High-Quality human resource development for women in vietnam at present time

With globalization, open-door policies and international economic integration, Vietnam has the opportunity to develop. However, it is faced with many challenges. For the shortest way to success, it is necessary to mobilize all different resources, in which NNLCLC is the most important with indispensble NNLNCLC ̣ 's contribution. NNLNCLC sees a significant number out of NNLCLC, is an important part of NNLCLC in the development of the country. NNLNCLC is part of NNLN essences, welleducated and highly- technical expertised. President Ho Chi Minh affirmed that women liberation is one of the indispensable tasks of the Vietnamese revolution: "Women make half of society. If women are not liberated, half of the world are not liberated. No women's liberation is to build only half socialism "[64, p.222]. To promote industrialization and modernization of the country means to develop NNLNCLC by mobilizing their contributions to that process. Fully aware of the role, the importance of NNLNCLC, the Party and State have to develop guidelines, and policies to develop women in a revolutionary period. Based on the impact assessment of objective conditions and subjective factors related to NNLNCLC, the thesis assesses the NNLNCLC situation in Viet Nam in recent years and then finds that NNLNCLC has already significantly grown in many ways, contributed to the development of the country, especially in politics and science and technology leadership, management as analyzed in the thesis. Enormous NNLNCLC contributions not only affirm NNLNCLC intellectual potential, but also confirms the interest of the Party, the State and society, the rise of the NNLNCLC. At the same time 148 female achievement is a testament to the women intelligence compared to men in the family and society. Although NNLNCLC are bold,intelligent, creative, and responsible NNLNCLC in our country suffer shortcomings: limited quantity, weak quality, poor structure and allocation, management, use and retain, which have not met the requirements of the development of the country. The thesis author initially raised and intepreted fundamental contradictions in developing NNLNCLC, which requires high determination to to find the solution to the conflict and not to be left behind. This is a huge long- term challenge for NNLNCLC, which requires not only the rise of themselves,but also the attention, encouragement of the society and family.

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ve greater creative 137 possibilities. Moreover, at this time they have grown-up children, stable families are more favorable than for professionals. Thus, retirement age shouldbe equal to that of men (60 years old). If implemented, this solution will take advantage of the significant contributions of a talented parts of NNLNCLC in order to institutionalize the idea of equality of the Party and State. Each year, Vietnam has tens of thousands of NNLNCLC graduates in different types of training such as bachelor, master and doctor. If we have the most reasonable policies, they may be recruited for quality labor force for the organization in all areas of social life contributing to the development of the country. Vietnam has been trying to set out and implement policies to attract talents to improve the quality of human resources to push the economic growth and promote social progress. However, the practise shows that the policy performance has not promoted efficiently and met the requirements. The problem is not simply a rational mechanism and correct perception, planning and training options it is important to resolve layout, arrangement, appointment, trust young NNLNCLC and stimulate their initiatives and creativity. We must use the professional qualifications, competence and choose the right people for the right jobs. NNLN and NNLNCLC play an important role for the economic development and social progress, in addition to the education and training the use and management also needs adequate attention so that it can exploit and develop human resources for development. Attention should be paid to the following issues: - To aim to develop critical NNLNCLC and their use in the development strategy of the country: with specific criteria and standards to each region, each subject lines. The planning and use of NNLNCLC must be 138 conducted regularly and are sufficiently concerned by the levels and sectors, but does not lighten the quality in order to meet the requirements for the participation of NNLN structure. Instead, NNLNCLC must be prepared in quantity and continuously improve the quality in the immediate and long-term period. - In the use, arrangement and rotation of NNLNCLC we have to account about the characteristics, the environment and favorable conditions for their efforts, training, showing capacity, to develop the property. Selection and promotion of NNLNCLC have to meet the requirements of the new situation with necessary but not rigid highly qualified standards, so that they do not interfere with the selection NNLNCLC, resulting in trouble with female staff resources discovery. - The Party committees are responsible for leadership in planning NNLNCLC in the overall planning of the party cadres at each level, and each local branch. Simultaneously with the planning and training to care and foster the active personnel, promotion, appointment to ensure the standards of each title, with the ability to complete tasks, promote strengths, advantages of NNLNCLC. Implementation of planning principles, training, promotion and appointment of women should be earlier than men in terms of age. In the case of men and women are eligible and the same conditions priority should be given to to women. The planning has to ensure stable inheritance and development of NNLNCLC using in a sustainable manner in the offices and units. - Develop, modify, supplement and implement organizational policies for the NNLNCLC development in scientific- technology research, leadership and management. There are specific policies for planning, training, training, appointment and rotation for them accordingly. 139 - Appropriate policies have to be provided for NNLNCLC, especially at the unit level, to attract trained NNLNCLC to work in local with their legal protection of rights and legitimate interests. To achieve that, the Party and the State need to create favourable working environment conditions for NNLNCLC: There are many incentives for scaling the positive classic example of the NNLNCLC, with many achievements in learning and research, in the work. Support finances in their scientific work. The policy, the incentive for NNLNCLC in the remote areas, or areas with special difficulties... - The Party, the State should have measures to facilitate for NNLNCLC conditional cooperation, exchange the experience with NNLNCLC countries in the region and the world: economic learning about sustainable development forces, given change the mission and science in all fields... In addition, it is necessary to develop policies to support the development of industry, the family services. As the society develops, it often places NNLNCLC in a difficult situation, because they have to handle the heavy responsibilities in reproductive health and social workers for the survival of the family. Policies should be reduce the burden of housework for NNLN, especially NNLNCLC, so they can concentrate and spend a lot of time for professional career development and exploit their capabilities. This can only be done through the organization to support the development of household services labor as housewife is considered part of the labor force and contribute to the economic development. The timely assistance will reduce the burden of family chores for NNLNCLC to have the time they advance academic qualifications and career development. During using labor process, the intellectual position is the most important and it also creates the greatest value. It should have a remuneration 140 policy in place, a new way to exploit the potential of NNLNCLC both at home and abroad to contribute to the building of rich and strong country today. Firstly, it must help NNLNC LC have stable jobs with high income To encourage positive effective of NNLNCLC it is important to make NNLNCLC employed with high-income and even be enriched by their profession. Proven fact, wages are most strongly impact on the NNLNCLC attitude, engine, creativity and professional skills, work skills in the market mechanism. It helps to solve the problem trained NNLNCLC give low-income jobs in line with their professional services for work not related to or less related to professional services, aimed at have higher incomes, causing a waste of "brain-drain" in contemporary society. Therefore, the principle of payment must be reasonable and effective, in accordance with market mechanisms such NNLNCLC we recruit new qualified and highly professional. If we do not do that, it will inhibit the NNLNCLC development and the development of the country. Secondly, the wages must be commensurate with ability, qualifications and skills. We need to increase wage of female Professor, Associate Professor, Ph.D. , who have devoted the period from 20-25 years. They can get the highest salary commensurate with their academic qualifications and importance in the knowledge-based economy. The qualified scientists do not hold management positions must be respected and recognized by society. At the same time, this reflects the spirit of Resolution of the VII, VIII Party Congress “education, training and science and technology is the first national policy”, is an important driving force to promote the industrialization and modernization process. Only then can NNLCLC in general and NNLNCLC 141 in particular live on their jobs, love their jobs and ready to serve the best for the development of society. We have to limit the ‘wrong allocation’ because trained NNLNCLC but unemployed or NNLNCLC do not meet the requirements of the job. This situation not only reduces the competitiveness of NNLNCLC in the market but also caused great waste to the state and the family. We must have a strategy to develop NNLCLC in general and NNLNCLC in particular to meet the requirements of industrialization and modernization, integration to promote the knowledge-based economy today. For technology scientists, to harness their positive potential, creativity, especially the top talent, we must have the strong enough financial support to attach science, technology with practice. Create the best working conditions for NNLNCLC as providing information, facilities modern laboratory facilities, facilities development, rapid application research results into practice. On the other hand, it is not adequately addressed the benefits of physical and mental researchers, patents, inventions, scientific applications, efficient technologies. State shall be responsible for organizing, managing, creating favorable conditions for innovative activities of NNLCLC general and NNLNCLC in particular and the protection of their intellectual property, creating comfortable atmosphere for creative activities ... We will exploit the optimal efficiency of NNLNCLC. On that basis, we plan to use specific and preferential treatment for NNLNCLC as follows: - For the newly- graduated young NNLNCLC, state and local policies should specifically encourage and motivate them, so that they can work, dedicate and improve their response requirements of the job. - Create the conditions, equal opportunities for both men and women, and meet the gender-specific demands, consistent with the physiological 142 characteristics of NNLNCLC. Avoid discrimination in training and use NNLNCLC. Thirdly, fair review, preferential and honour of NNLNCLC. The objective evaluation of the Party and State and society on NNLNCLC abilities and based on their dedication to the adequate treatment is a source of great encouragement, encouraging passionate work of NNLNCLC. It is necessary for women scientists to be justice and democracy in the assessment and treatment. This problem requires the Party and State concern. Justice here is not the "average, condescension" which is facilitated by the leadership, social and family for NNLNCLC a chance to show their intelligence in a better way. We should have specific policies to encourage the development of creative and talent NNLNCLC as they facilitate the implementation of projects, scientific topics, communicate boldly and trust them to work in parallel to guide and mentor to learning, while improving the level, proactive, innovative contributions to the field of energy research, additional income ... the urgent task of management and leadership. In addition priority selection should be given to the young NNLNCLC, who wish to do higher education funding priorities, time. There are appropriate and timely rewards in the form of frinance and honour for the success of NNLNCLC and forming social psychology on the achievements of NNLNCLC intellectual activities to encourage them. Both sexes are equally developed and their worthy contributions to the evolution of society is not only great aspirations of NNLNCLC, but also the whole society of mankind. The power of NNLNCLC will increase multifold if they have a group of leading experts, talented females scientists and managers ... So, the value and reasonable treatment force will be a driving force NNLNCLC behind 143 involved in the field of high intellectual activity. For female Professors, Associate Professors and Doctors, in addition to the general treatment policy as an intellectual, the Party and State should consider more preferential treatment, especially with those with outstanding dedication to our country and for the advancement of women. Party and the country value forms of political and spirit mobilization, the forms to honour NNLNCLC dedication and excellence: the implementation of the titles reviewed scientific and national awards for culture, science award medals and merit commendation for meritorious NNLNCLC ... contribute to the education of traditions “Talents are assets of the nation's resources”. The role of the Vietnam Women's Union has a tremendous sense of struggle and rise of NNLN in general and NNLNCLC in particular. The Union has to build the typical NNLNCLC honor movements. As this is an organization representing the interests of women, Women's Union continues to create many more activities contributing to improving the knowledge and capacity to NNLNCLC, thereby helping them to understand properly to know about gender equality, to be aware of their capabilities, capacities and limitations, on the basis of which appropriate directions or limited remedy to go to the success. The Vietnam Women's Union, especially the Vietnam Female Intellectuals is the bridge between NNLNCLC and the Party, the Government and international partners, reflecting the thoughts and aspirations of NNLNCLC to the Party and State, and consults and proposes policies and measures to develop NNLNCLC contribute to the development of the country. The Vietnam Female Intellectuals should have an award for outstanding female scientists in the fields, especially in the field of social sciences and humanities. According to the authors, this is Covalepxkaia 144 Award - sponsored by foreign countries - as motivation, great encouragement for women scientists in Vietnam. It also creates a huge gap between women scientist’s in the fields of natural and engineering sciences with the women in the social and humanities and other fields. Of NNLNCLC in these areas, many women are excellent and talent but they do not receive the timely encouragement from the State, civil society and international organizations. An award for outstanding scientists in the field from the State will be great inspiration, a motivation as well as material importance to them. It is also the concern of the Party and State for NNLN in general and NNLNCLC in particular. Improving the social insurance system and strengthening supervision and inspection of the implementation of the Social Insurance Law, the Law on Gender Equality are to expand the participation and ensure the legitimate interests for NNLNCLC. Fourthly, favourable psychological environment to stimulate NNLNCLC creativity. Social psychology environment is influenced by many factors such as the relationship between colleagues, philosophy, employer-employee relationship, customs and forms of cultural activities, other mental ... To create a psychological environment- convenient for society to encourage the active, creative NNLNCLC, the most important thing is to make appropriate socio-economic policies matching with the conditions and possibilities of social reality, just in time to meet the needs, feelings and aspirations of the masses. Currently in the specific conditions of our country, to create psychological peace of mind, excitedness, positiveness, creativeness for NNLNCLC we need to pay attention to their legitimate demands: jobs and income, gender equality and social justice, the need to improve understanding, a 145 chance to get promoted to assert themselves and to be honoured by the society, ... The satisfaction of these needs will directly impact on NNLNCLC positive attitude, towards work. In summary, training, recruitment, employment and treatment NNLNCLC is a large and urgent issue today. Solving this problem requires a proper perspective and the full understanding practical needs of NNLNCLC of our country in order to create and develop intellectual resources of the country. We must have a strategic vision to “educating people” as President Ho Chi Minh required. Policy training, recruitment, employment and treatment for NNLNCLC must be consistent with the policy of that field for NNLCLC in general and meet the specific requirements of NNLNCLC. That policy is not merely for their rights, but also related to the prosperity of the whole nation, is related to the pace of development of the country. In this day, when the world entered the era of intellectual civilization, NNLCLC in general, NNLNCLC in particular of each country will be present in all areas of social life, to participate in the management and running the country. Thus, policy for NNLNCLC is to create intellectual power of the whole nation; considere ‘brain’ is the capital of your country to preserve, cherish and develop. However, a progressive society can generate the favorable objective and subjective conditions for NNLN in general and NNLNCLC in particular to have the opportunity to develop their talents and contribute to national development. CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSION 1. NNLNCLC is one of the most crucial parts of NNLN, it plays an important role in determining the sustainable development of the country. Vietnam is a developing country with struggling economy, social science and technology. The advantage, leveraging the development of 146 science and technology, management experience ... during international exchanges and integration has important implications to accelerate and shorten the gap with countries in the region and the world. 2. In recent years, under the leadership of the Party, the State and the determination of the entire political system in our country, NNLNCLC has experienced rapid growth in both quantity and quality. However, the development is not synchronous does not meet the construction requirements of the knowledge-based economy and promote industrialization and modernization of the country today. It is crucial to research and sychronize groups of solutions to mobilize the objective conditions and subjective factors for the development NNLNCLC. The objective and subjective measures are of the theoretical basis for the Party and State to help continue the strategic planning and direction for the better development of NNLNCLC in coming years. 147 CONCLUSION With globalization, open-door policies and international economic integration, Vietnam has the opportunity to develop. However, it is faced with many challenges. For the shortest way to success, it is necessary to mobilize all different resources, in which NNLCLC is the most important with indispensble NNLNCLC ̣'s contribution. NNLNCLC sees a significant number out of NNLCLC, is an important part of NNLCLC in the development of the country. NNLNCLC is part of NNLN essences, well- educated and highly- technical expertised. President Ho Chi Minh affirmed that women liberation is one of the indispensable tasks of the Vietnamese revolution: "Women make half of society. If women are not liberated, half of the world are not liberated. No women's liberation is to build only half socialism "[64, p.222]. To promote industrialization and modernization of the country means to develop NNLNCLC by mobilizing their contributions to that process. Fully aware of the role, the importance of NNLNCLC, the Party and State have to develop guidelines, and policies to develop women in a revolutionary period. Based on the impact assessment of objective conditions and subjective factors related to NNLNCLC, the thesis assesses the NNLNCLC situation in Viet Nam in recent years and then finds that NNLNCLC has already significantly grown in many ways, contributed to the development of the country, especially in politics and science and technology leadership, management as analyzed in the thesis. Enormous NNLNCLC contributions not only affirm NNLNCLC intellectual potential, but also confirms the interest of the Party, the State and society, the rise of the NNLNCLC. At the same time 148 female achievement is a testament to the women intelligence compared to men in the family and society. Although NNLNCLC are bold, intelligent, creative, and responsible NNLNCLC in our country suffer shortcomings: limited quantity, weak quality, poor structure and allocation, management, use and retain, which have not met the requirements of the development of the country. The thesis author initially raised and intepreted fundamental contradictions in developing NNLNCLC, which requires high determination to to find the solution to the conflict and not to be left behind. This is a huge long- term challenge for NNLNCLC, which requires not only the rise of themselves, but also the attention, encouragement of the society and family. In the coming time, to develop at a fast and sustainable pace, and mobilize the entire NNLCLC contribution to the development of an industrialized Vietnam by 2020 the Strategy for Socio-Economic Development (2011-2020) was launched Therefore, we need a more appropriate and effective Strategy for NNLNCLC Development.. On the basis of an assessment of the impact factor (objective conditions and subjective factors), the thesis proposes a number of groups of solutions to develop NNLNCLC in Vietnam now and in the future. With regard human beings as both impetus and objective of development, NNLNCLC development must be made vivid in all aspects of social life: from socio-economic development to education-training innovation, perfecting the system of policies, health care, improve management and efficiency... Although these things have not fully mentioned, the author was trying to propose more feasible solutions in developing NNLNCLC in Vietnam at present time. 149 LIST OF WORKS PUBLISHED BY THE THESIS’ WRITER RELATED TO THE THESIS 1. Nguyen Thi Giang Huong (2010), "Moral education for students in order to develop human resources in Vietnam today", Journal of Political Theory and Communications , (6), tr.46 - 50 . 2. Nguyen Thi Giang Huong (2010), "Promoting human resources in higher education", Journal of Political Theory , (7), tr.55-59. 3. Nguyen Thi Giang Huong (2011), "Women improve learning - difficulties, obstacles and solutions", Journal of Labor and Social Affairs , (405), tr.26 - 28. 4. Nguyen Thi Giang Huong (2011), "The quality of human resources in education today - a number of issues of concern", Journal of Education , (270), tr.1-3. 5. 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Tran Thi Thu (2003), Creating jobs for women in the industrialization and modernization (Analysis in Hanoi), Publishing House of Labor - Social, Hanoi. 90. Van Tat Thu (2011), "Human resources and the basics of using, Organization State Journal, (No. 1). 91. GSO (2010), World stats in Gender in Vietnam 2000-2010 , Hanoi. 92. Pham Hong Tung (ed., 2008), Brief study on detection of experience, training and use of talent in the history of Vietnam, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. 93. Tran Van Tung - Le Ai Lam (1996), Human Resource Development - The world and our country experience, the National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. 94. Tran Van Tung (2005), Training and retraining of human resources and using their talents, World Publishers, Hanoi. 95. National Committee for Social Affairs of the National Assembly (1995), The role of human resources in strategic socio-economic development, Conference Proceedings, Hanoi. 160 96. Institute for Development Strategy of the Ministry of Planning and Investment (2006), High-quality Workforce: current status of development, use and enhanced solutions, Ministry- level scientific research. 97. Institute of Educational Sciences of Vietnam (2010), The experience of some countries to develop education and training, science and technology associated with the construction of the intelligentsia, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. 98. Dam Duc Vuong (2008), Scientific Report at the III Vietnam Studies International Conference with the theme: Vietnam, integration and development, situation and develop solutions for human resources in Vietnam. 161 APPENDIX Appendix 1 College students and college students by sex, 2001 - 2010 Unit:% Male Female No. Year The number Proportion The number Proportion 1 2001 542 796 55.72 431 323 44.28 2 2002 533 953 55.58 426 739 44.42 3 2003 559 935 54.23 472 505 45.77 4 2004 689 109 52.21 630 645 47.79 5 2005 690 610 50.66 672 557 49.34 6 2006 688 120 44.68 852 081 55.32 7 2007 732 792 45.70 870 692 54.30 8 2008 872 623 50.75 846 876 49.25 9 2009 970 006 50.11 965 733 49.89 10 2010 1094800 50.64 1067306 49.36 Source: Statistical Yearbook 2011, the GSO. 162 Appendix 2 Rate of female workforce participationin Party Central Committee Unit:% X Congress XI Congress Female Male Female MaleNo List The number Rate The number Rate The number Rate The number Rate 1 Member of the Politburo 0 0 14 100 1 7.15 13th 92.85 2 Secretary of the Central Party 1 12.5 7 87.5 2 20.0 8 80.0 3 Official Member of the Central Party Committee 13th 8.13 147 91.87 15th 8.57 160 91.43 4 Alternate member of the Party's Central Committee 3 14.29 18th 85.71 3 12.0 22 88.0 Source: Evaluation Report for the period 2007 - 2012, term plan for 2012 - 2017 of the Central Committee of the Vietnam Women's Union (at the Eleventh National Congress of VWU)) 163 Appendix 3 The female number and percentage of the National Assembly 1946 - 2016 Unit:% Courses Women delegates Total number of members Female ratio (%) Course I (1946 - 1960) 10 333 3.00 Course II (1960 - 1964) 49 362 13.54 Course III (1964 - 1971) 62 366 16.94 Course IV (1971 - 1975) 125 420 29.76 Course V (1975 - 1976) 137 424 32.31 Course VI (1976 - 1981) 132 492 26.83 Course VII (1981 - 1987) 108 496 21.77 Course VIII (1987 - 1992) 88 496 17.74 Course IX (1992 - 1997) 73 395 18.48 Course X (1997 - 2002) 118 450 26.22 Course XI (2002 - 2007) 136 498 27.31 Course XII (2007 - 2011) 127 493 25.76 Course XIII (2011 - 2016) 122 500 24.40 Source: The Vietnam Women's Union 164 Appendix 4 Structure of key leaders in the ministries, ministerial-level agencies, agencies of government in 2012 Women key leaders Male key leaders TT Organs Total number of key leaders The number of Percent age (%) The numb er of Percent age (%) Agenc ies are key leader s 1 Ministry of Public Security 6 0 0.00 6 100.00 2 Ministry of Industry and Trade 10 1 10.00 9 90.00 x 3 Ministry of Education and Training 5 1 20.00 4 80.00 x 4 Ministry of Transport 7 0 0.00 7 100.00 5 Ministry of Planning and Investment 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 6 Ministry of Science and Technology 7 0 0.00 7 100.00 7 Ministry of Labour - Invalids and Social Affairs 7 1 14.29 6 85.71 x 8 Ministry of Foreign Affairs 8 1 12.50 7 87.50 x 9 Ministry of Home Affairs 6 1 16.67 5 83.33 x 10 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development 11 1 9.09 10 90.91 x 11 Ministry of Defense 7 0 0.00 7 100.00 12 Ministry of Finance 10 2 20.00 8 80.00 x 13 Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment 8 0 0.00 8 100.00 14 Ministry of Justice 6 1 16.67 5 83.33 x 15 Ministry of Information and Communications 6 0 0.00 6 100.00 16 Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 17 Ministry of Construction 6 0 0.00 6 100.00 18 Ministry of Health 5 2 40.00 3 60.00 x 165 Women key leaders Male key leaders TT Organs Total number of key leaders The number of Percent age (%) The numb er of Percent age (%) Agenc ies are key leader s 19 Government Office 8 0 0.00 8 100.00 20 The State Bank of Vietnam 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 21 The Government Inspector 7 1 14.20 6 85.71 x 22 Ethnic Minority Committee 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 23 Management Committee of Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum 2 0 0.00 2 100.00 24 Vietnam Social Insurance 5 1 20.00 4 80.00 x 25 Voice of Vietnam Radio 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 26 Vietnam Television 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 27 Ho Chi Minh Academy of Politics and Public Administration 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 28 Vietnam News Agency 3 0 0.00 3 100.00 29 Institute of Science and Technology of Vietnam 3 0 0.00 3 100.00 30 Social Sciences and the Institute of Vietnam 3 0 0.00 3 100.00 Total 177 14 7.91 163 92.09 Total body's key female leaders 12 The proportion of agencies is key female leaders 40% Source: Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 2012. 166 Appendix 5 Structure of key leaders of the People's Committees of provinces and centrally-run cities in 2012 Women key leaders Men key leaders Provinces / Cities Total number of key leaders The number Percent age (%) The num ber Percent age (%) Pro / City key wome n leader s 1 Hanoi 7 1 14.29 6 85.71 x 2 Ho Chi Minh City 6 1 16.67 5 83.33 x 3 Hai Phong City 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 4 Da Nang 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 5 Can Tho 5 1 20.00 4 80.00 x 6 Cao Bang 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 7 Lang Son 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 8 Lai Chau 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 9 Dien Bien 5 1 20.00 4 80.00 x 10 Ha Giang 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 11 Son La 5 1 20.00 4 80.00 x 12 Tuyen Quang 3 1 33.33 2 66.67 x 13 Yen Bai 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 x 14 Lao Cai 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 x 15 Bac Kan 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 16 Thai Nguyen 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 x 17 Phu Tho 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 18 Vinh Phuc 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 x 19 Bac Giang 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 x 20 Bac Ninh 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 21 Hoa Binh 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 22 Quang Ninh 5 1 20.00 4 80.00 x 23 Hai Duong 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 x 24 Hung Yen 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 25 Thai binh 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 x 26 Ha Nam 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 x 167 Women key leaders Men key leaders Provinces / Cities Total number of key leaders The number Percent age (%) The num ber Percent age (%) Pro / City key wome n leader s 27 Nam Dinh 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 28 Ninh Binh 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 29 Thanh Hoa 6 0 0.00 6 100.00 30 Nghe An 6 0 0.00 6 100.00 31 Ha Tinh 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 32 Quang Binh 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 33 Quang Tri 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 34 Thua Thien Hue 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 35 Quang Nam 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 36 Quang Ngai 5 1 20.00 5 80.00 x 37 Binh Dinh 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 x 38 Phu Yen 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 39 Khanh Hoa 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 40 Ninh Thuan 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 41 Binh Thuan 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 42 Gia Lai 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 43 Kon Tum 5 1 20.00 5 80.00 x 44 Dak Lak 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 45 Dak Nong 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 x 46 Lam Dong 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 47 Dong Nai 5 1 20.00 5 80.00 x 48 Ba Ria - Vung Tau 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 49 Long An 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 50 Tay Ninh 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 x 51 Binh Duong 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 52 Binh Phuoc 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 53 Tien Giang 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 x 54 Ben Tre 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 55 Hau Giang 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 56 Soc Trang 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 168 Women key leaders Men key leaders Provinces / Cities Total number of key leaders The number Percent age (%) The num ber Percent age (%) Pro / City key wome n leader s 57 Dong Thap 4 1 25.00 3 75.00 x 58 Vinh Long 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 59 Tra Vinh 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 60 An Giang 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 61 Kien Giang 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 62 Bac Lieu 5 1 20.00 4 80.00 x 63 Ca Mau 3 0 0.00 3 100.00 Total 280 24 8.57 256 91.43 General provinces / cities under central key female leaders 24 Proportion (%) of the provinces / cities under central key female leaders 38.10 Source: Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 2012. 169 Appendix 6 Structure of key leaders of the Party, National Assembly, a number of state agencies, socio- political organizations, - 2012 Women key leaders Male key leaders No Organ Total number of key leaders The number of Percentage (%) The number of Percentage (%) The female lead is the key 1 Central Party Office 11 2 18.18 9 81.82 X 2 Central Board of Advocacy 7 2 28.57 5 71.43 X 3 Central Commission for External Relations 3 0 0.00 3 100.00 4 Central Organizing Committee 7 0 0.00 7 100.00 5 Central Propaganda Department 9 1 11.11 8 88.89 X 6 Overseas Party 3 0 0.00 3 100.00 7 Central Inspection Committee 9 2 22.22 7 77.78 X 8 ONA 7 0 0.00 7 100.00 9 Ethnic Minorities Council of the National Assembly 7 2 28.57 5 71.43 X 10 Committee on Social Affairs of the National Assembly 5 2 40.00 3 60.00 X 11 Foreign Affairs Committee of the National Assembly 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 12 Economic Committee of Congress 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 13 Committee on Science - Technology and Environment of the National Assembly 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 170 Women key leaders Male key leaders No Organ Total number of key leaders The number of Percentage (%) The number of Percentage (%) The female lead is the key 14 Law Committee of the National Assembly 5 1 20.00 4 80.00 X 15 Defense Security Committee - of the National Assembly 4 0 0.00 4 100.00 16 Finance Budget Committee - Congressional 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 17 Justice Committee of the National Assembly 6 1 16.67 5 83.33 X 18 Committee for Culture, Education, Youth, and Children's Youth Parliament 5 1 20.00 4 80.00 X 19 State Audit 6 0 0.00 6 100.00 20 Office of the President 3 0 0.00 3 100.00 21 Supreme People's Court 7 0 0.00 7 100.00 22 People's Procuracy Supreme 6 1 16.67 5 83.33 X 23 Central Committee of Vietnam Fatherland Front 9 2 22.22 7 77.78 X 24 General Confederation of Labour of Vietnam 6 1 16.67 5 83.33 X 25 HCM Youth Union 6 2 33.33 4 66.67 X 26 Central VWU 8 8 100.00 0 0.00 X 27 Central Vietnam Farmers Association 5 0 0.00 5 100.00 Total 163 27 16.56 136 83.34 Total body's key female leaders 14 171 Women key leaders Male key leaders No Organ Total number of key leaders The number of Percentage (%) The number of Percentage (%) The female lead is the key The proportion of agencies is key female leaders 51.85 Source: Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 2012 Appendix 7 Number of important scientific and technological awards given to high- quality women's human resources No. Award Name Individuals Collective Total 1 International Awards for Planning Excellence (awarded by WIPO, UN) 2 2 2 Ho Chi Minh Award 2 8 10 3 State Awards 13th 0 13th 4 Kovalevskaya Award 34 15th 49 5 Vifotec Awards 48 34 82 6 Vietnam Women's Awards 42 23 65 7 Environmental Award 2 2 8 National Journalism Award 58 58 9 Golden Rose Award 131 131 172 10 Creative Talent Award women 6 25 31 11 Land Awards Honoring Vietnam (for women overseas Vietnamese intellectuals) 4 4 Total 342 105 447 Source: The Vietnam Women's Union Appendix 8 Factors affecting training opportunities / training of male and female Factors Male Female Regulations are sent for training after 3-5 years of work (26-28 years old) - No impact because there is no pressure on the appropriate age for marriage - Significant impact because women are expected to marry earlier than men - Pressure is especially large when considered stable job Marriage - No effect - Easy to learn and get married without choice - Not easy to combine - Going to school or marry is the right choice The attitude of the wife / husband - Often support, encouragement - The wife did not want to - Often want to worry her family home, baby - The husband can stop 173 interfere the husband's learning wife’s learning if he likes The small children - Does not affect much - Focus on child - Difficult to participate in training for a long time, far from home Family and community - Encourage continue to improve - Do not put a limit on learning - No incentive to continue their higher education - Set specific limits, a university degree is considered sufficient Affordability for learning - Investment in education is a priority - A reasonable investment - Investments in sequence learning in last stand, after her husband, son ... - The investments are not fully justified In cases where the limit target - Dedicating longer after school (60) - is more beneficial to appoint compared with women - Do not work with affected families - Short-time dedication, there is no benefit in sending men - Can work with families affected No nursery or child's kindergarten for students at - No impact - Can not bring them - Significant impact on women to participate 174 training institutions with small children Source: Institute for Family and Gender, results of qualitative research on women leaders in the public sector in Vietnam, in 2009.

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