenged in a complex struggle between good things and bad ones. In the modern society, several women have succeeded on certain aspects of social life; many women have fallen into the social evil, destructed their personality and undersold their conscience. The reality has required that women should have new awareness and actions to response with reality of new life and new rules. Therefore, they are required not only precious traditional virtues but also qualifications, knowledge and modern standards. Especially, their efforts and will of conquering good things for women, family and society are heightened. As a result, Vietnamese women should exploit and enhance the positive effects as well as minimize the negative effects of Three Obediences and Four Virtues to develop themselves.

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rifies “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory of Confucianismand its impacts on Vietnamese women nowadays. 6.2. Practical meanings - The research results of this thesis may be used as reference for planning and executing policieson women affairs by the Communist Party and the State nowadays. - The thesis many be used as reference for studying Confucianismin Vietnam, role, and position of Vietnamese women nowadays. 7. Structure of the thesis In addition to the preamble, conclusion, and reference, this thesis is consisted of 4 chapters, 11 sections. Chapter 1 OVERVIEW ON TOPIC-RELATED STUDIES 4 1.1. Research work on Confucianism ethics and “Three Obedience and Four Virtues” theory in Confucianism Studies on Confucianism ethics in general and “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory in particular: Dao Duy Anh (1938), Confucianism Essay Reviews,Quan Hai Tung Thu Publisher, Hue; Tran Trong Kim (2006), Confucianism,Culture and Information Publisher, Hanoi; Phan Boi Chau (1998), Confucianism, Culture and Information Publisher, Hanoi; Quang Dam (1994),Confucianismin the past and nowadays, Literature Publisher, Hanoi; Tran Van Giau (1985),Traditional spiritual Value in Vietnam, Social science Publisher, Hanoi; Quang Dam (1994), Confucianismin the past and nowadays, Literature Publisher, Hanoi; Phan Dai Doan (1998), Some Confucianismissues in Vietnam,National Political Publisher, Hanoi; Nguyen Dang Duy (1998), Confucianismand Vietnamese Culture, Hanoi Publisher, Hanoi; Nguyen Hung Hau (2010), Introduction to philosophy history in Vietnam,National Political Publisher, Hanoi; Vu Ngoc Khanh (1998), Vietnamese family culture, Ethnic Culture Publisher; Vu Khieu (1991), Confucianismin the past and nowadays, Social science Publisher, Hanoi; Vu Khieu (1995), Confucianismand families, Social science Publisher, Hanoi; Nguyen Thi Nga - Ho Trong Hoai (2003), Confucianismconcept on human education, National Political Publisher, Hanoi. 1.2. Studies on “Three Obediences and Four Virtues” theory’s impacts on Vietnamese women nowadays “Three obediences, four virtues” theory has considerably affected Vietnamese women nowadays. Therefore, there have had a number of research works related to this matter. Typical examples for this are the works of authors Phan Manh Toan (2011)Benevolence and propriety’s effects on the current ethical lives in Vietnam , Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation; Phan Huy Le – Vu Minh Giang (chief editor) (1994), Traditional values and Vietnamese people,Volume 2, State-level science and technology program KX 07, theme KX 07-02, Hanoi. Tran Nguyen Viet (2002) is the author of writing titled "Vietnamese traditional ethical values and ethical all-humankind universality in the market economy”, Philosophical Journal, (5); Nguyen Tai Thu (2002) is the author of writing titled "Confucianism and current industrialization and modernization in Vietnam” , Philosophical Journal, (5); Le Thi Quy 1993) is the author of writing titled “Confucianism and current family culture”, Cultural and Art Research Journal, (4-112); Le Van Quan (1997) is known as 5 the author of writing titled "Lễ giáo Nho gia phong kiến curbing the current development of Vietnamese women",Cultural and Art Journal, (01-151); Nguyen Thi Kim Loan(2003) is known as the author of writing titled "Confucianism and cultural behavior of Vietnamese common people in the marital relationship and family", Cultural and Art Journal, (04-226). 1.3. Research works specifying viewpoints and solutions for the promotion of positive effects and limitation of negative effects by the “Three obediences, Four virtues” theory on Vietnamese present women Disseminating and educating quality and ethics of Vietnamese women in the cause of national industrialization and modernization- Program 343, The Ministry of Education and Training; Hard-working, good appearance, well-spoken, well-behaved nowadays by Le Thi Bung, Nguyen Thi Van Huong ; Effects of the “three obediences, four virtues” theory on Vietnamese in ancient and present times- University-level scientific research theme by Hoang Thi Thuan; Duong Thi Minh (2004) – University of Education , the Book titled “Vietnamese family and roles of women in present time”, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi; Le Minh(1997), the Book titled “Vietnamese women in the family and society”, Labor Publishing House; Le Thi (2004), the Book titled “ Family, Vietnamese women and population, culture and sustainable development”, Social Science Publishing House, Hanoi; (2006). The works has clarified basic categories and principles of the Confucianism: concepts and contents of the “three obediences, four virtues” theory in the development history of the Confucianism in China and Confucianism in Vietnam; summarizing some traditional ethical characteristics of Vietnamese people and specifying remains of Confucianism ethics required to eliminate in the cause of building socialism in Vietnam; demonstrating causes of feudal ethical remains and several orientations for eliminating its negative effects and promote its positive effects on Vietnamese present women. Nevertheless, there have not had any independent, systematic and in- depth works summarizing and analyzing the “three obediences, four virtues” theory and its positive and negative effects on Vietnamese women. Besides, there have not had any synchronizing and effective works proposing viewpoints and solutions for the promotion of its positive effects and limitation of its negative effects on Vietnamese people. This is a space requiring the author to continue studies and clarification. 6 Chapter 2 CONFUCIANISM-BASED “THREE OBEDIENCES, FOUR VIRTUES” THEORY 2.1. “Three obediences, four virtues” theory of Confucianism in China 2.1.1. Origin of Confucianism 2.1.1.1. Socio-economic bases for the formation of Confucianism Confucianism was founded at the Spring and Autumn and Warring States period in China. It is considered as the period of the most changes. This period appeared a number of social conflicts making social orders be upsetted; therefore, it is required to build a new social model towards a disciplinary society. Moreover, it also marked the establishment and development of many philosophical schools including Confucianism. The Confucianism founded is for establishing a feudalism-concentrated social management model 2.1.1.2. Political, cultural and ideological premises for the formation of Confucianism in China The Confucianism was founded based on inheriting cultural and ideological premises previously developed at the Spring and Autumn and Warring States period in China. Firstly, cultural premises. In this period, China soundly developed inventions in a series of aspects like astronomy, mathematics, medical science and political ideologies. Secondly, ideological premises are the ideologies related to religion, ethical thoughts of Zhou Dynasty. Zhou Dynasty highly appreciated the thoughts of “God-worship”, “reception of peoples”, “virtuous’, “dutiful”. These ideologies have affected the Confucian, as bases for building basic categories over their theories such as Three bonds – Five Precepts, True name, Three obediences – Four virtues, etc. 2.1.1.3. Confucius- founder of the Confucianism theory Confucius (551 - 479 B.C) is the founder of Confucianism. He often travelled to of preach the methods of national governance. In the upset socio-economic situations of Zhou Dynasty, he founded the Confucianism theory in the aim of directing human beings towards their true name. Thereby, a new society is disciplinary, peaceful and prosperous. 2.1.2. Positions of the “three obediences, four virtues” theory in Confucianism ethics in China and their relationship 7 2.1.2.1. Position of the “three obediences, four virtues” theory in Confucianism ethics in China Firstly, Confucianism focuses on building gentleman for social ruling, thereby not discussing women a lot. Nonetheless, “three obediences, four virtues” theory was still mentioned when integrating it with other categories such as three bonds, five precepts, true name. Secondly, Confucianism considers family as a minimized society and society as an extended family; therefore, the “three obediences, four virtues” theory in the system of Confucianism ethics has been founded to stabilize social order. Thirdly, underlying purpose of the “three obediences, four virtues” theory is for protecting status of the ruling class. Fourthly, the “three obediences, four virtues” theory is the most important standard, the most basic requirement of Confucianism ethics over women. There is the integral relationship between them, helping women possess a finished beauty under the Confucianism’s standards 2.1.2.2. Relationship between the “three obediences” theory and the “four virtues” theory over Confucianism in China The similarity between the “three obediences” theory and the “four virtues” theory is rules and standards compulsory for women. The differences between them are shown on scope and the mentioned subject. Three obediences (三從) were originated from Rituals and Funeral Clothing. Tu Ha story wrote: 1. Submission to her father before her marriage (在家從父): She must submit to her father before her marriage; 2. Submission to her husband during her marriage (出嫁從夫): she must submit to her husband during her marriage; 3. Submission to her son when being widowed (夫死從子): if her husband dies, she must submit to her son. Four virtues includehard-working (婦功), good appearance (婦容), well-spoken (婦言) and well-behaved (婦行): 1. Hard working: She is clever for cooking and housework. Nevertheless, jobs for ancient women include sewing, embroiling, cooking and trading work. A good woman possesses musical instrument playing, chess playing, poem composing and painting abilities. 8 2. Good appearance: A woman must be affable, neat and respects her outward appearance. 3. Well-spoken: Spoken words must be gentle and deliberate. 4. Well-behaved: At home, she must be well-mannered, respects older people and gives up to younger people, pampers her husband and loves her children, gets on with relatives of her husband’s family. In the society, she must be modest, mature and snobbish. 2.1.4. “Three obediences, four virtues” theory in the development history of Confucianism in China 2.1.4.1. “Three obediences, four virtues” theory of primitive Confucianism Confucius and Mercius established the “three obediences, four virtues” theory to teach women. In terms of four virtues, Confucius especially appreciated the “virtue” of women. Virtue is the base of Hardworking- Good appearance- Well-spoken. In terms of virtues for parents, Confucius especially respects the dutifulness. Mercius also requested the women to “obey” their husband and human’s family. 2.1.4.2. “Three obediences, four virtues” theory of Confucianism in Han Dynasty In late Warring States period, Qin Dynasty used “legal ruling” to unify and rule the country. Dong Trong Thu was the person making considerable contributions to the restoration of Confucianism after “burning books and burying scholars” by Qin Shi Huang. In terms of women’s roles, Dong Trong Thu put forward the thought of “obeying their husband in everything" – the wife must obey anything that her husband has said regardless of rightness or wrongness. Confucianism in Han Dynasty became an effective mental ruling tool of the centralized autocratic state. Therefore, the “three obediences, four virtues” theory is more strict to women, known as a base with paternalistic and patriarchal thoughts. 2.1.4.3. “Three obediences, four virtues” theory of Confucianism in Song Dynasty For women, Confucianism strengthens the ideology “Male Supremacy” (to value men above women)", "Father - Husband - Son". More unfortunately, Confucianism has the extreme view about a woman's virginity. Cheng Yisaid that: "starve is the little, losing the virginity is the biggest." This isthe most typical evidence for the grim and strict Confucian for women. 9 2.2. The theory of “Father - Husband - Son” (three submissions) and “Work-Appearance- Word- Character” (four virtues) in Vietnamese Confucianism 2.2.1. Overview of Confucianism introduction into Vietnam Confucianism was introduced into Vietnam during the Chinese domination for a thousand of year. Especially, for each different historical period and each different dynasty, the position and role of Confucianism are different. In one thousand year of feudalism, Confucian in general and the theory of “Father - Husband - Son” and “Work-Appearance- Word- Character” in particular had a profound influence on the Vietnamese life and people. Confucian contributed to build the national traditions, ideology and culture and the image of Vietnam women from traditional style to modern style. The most noteworthy thing is that when it existed in Vietnam, Confucianism was not completely stereotyped as Chinese Confucian that it has been modified to fit the Vietnamese tradition. 2.2.2. Factors changing the content of the theory of “Father - Husband - Son” and “Work-Appearance- Word- Character” in Vietnamese Confucianism First, Vietnamese has had the tradition of respecting the women for thousands of year. Second,the practical history of building and protecting our country as well as Vietnam’s cultural tradition has regulated the receiving way and changed the theory of three submissions and four virtues of Confucianism. Third, during the process of Confucianism introduction into Vietnam, Confucians have received and applied this content in accordance with the country’s situation. Fourth, during the process of Confucianism’s introduction into Vietnam, Buddhism and Taoism have been also introduced into our country. Fifth, Vietnamese traditional families are very different from the Chinese patriarchy ones. The aforementioned fundamental factors have changed the theory of three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism. Those were also the foundation to regulate the contents and features of the theory of three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism. 2.2.3. Overview of the content and feature of the theory of three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism 10 2.3.3.1. The contents of the theory of three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism The contents of the theory of three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism have been shown in the family songs, feudal laws. In general, this content is very little different from Chinese Confucianism. 2.3.3.2. Some fundamental features of the theory of the three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism Firstly, the theory of three submissions and four virtues have been admitted and appreciated by Vietnamese feudal laws. In the feudal period, most laws had the content relating to women, especially Hong Duc Law and Gia Long Law. In general, although there were a lot of advantages in comparison with Chinese, these laws still had the ideology of Male Supremacy. They had forced women to depend on men. “Nguyen dynasty” was significantly influenced by Confucianism; therefore they had the extreme view about the women’s virginity and appreciated “virginal women” Secondly, the theory of three submissions and four virtues has been built by the Confucianism trend and under the form of family songs. Some people say that: “It is difficult to teach women” and they also slight women because of their illiteracy, from those, in the feudal period, Confucians trended to write the theory of three submissions and four virtues under the form of poems, family songs - those to teach women. In those family songs, Confucians gave much content to force women to learn and follow. In addition to those, they also gave the content of prohibitions to women and all of them related to the theory of three submissions and four virtues. Thirdly, the theory of three submissions and four virtues had been shown in the regulations of Vietnamese communes Those regulations were the social conventions of the communes written by Confucians. In those regulations, Confucians gave the rules of the family to men and women. If they had done contrary to those regulations, they would have been fined Fourthly, the theory of three submissions and four virtues had been shown in folklore, particularly folk songs and proverbs. Fifthly, the status of Vietnamese women had "softened" the theory of three submissions and four virtues. 11 Compared with China, the status of Vietnamese women has been raised a lot and assigned the important tasks. In Vietnam, women are considered "Internal Queen" of the family. The reason for this is that Vietnamese family model is different from the Chinese family model. Vietnam family model typically includes two generations; therefore the wife's status was enhanced. But in China, the family model mainly includes multiple generations; so it is necessary to have the head man to direct all the work and maintain order and discipline in the family Sixthly, the theory of three submissions and four virtues in Vietnamese Confucianism respected the practice rather than the theory. Seventhly, during the period from the thousands of years ago until now, Vietnamese women in all levels have positively participated in social, cultural and political activities. The Vietnamese history and culture have always recorded the names of women who contributed to the success of the nation, such asTrieu Thi Trinh, Duong Van Nga, Y Lan, Bui Thi Xuan, Ms.Ba Cai Vang, etc. Those good examples are always in hearts of the people. The noble beauty of Vietnamese women have made the theory of three submissions and four virtues change in Vietnam and have fundamental differences with this ideology in China Conclusion of Chapter 2 As a political, social and moral theory, Confucianism became a tool to protect the status of the ruling class. Confucianism advocates to educate the morality for people to bring the society from chaos statement from peaceful and prosperous statement. The category of moral education of women is mentioned primarily in the theory of three submissions and four virtues. The theory of three submissions and four virtues gave the moral standards that women have to listen. Besides the positive values, such as teaching women to complete their appearance beauty and spirit beauty, the theory also brought a lot of negative effects that included the idea: “Male Supremacy” being deeply into social life. Etiology of this thought is that Confucian would like to educate women under their standards to maintain family order and more importantly social order and the final aim is to protect the status of the ruling class. Confucianism has deeply affected the social life of the East Asian countries, including Vietnam. It is worth noting that Confucianism in Vietnam was converted with a number of contents or in other words, it was "softened" and "refracted" to suit Vietnamese life. Therefore, in Vietnam, the negative nature of this theory has decreased more than Confucian in 12 China. In Vietnam, the status of women is respected than women in other Asian countries. 13 Chapter 3 EFFECTS OF THE THEORY OF THREE SUBMISSIONS AND FOUR VIRTUES TO VIETNAMESE WOMEN NOWADAYS– THE STATUS AND EMERGING ISSUES 3.1. Negative effects of the theory of three submissions and four virtues to Vietnamese women nowadays 3.1.1. Negative effects of the theory of three submissions and four virtues to Vietnamese women in family nowadays 3.1.1.1. The theory of three submissions and four virtues causing thepsychology: “Male Supremacy” Firstly, the “Male Supremacy” psychology is expressed clearly through the theory. The first thought of three submissions was that women had not got married; they had to listen their father. The thought still deeply affects the Vietnamese cultural lives. In the Vietnamese family nowadays, most men play an important role and all other members must obey them. Accordingly, when the daughter has not got married yet, they must strictly obey her father’s arrangements on the issue of studying, career and mate choice. The negative sides of “her husband as a wife” thought have much influence on women. Compared with the husband, the wife has much more the disadvantages. Firstly, in some families, the husband remains the decisive role in issues relating to children Secondly, the husband holds the financial source in family; therefore he has right to decide all expenses in the family Thirdly, there are still many opinions that show the housework must be done by women and men have no responsibility for doing that work. Fourthly, in production, the wife often takes on the tasks which are time-consuming and effort-consuming but less income than men, such as embroidery, sewing, farming, and cattle-breeding… Fifthly, in a family, women have less time to rest than men. Sixthly, there is inequality in reproductive health care and family planning. Seventhly, there is inequality in accessing to resources and opportunities for development. Eighthly, there is inequality in internal and external affairs. 14 Ninthly, many husbands still have serious paternalism that leads to domestic violence, gratuitous jealousy, binding the wife with household chores, prohibiting the wife from expanding her social relationships. Tenthly, there are some men who are indifferent to academic and fame career of their wife. Nowadays, although the Law regulates that if husband is dead, wife is allowed to get married another man, she still has responsibility for her children; the negativity of ideology “her sons in widowhood” actually still has some effects although its influence is not too much high. That is in the case of husband’s death, the wife is afraid of public opinion so she doesn’t dare to marry again. Besides that, the woman whose husband died has lived alone and sacrificed her own happiness to bring up her children but her children are undutiful to her. Secondly, the psychology of Male supremacy (to value men above women) is also reflected clearly in the need of male birth. The paternalism and male-supremacy of Confucianism have been rooted in people’s life, therefore, people in families highly evaluate male- birth and find any way to be born a son. These radical thoughts and actions make our country become one of countries having the highest abortion rate and gender imbalance rate in the world. Thirdly, the psychology of Male supremacy is also reflected through the property division and investment level for children. Many families focused investing education, property division for boys more than for girls. The reason of this matter is that the son is considered as an heir and the daughter will get married and serve for her husband’s family, thus investment for girls is not as much as for boys. 3.1.1.2. Three obediences and Four Virtues have obstructed the policy of free marriage The psychology of “her father as a daughter” has respected decided role of father to his daughter. In which, the father has the right to decide his daughter’s marriage. The daughte’s chance of choosing her husband is affected by her father. On the other hand, in a marriage, wife is always dependent on her husband. Today, although the Law proposes the monogamous marriage, actually in many areas (some locals nearby Hanoi) there is phenomenon that a man can get married with many wives at once and the former wives must accept it. This is negative consequence of three- obedience theory and it has still affected until now. 15 3.1.1.3. Theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues creates dependent and passive psychology of wife to her husband, which has obstructed the development of woman today Firstly, the woman has accepted to live smugly. Secondly, women themselves have weak reactions to Domestic violence. Thirdly, women themselves have not appreciated their position and their role in family and society, so they are dependent, passive and not trying to overcome difficulties in studying and social work, in fighting for equal rights on their side. 3.1.1.4. Theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues is one of reason that causesDomestic violence Although Law of gender quality was issued and came into force from 2007, as a result of negative influence of theory of three obediences and four virtues, so our country is still the country with high Domestic violence, in which mainly are that husband beating his wife, father beats his children. Significantly, in cases of domestic violence from the husband to the wife, there are few wives denouncing their husbands because they are afraid the public opinion that “to be ashamed as husband as wife” or “air your dirty linen in public” 3.1.2. The negative effects of theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues to Vietnamese women in society today 3.1.2.1. The theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues has limited the posibility of participating social acitivities of women Người The women are affected by the ideology “male-supremacy”, “women with smug feeling” from their husbands and their relatives, so they do not get support to develop social activities from these people. On the other hand, there are many women who are dependent too much, not trying to overcome difficulties and change their situations, but accepting the dependent life to their husbands. This has made them create distance in participating in social activities. 3.1.2.2. The theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues has limited the posibility of being agencies’ leaders of women With the main ideology “Male-supremacy”, the theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues is a barrier not only for women’s social activities participation but also their being leader possibility. Affected by the ideology “male – supremacy”, men have disregarded the position and role of women in social activities. On the other hand, not 16 only men have improper look to women, but also even women haven’t overcome ancient prejudices to themselves and others. 3.1.2.3. The theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues is barrier causing gender inequality in acessing and enjoying social interests The negativities of theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues, gender prejudices are the cause of the disparity in opportunities for employment, income and promotion between male and female. The reason of this problem is that female labor force have trouble about health, fertility, time of caring children and families; therefor, they cannot spend enthusiamsm as much as male labor force. With the disparity of working year amount is 5 years, it helps women to recovery their health but it’s also an obstacle for women of being in structure of source leading cadres. 3.2. The positive effects of theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues to Vietnamese women in society today 3.2.1. The theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues has a great impact on the education of respecting sense for family’s disciplines and background to stabilize social order. Today, besides the negative effects, the theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues also has a lot of positive effects to social life. One of the positive effects is that this theory plays an important role in awareness education for women of respecting family’s descipline and background to stabilize social order. It requires and forms for women how to behave properly in harmony with her parents, husband and children. This is really important in the market economy, where many traditional values are turned upside down. 3.2.2 The theory of Three obediences and Four Virtues helps women perfect outside and inside beauty to meet the requirements of social development. Diligent work Today, the diligent work of women has changed a lot compared with the previous one. The woman is not confined within the family but also extended to society. In family, they are major force in housework, raising children, taking care of the house, managing household economy. In society, the qualification of women is increasingly improving, they are the large social labor force, women holding leadership position are also increasing. This is a new and advanced aspect of modern women. Nowadays, many women are so keen on working and money that they forget their duties to their family. They don’t have enough time to taking care their family, which makes their family unstable, their children are not got personality-education perfectly. Women should realize that 17 their natural role as wife, mom and the person building family nest is their responsibility. They should manage their time suitably to solve work of family and society. Modest appearance Appearance according to Confucianism’s concept is understood as physical beauty, expressed through natural appearance combined with costumes and make-up that makes a general decency. Nowadays, material and spiritual life is increasingly improving, women have chance to taking care their outside beauty. They come to beauty salon, learn to makeup, dressing. However, there are many women have learned flashy Western dressing style… which not consistent with Vietnamese traditions. Therefore, appearance concept of Confucianism is much more valuable when it help to form modern beauty of women to traditional standards. Proper speech Speech is focused on courteous, discreet, sound of soft words, listening easily. Because of the nature of work, women cannot be too shy anytime, anywhere as the former women. To meet the increasing demands of modern society, language in communication is gradually intellectual and scientific. We need to look straight into the limitations of using the language of women today. That is "slang" language, bad words, or questions with content lack of transparency. Before the situation above, the speech of women must be polite, respect and order, which still are the necessary principles for effort of women in modern society. Behavior This is the foundation of human, the moral of man. Woman's virtue is expressed including domestic skills, appearance, speech and behavior. Behavior shows the response of women with other relatives in family, colleagues, villages and the Fatherland. Currently, under the impact of the market economy, many moral values have been turned upside down. Accordingly, the morality of women is also modified so that four virtues play an important role in educating the women becoming more complete. 3.3. Factors changing the influence of theory of three obediences and four virtues for Vietnam women today Firstly, in the Platform for national construction in the transitional period to socialism, approved by VII Congress of the Party in 1991, our Party has taken Marxism - Leninism, Ho Chi Minh’s Ideology as the foundation and lodestar for our country's revolution. 18 Secondly, the role of women has been supported and honored by our country. Thirdly, men and women have been had the thought, role assessment of women in the direction of progress than before. Finally, Vietnam women are key factor in contributing to the success of wars against the French and American and the reforms of the country from 1986 to present. 3.4. Some of the problems posed by influence of three obediences and four virtues in Confucianism for Vietnam women today 3.4.1. Contradiction between requirements for promoting values of three obediences and four virtues for the strong impacts of market economy and international integration of Vietnam today Market economy has been strongly impacted on the social life of Vietnam in both positive and negative aspect. The positive aspect improves the material and spiritual life of people as well as promotes the dynamic and creation of people. The negative is the alienation of traditional moral values and decency and order in the society turned upside down. In new conditions, the traditional ethic values of women have been had contradictions, the struggle between progress and backwardness; healthy honesty and loyalty lifestyle and pragmatic, deceitful, selfish, battens lifestyle or for money. New ethics of women in the new society must to struggle with other ethical systems and struggle to innovate traditional values as well as affirm themselves in changing conditions. 3.4.2. Contradiction between conservative and outdated concepts of three obediences and four virtues with advanced viewpoints in building the modern ethic standard of Vietnam women today Firstly, the conservative and outdated concepts are due to the negative influences of three obediences and four virtues. Secondly, in consistent with requirements of industrialization and modernization of the country, we have been putting out the advanced qualities of modern Vietnam women. However, when inheriting the traditional moral values of the nation, it needs to firmly reject the old, outdated or inappropriate traditions as well as by practice to affirm the new values occurring in consistent with new development stage of country. The new ethics of women are to struggle with conservative, outdated viewpoints of three obediences and four virtues, as well as to self renewal and affirm in new conditions. 19 3.4.3. Contradiction between promoting social positive of women with the viewpoint to underestimate the role of women of men and the passive, complex and surrender viewpoint of women The social positive of women is their activeness, creation, and enthusiasm in meaningful activities to promote social progress and women. The positive of women, however, is dominated, held back by negatives in three obediences and four virtues which are the viewpoints to underestimate the role of women in men and the passive, complex and surrender viewpoint of women. Although we have enacted the Gender Equality, the issues of gender equality have not been done at anytime, anywhere from family and society. We must have proper awareness and action on this issue to enhance the position and role of women in society. On the other hand, this must be in synchronized nature from family and society so that the women have conditions for promoting the dynamic, creation to meet the requirements of industrialization and modernization of the country. Summary of Chapter 3 Confucian ethics in general and women ethics of Confucianism in particular through theory of three obediences and four virtues have a profound influence to the position, role and ethic of Vietnam women today. The influence of three obediences and four virtues is expressed clearly in positive and negative. The positive is promoting the ethical cultivation, altruistic lifestyle and the importance of gratitude of women. The negative is strengthening the thought of male-supremacy mentality, paternalism and authoritarianism in family and society. The level, scope and consequence of this influence for Vietnam women today are very diverse and complex. However, Vietnam women in the new era always strive to overcome all difficulties, hardships and sacrifices..., or affirm themselves in many areas of life. The current influence status of three obediences and four virtues for Vietnam women today has set out the need to resolve contradictions when making viewpoints and specific solutions. 20 Chapter 4 OPINIONS AND SOME PRINCIPAL STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE THE POSITIVE EFFECTS AND MINIMIZE THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF THREE OBEDIENCES AND FOUR VIRTUES FOR VIETNAMESE WOMEN NOWADAYS 4.1. A number of majority opinions to enhance the positive effects and minimize the negative effects of Three obediences and four virtues for Vietnamese women nowadays 4.1.1. Fostering the opinions of the Communist Party of Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh in inheriting the value of Three obediences and four virtues for Vietnamese women nowadays Ho Chi Minh always appreciates the position and value of women in the society. Besides, he also pointed out the negative effects of the previous thoughts on women. Therefore, he highly values the women’s liberation. He argues that women should be independent in the following fields: First, on politics Second, on economics Third, on culture Fourth, on society-family field The Communist Party of Vietnam and the Government have made several undertakings and policies on women’s liberation. For example, Resolution No. 04/NQ-TW (12/7/1993), Directive No. 28 CT-TW (19/9/1993), Directive No. 37/CT (16/5/1994), Directive No. 54/CT-TW (22/5/2000), Directive 07/CT-TW (25/01/2002), Resolution No. 11/NQ- TW on the women’s careers in the period of national industrialization and modernization and the Government has issued Resolution No. 19/2003/ND-CP (7/3/2003) and Gender equality laws passed on November 2006 by the National Assembly facilitate Vietnamese Women’s Union to participate in the state administration regarding women’s rights and benefits; Resolution of 10th National Congress of the Communist party of Vietnam states that: “Improving the capacities on physical and spiritual life and ensuring the gender equality. Facilitating women to fulfill their roles as residents, laborers, mothers and the first teachers of the human races. Fostering and training the women to participate in the social activities, leading agencies and authorities of different level” 21 4.1.2. Inheriting the value of Three obediences and four virtues shall be aimed at improving the position and roles of Vietnamese women nowadays Improving women’s positions and roles requires the close integration between inheriting the value of Three obediences and four virtues and building new moral standards. In the modern society, the new moral standards that we set include: self-esteem, confidence, responsibility and reliability. These moral qualities are based on the positive effects of Three obediences and four virtues 4.2. Some principal strategies to enhance the positive effects and minimize the negative effects of Three obediences and four virtues for Vietnamese women nowadays 4.2.1. Developing the economy, culture and society, promoting the vocational training and creating jobs to Vietnamese women nowadays To implement this strategy, some following measures should be taken: First, raising women’s awareness on the importance of economic development with the aim of enhancing women’s roles and position Second, developing the household economy Third, prioritize the vocational training to women, especially those in the rural areas 4.2.2. Promoting education and raising women’s awareness of their positions and roles to enhance the positive effects and minimize the negative effects of Three obediences and four virtues for Vietnamese women nowadays For the society First, reforming mechanisms to establish the rights of the gender equality Second, promoting economic development in order to encourage women’s involvement and ensure equal labor resources Third, implementing the practical measures to overcome the gender distinction in the area of mastering resources and political voice Fourth, all the levels and sectors need to promote the propagation and dissemination to all staffs, members, and the masses about women’s important roles and positions in all social fields as well as in the domestic family, thereby contributing to rapidly powerful change in the existing gender stereotypes 22 Fifth, expanding the international cooperation and exchanges. This is consistent with international trends, international economic integration nowadays. For women: First, improving physical health Second, taking care of their appearance Third, having adequate knowledge and culture Fourth, having stable careers Fifth, having cultural lifestyles Sixth, being creative and dynamic 4.2.3. Improving customs and practices, building new customs and practices to minimize the negative effects and enhance the positive effects of Three Obediences and Four Virtues for Vietnamese women nowadays To implement this strategy, some following measures should be taken: First, promoting gender equality with the aim of gradually removing male chauvinism in the domestic family and the society Second, appreciating women’s position and roles through traditional festivals Third, forming new customs and habits, which suit with the requirements of the modern society 4.2.4. Enhancing the roles of VietnamWomen’s Union and social organizations to minimize the negative effects and enhance the positive effects of Three Obediences and Four Virtues for Vietnamese women nowadays To implement this strategy, some following measures should be taken: First, the Communist Party of Vietnam and the government of all levels should promote the activities of propaganda, and dissemination for all staffs, members of the Communist Party, and masses about women’s role and position in all the society as well as in families, contributing to the rapid change in gender bias which has been surviving in many people. Second, the members of Vietnam Women’s Union must constantly strive in works and study to have enough qualification, experience to efficiently operate in all branches; promote the activeness and creativity of the Union in the establishment, organization and implementation of programs for the advancement of women. 23 4.2.5. Completing the mechanisms, policies and the legal system, of implementing gender equality to minimize the negative effects and enhance the positive effects of Three Obediences and Four Virtues for Vietnamese women nowadays To implement this strategy, some following measures should be taken: First, raising people’s awareness about gender and the importance of women's liberation Second, constantly amending, supplementing mechanisms, social policies and completing laws to suit with specific stages and regions Third, strictly implementing mechanisms, laws, and policies on gender equality Fourth, the economy is the social foundation, so the economic development is the basis to solve the social contradictions Fifth, strictly handling the violations to social policies and gender inequality for women Conclusion of Chapter 4 Ho Chi Minh always appreciates the position and value of women in the society. He highly values and offers the advanced thoughts in the women’s liberation. Therefore, mastering Ho Chi Minh's ideology on women's liberation in the proposal of policy and direction of the work of women is very important. On that basis, we offer specific solutions to promote positive factors and limit negative factors. We need to carry out the proposed directions and solutions. However, it is necessary to confirm that these solutions should be implemented systematically at all levels of the government in the social areas with women’s participation. In particular, an important factor which leads to the success of this career is women themselves, so they must change their thoughts and have proper awareness of their roles and positions in the family and society to perform “self-liberating” actions for improving the quality of their own life. 24 CONCLUSION Confucianism appeared as an ideology in China in the Spring – Autumn and the Warring States period and was introduced into many Asian countries, including Vietnam. Confucianism is an ethical doctrine which Confucian has advocated "using ethics to control men". Therefore, Confucianism has focused on educating ethics for people. For women, Confucianism has used “three obediences” and “four virtues” din educating them. Confucianism was propagated to Vietnam in the period of domination by Northern invaders. Vietnamese feudal class acquired and applied theory of Three obediences and four virtues as a tool for educating psychology and ethics so that they could create a typical model for women in the society. This theory has demonstrated both positive and negative effects. Its positive values are to educate women to achieve good standards as gentle, well-mannered, responsible and skilful. Meanwhile, its negative effects are to form male chauvinism and paternalism in people's minds, etc. These thoughts have been an obstacle to the progress of Vietnamese women in the modern society. Nowadays, women have many conditions to promote their talents. However, it is also an extreme harsh period of market economy; thus, women’s moral qualities are toughly challenged in a complex struggle between good things and bad ones. In the modern society, several women have succeeded on certain aspects of social life; many women have fallen into the social evil, destructed their personality and undersold their conscience. The reality has required that women should have new awareness and actions to response with reality of new life and new rules. Therefore, they are required not only precious traditional virtues but also qualifications, knowledge and modern standards. Especially, their efforts and will of conquering good things for women, family and society are heightened. As a result, Vietnamese women should exploit and enhance the positive effects as well as minimize the negative effects of Three Obediences and Four Virtues to develop themselves. The women's liberation was initiated by President Ho Chi Minh right after the August Revolution of 1945. Under the leadership of the Party, the government’s management and supervision of organizations under Vietnam Women's Union, the women's liberation in our country has achieved remarkable success. However, in the women’s liberation, there 25 still exist such limitations as gender inequality, domestic violence, male chauvinism and patriarchal ideology, etc. which have bring tremendous influences on this mission. Accordingly, solutions for curbing negative effects and promoting positive elements in theory of Three obediences of women and four virtues in Confucianism are necessary. Confucianism has had great influences on our country on both dimensions. The important issue is that we must have an objective view when assessing Confucianism. Research on theory of Three obediences and four virtues of Confucianism and on its influence on present Vietnamese women is a wide and complex issue. And it is not limited to the content mentioned in this thesis. We are aware that we are unable to fully elucidate the content and impact of this theory on present Vietnamese women. Thus, these shortcomings issues need to be further studied in later works. By doing so, comprehensive acknowledgement about expressions of Confucianism in general and Three obediences and four virtues in particular for Vietnamese women in modern society can be discovered BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Nguyen Thi Van (2010), "Công, Dung, Ngôn, Hạnh với phụ nữ Việt Nam hiện nay", Magazine of Human resource development, (03), p.46-52. 2. Nguyen Thi Van (2010), "Tâm lý ứng xử truyền thống và hiện đại của phụ nữ Việt Nam", Population & Development, (4), p.29-32. 3. Nguyen Thi Van (2010), "Bệnh quan liêu - nguyên nhân và cách phòng chống theo chỉ dẫn của Chủ tịch Hồ Chí Minh", Politics Magazine, (9), p.78-82. 4. Nguyen Thi Van (Co-author) (2011), Ethics Course book, Publishing House of Hanoi National University of education, Hanoi. 5. Nguyen Thi Van (Co-author) (2012), Vận dụng ca dao, tục ngữ vào giảng dạy phần Triết học môn “Những nguyên lý cơ bản của chủ nghĩa Mác – Lênin” cho sinh viên ở Hanoi National University of Education hiện nay, University-level research, Hanoi National University of Education 6. Nguyen Thi Van (2013), "Ảnh hưởng quan niệm về đức hạnh trong Nho giáo đối với người phụ nữ Việt Nam hiện nay", Education Magazine, (9), p.75-77, 85. 7. Nguyễn Thi Van (2013), "Quan niệm về "Dung" trong "Tứ đức" của Nho giáo đối với người phụ nữ", Propaganda, (11), p.54-57. 8. Nguyen Thi Van (2013), "Giáo dục đạo đức thông qua tục ngữ, ca dao, dân ca Việt Nam", Educational Science Magazine, (98), p.48-51. 9. Nguyen Thi Van(2013), "Giáo dục đạo đức thông qua tục ngữ, ca dao, dân ca Việt Nam", Educational Science Magazine, (98), p.48-51. 10. Nguyen Thi Van (Co-author) (2013), Quan niệm về đạo làm người trong hoành phi, câu đối ở miền Bắc Việt Nam, Ministry-level research of 2013-2014, Hanoi National University of Education. 11. Nguyen Thi Van (Chief Author) (2013), Công, dung, ngôn,hạnh trong Nho giáo và ảnh hưởng của nó đối với người phụ nữ Việt Nam hiện nay, Research code -10-506, Hanoi National University of Education. 12. Nguyen Thi Van(2014), Đạo đức - Một giá trị được tôn vinh trong tục ngữ, ca dao, dân ca Việt Nam, Kỷ yếu Hội thảo khoa học: "Đạo làm người trong văn hóa Việt Nam", National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. 13. Nguyen Thi Van(2014), Giáo dục đạo đức thông qua tục ngữ, ca dao, dân ca Việt Nam, Kỷ yếu Hội thảo khoa học: "Đạo làm người trong văn hóa Việt Nam", National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. 14. Nguyen Thi Van(2014), "Đạo làm người trong hoành phi, câu đối của dòng họ Vũ tỉnh Hải Dương", Education Magazine, (Special edition), May 2014. 15. Nguyen Thi Van(2014), "Sử dụng ca dao, tục ngữ trong giảng dạy Phương pháp luận biện chứng và Phương pháp luận siêu hình", Education Magazine, (Special edition), May 2014. 16. Nguyen Thi Van (2014), "Nâng cao năng lực thực hành đạo đức cho học sinh trong dạy học môn giáo dục công dân", Education Magazine, (335), June 2014. 17. Nguyen Thi Van(Co-author) (2014), Triết học về lòng biết ơn trong đạo lý "Uống nước nhớ nguồn", Napotex research, Basic Research of Social and Humanity Science, Hanoi

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