Luận án Nghiên cứu một số đặc điểm sinh học cá song vua epinephelus lanceolatus (bloch, 1790) ở giai đoạn phát triển ban đầu (phôi, ấu trùng và cá hương)

Trong quá trình phát triển phôi: Độ mặn nƣớc từ 32,0 - 35,0 ppt (± 0,5) và nhiệt độ nƣớc (28,0 ± 0,5)ºC là điều kiện thích hợp nhất để phôi cá Song vua phát triển, trứng cá Song vua nở ra ấu trùng đạt tỷ lệ cao nhất và tỷ lệ ấu trùng dị hình thấp nhất. Ấu trùng cá Song vua đƣợc chia làm 5 giai đoạn, khi mới nở ấu trùng có kích thƣớc 1,72 ± 0,04 mm, đƣờng kính của khối noãn hoàng là 0,91 ± 0,1 mm, ấu trùng có một giọt dầu nằm ở phía lƣng của khối noãn hoàng với đƣờng kính giọt dầu là 0,16 ± 0,05 mm. Ấu trùng cá Song vua thƣờng mở miệng sau 60 giờ kể từ khi trứng nở (độ mặn 28 ppt và nhiệt độ 28ºC) với kích thƣớc mở miệng là 130,5  20,0 m. Gai cứng xuất hiện trên vây lung và vây ngực của ấu trùng từ ngày tuổi thứ 9, gai cứng dài tối đa vào ngày tuổi thứ 21 và các gai cứng này biến mất vào ngày tuổi thứ 35, ấu trùng cá Song vua hoàn thành biến thái thành cá hƣơng ở ngày tuổi thứ 42 khi đó kích thƣớc ấu trùng đạt 35,02 ± 0,51 mm. Khi mới nở ống tiêu hóa của ấu trùng cá Song vua là một ống thẳng, mầm dạ dày xuất hiện vào ngày thứ 3 và phát triển hoàn thiện ở giai đoạn hoàn thành biến thái. Đặc trƣng ống tiêu hóa của ấu trùng cá Song vua là to và ngắn. Điều kiện độ mặn nƣớc thích hợp nhất cho ấu trùng phát triển là 28 - 32 ppt và nhiệt độ nƣớc thích hợp (từ khi nở đến khi ấu trùng 20 ngày tuổi) là 28oC, khoảng nhiệt độ nƣớc thích hợp (từ khi ấu trùng 20 ngày tuổi đến ấu trùng hoàn thiện biến thái) là 28 - 31oC

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Studies on Artificial Propagation and Embryonic Development of Epinephelus lanceolatus [J]. Journal of Guangdong Ocean University, 4, 009. 1 Phụ Lục 1. Ảnh hƣởng của nhiệt độ và độ mặn đến quá trình phát triển của phôi Anova: Single Factor Nhiệt độ - Thời gian nở (phút) SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance 25,0±0,5 3 117.9 39.3 20.41 28,0±0,5 3 67.4 22.47 5.84 31,0±0,5 3 55.2 18.4 4.69 34,0±0,5 3 49.2 16.4 4.09 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 976.4425 3 325.4808333 37.16241675 4.81075E-05 4.066180557 Within Groups 70.06666667 8 8.758333333 Total 1046.509167 11 significant difference Anova: Single Factor Nhiệt độ - Thời gian ấp (phút) SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance 25,0±0,5 3 3287.1 1095.7 32.67 28,0±0,5 3 3152.1 1050.7 71.47 31,0±0,5 3 3061.8 1020.6 85.41 34,0±0,5 3 3031.2 1010.4 66.43 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 13181 3 4393.81 68.65864521 4.73592E-06 4.066180557 Within Groups 511.96 8 63.995 Total 13693 11 significant difference 2 Anova: Single Factor Nhiệt độ - Tỷ lệ nở (%) SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance 25,0±0,5 3 97.87050429 32.62350143 4.0708614 28,0±0,5 3 158.1573091 52.71910304 1.9410792 31,0±0,5 3 152.8446114 50.94820379 1.795801 34,0±0,5 3 103.4932721 34.49775735 7.6558023 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 1011.6836 3 337.2278668 87.231716 1.8826E-06 4.066181 Within Groups 30.9270879 8 3.865885988 Total 1042.610688 11 significant difference Anova: Single Factor Nhiệt độ - Tỷ lệ ấu trùng dị hình (%) SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance 25,0±0,5 3 34.369 11.456 8.355 28,0±0,5 3 27.214 9.071 0.734 31,0±0,5 3 56.105 18.702 1.178 34,0±0,5 3 240.095 80.032 28.361 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 10237.69725 3 3412.56575 353.38292 7.7202E-09 4.066181 Within Groups 77.25479786 8 9.656849733 Total 10314.95205 11 significant difference 3 Anova: Single Factor độ mặn - Thời gian ấp (phút) SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance 24±0,5 3 3038.1 1012.7 43.81 28±0,5 3 3092.4 1030.8 56.77 32±0,5 3 3062.8 1020.933333 66.34333333 35±0,5 3 3045 1015 54.61 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 587.1625 3 195.7208333 3.533930184 0.068089658 4.066180557 Within Groups 443.0666667 8 55.38333333 Total 1030.229167 11 not significant difference Anova: Single Factor độ mặn - Thời gian nở (phút) SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance 24±0,5 3 146.4 48.8 3.43 28±0,5 3 147.9 49.3 4.41 32±0,5 3 149.1 49.7 6.24 35±0,5 3 150.2 50.06666667 6.303333333 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 2.66 3 0.886666667 0.173998365 0.91101154 4.066180557 Within Groups 40.76666667 8 5.095833333 Total 43.42666667 11 not significant difference 4 Anova: Single Factor độ mặn - Tỷ lệ nở (%) SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance 24±0,5 3 71.39806544 23.79935515 3.6292305 28±0,5 3 111.4856533 37.16188444 1.79846604 32±0,5 3 157.6237463 52.54124876 2.03723034 35±0,5 3 150.9184057 50.30613524 2.17138105 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 1591.166203 3 530.3887343 220.162634 5.02339E-08 4.066180557 Within Groups 19.27261587 8 2.409076984 Total 1610.438819 11 significant difference Anova: Single Factor độ mặn -Tỷ lệ ấu trùng dị hình (%) SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance 24±0,5 3 5.008951223 1.669650408 0.0184013 28±0,5 3 3.971588465 1.323862822 0.0710808 32±0,5 3 3.891200525 1.297066842 0.0264264 35±0,5 3 3.79523616 1.26507872 0.0493637 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 0.32044699 3 0.106815663 2.585205 0.1257581 4.0661806 Within Groups 0.330544555 8 0.041318069 Total 0.650991545 11 Not significant difference 5 2. Ảnh hƣởng của nhiệt độ và độ mặn đến cá Song vua giai đoạn ấu trùng Anova: Single Factor Nhiệt độ - kích thước - 20 ngày tuổi SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance ĐC 30 302.8 10.09333333 0.461333333 25 30 236.6 7.886666667 0.894298851 28 30 333.2 11.10666667 0.594436782 31 30 374.5 12.48333333 0.791781609 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 337.5095833 3 112.5031944 164.1273897 1.40675E-41 2.682809415 Within Groups 79.51366667 116 0.685462644 Total 417.02325 119 significant difference Anova: Single Factor Nhiệt độ - kích thước - Thời điểm biến thái SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance ĐC 30 1068.1 35.6 8.10654023 25 30 1017 33.9 11.97931034 28 30 1092 36.4 2.756551724 31 30 1035 34.5 1.785517241 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 112.30025 3 37.43341667 2.682809415 0.070274809 6.079834166 Within Groups 714.2096667 116 6.156979885 Total 826.5099167 119 not significant difference 6 Anova: Single Factor Độ mặn (ppt)- kích thước -20 ngày tuổi SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance 24 30 307.8 10.26 0.715586207 28 30 341.6 11.38666667 0.523264368 32 30 316.2 10.54 0.833517241 35 30 277.7 9.256666667 0.785298851 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 69.4135833 3 3 23.13786111 32.38706793 2.7808E- 15 2.682809415 Within Groups 82.8723333 3 116 0.714416667 Total 152.285916 7 119 significant difference Anova: Single Factor Độ mặn (ppt) - kích thước -Thời điểm biến thái SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance 24 30 1088.9 36.29667 6.462402 28 30 1101.1 36.70333 13.42723 32 30 1074.1 35.80333 5.040333 35 30 1068 35.6 8.346207 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 22.22092 3 7.406972 0.890363 0.448425 2.682809 Within Groups 965.009 116 8.319043 Total 987.2299 119 not significant difference 7 Anova: Single Factor nhiệt độ -20 DAH - Tỷ lệ sống SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance ĐC (25 - 26.5) 3 6.472271 2.157424 0.053284 25 3 4.658075 1.552692 0.073723 28 3 9.395866 3.131955 0.011283 31 3 8.264413 2.754804 0.03158 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 4.315251 3 1.438417 33.87093 6.78E-05 4.066181 Within Groups 0.339741 8 0.042468 Total 4.654992 11 significant difference Anova: Single Factor nhiệt độ - biến thái- Tỷ lệ sống SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance ĐC 3 4.415843 1.471948 0.010056 25 3 3.181718 1.060573 0.012779 28 3 6.185091 2.061697 0.014109 31 3 5.515208 1.838403 0.030413 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 1.73134 3 0.577113 34.27229 6.49E-05 4.066181 Within Groups 0.134712 8 0.016839 Total 1.866052 11 significant difference 8 Anova: Single Factor Độ mặn -20 DAH - Tỷ lệ sống SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance 24 3 5.30220336 1.767401 0.149439926 28 3 9.58964982 3.19655 0.018102713 32 3 9.98401449 3.328005 0.006575769 35 3 7.48884285 2.496281 0.022872129 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 4.65647833 3 1.552159 31.51744164 8.82421E-05 4.066180557 Within Groups 0.39398108 8 0.049248 Total 5.0504594 11 significant difference Anova: Single Factor Độ mặn -biến thái - Tỷ lệ sống SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance 24 3 4.75984766 1.586616 0.003975045 28 3 7.02910712 2.343036 0.005275521 32 3 7.39615504 2.465385 0.002815109 35 3 5.42460593 1.808202 0.015608423 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 1.5948094 3 0.531603 76.83764712 3.07259E-06 4.066180557 Within Groups 0.05534819 8 0.006919 Total 1.65015759 11 significant difference 9 3. Ảnh hƣởng của thức ăn đến ấu trùng cá Song vua 2 -9 ngày tuổi Anova: Single Factor kích thước - 2DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT1 30 70.88 2.362666667 0.003689 CT2 30 70.89 2.363 0.006311 CT3 30 70.9 2.363333333 0.002499 Không cho ăn 24 56.62 2.359166667 0.087886 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 0.000285088 3 9.50292E-05 0.004385 0.999598 2.687139 Within Groups 2.383866667 110 0.021671515 Total 2.384151754 113 not significant difference Anova: Single Factor kích thước -6DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT1 30 106.12 3.537333333 0.007847816 CT2 30 104.25 3.475 0.011384483 CT3 30 105.56 3.518666667 0.005984368 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 0.061406667 2 0.030703333 3.601295757 0.029972977 3.152742895 Within Groups 0.731283333 87 0.008405556 Total 0.79269 89 significant difference 10 Anova: Single Factor kích thước - 9DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT1 30 119.29 3.976333333 0.133686092 CT2 30 120.32 4.010666667 0.032047816 CT3 30 126.21 4.207 0.008718276 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 0.929326667 2 0.464663333 7.990670961 0.000651765 3.101295757 Within Groups 5.059113333 87 0.058150728 Total 5.98844 89 significant difference Anova: Single Factor Survival rate - 2 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT1 3 26.92186 8.973953 0.00224 CT2 3 27.0713 9.023767 0.007452 CT3 3 26.97037 8.990125 0.016487 Không cho ăn 3 27.17545 9.058485 0.015775 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 0.012674 3 0.004225 0.402805 0.755047 4.066181 Within Groups 0.083905 8 0.010488 Total 0.096579 11 not significant difference 11 Anova: Single Factor Survival rate - 6 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT1 3 103.4253 34.47509 3.512695 CT2 3 80.09424 26.69808 1.133275 CT3 3 45.96782 15.32261 4.793981 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 556.7009 2 278.3505 88.45929 3.53E-05 5.143253 Within Groups 18.8799 6 3.14665 Total 575.5808 8 significant difference Anova: Single Factor Survival rate - 9 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT1 3 12.78306 4.26102 0.115557 CT2 3 10.96268 3.654227 0.019935 CT3 3 7.43768 2.479227 0.080153 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 4.923613604 2 2.461807 34.24801 0.000522 5.14325285 Within Groups 0.431290505 6 0.071882 Total 5.354904108 8 significant difference 12 4. Ảnh hƣởng của thức ăn đến ấu trùng cá Song vua 10 -21 ngày tuổi Anova: Single Factor Total length 15 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT4 30 216.58 7.219333 0.080372 CT5 30 190.78 6.359333 0.098372 CT6 30 205.53 6.851 0.036251 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 11.17006 2 5.585028 77.93258 4.03E-20 3.101296 Within Groups 6.234843 87 0.071665 Total 17.4049 89 significant difference Anova: Single Factor Total length 21 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT4 30 370.09 12.33633333 0.254092989 CT5 30 307.39 10.24633333 0.255086092 CT6 30 338.43 11.281 0.057616207 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 65.52363556 2 32.76181778 173.4055585 4.43106E-31 3.101295757 Within Groups 16.43706333 87 0.188931762 Total 81.96069889 89 significant difference 13 Anova: Single Factor Survival rate - 15 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT4 4 259.9095 64.97737 3.988116 CT5 4 222.5278 55.63195 1.001169 CT6 4 238.7819 59.69549 3.328604 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 175.6634 2 87.8317 31.67812 8.44E-05 4.256495 Within Groups 24.95367 9 2.77263 Total 200.6171 11 significant difference Anova: Single Factor Survival rate - 21 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT4 4 242.98 60.74500137 5.60057 CT5 4 214.3429 53.58572793 5.362232 CT6 4 232.4467 58.11168512 1.815861 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 104.8985 2 52.44922608 12.31331 0.002655 4.256495 Within Groups 38.33599 9 4.259554383 Total 143.2344 11 significant difference 14 5. Ảnh hƣởng của thức ăn đến ấu trùng cá Song vua 22 - 42 ngày tuổi Anova: Single Factor Total length 42 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT7 30 1089 36.3 53.18275862 CT8 30 1064 35.46666667 16.53333333 CT9 30 1278 42.6 6.455172414 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 912.6888889 2 456.3444444 17.97309451 2.9274E-07 3.101295757 Within Groups 2208.966667 87 25.39042146 Total 3121.655556 89 significant difference Anova: Single Factor Survival rate - 27 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT7 4 291.6898 72.92245 1.381776 CT8 4 276.7925 69.19812 8.162231 CT9 4 225.9991 56.49978 1.306738 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 593.0969 2 296.5484 81.98933 1.67E-06 4.256495 Within Groups 32.55223 9 3.616915 Total 625.6491 11 significant difference 15 Anova: Single Factor Survival rate - 32 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT7 4 270.9039 67.72597 6.575545 CT8 4 241.36 60.34 3.196157 CT9 4 100.6135 25.15337 5.741974 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 4140.104 2 2070.052 400.3021 1.61E-09 4.256495 Within Groups 46.54103 9 5.171225 Total 4186.645 11 significant difference Anova: Single Factor Survival rate - 37 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT7 4 201.7106 50.42766 3.789500669 CT8 4 223.999 55.99976 6.847267691 CT9 4 76.60099 19.15025 2.144343653 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 3156.282 2 1578.141 370.4234006 2.27E-09 4.256495 Within Groups 38.34334 9 4.260371 Total 3194.625 11 significant difference 16 Anova: Single Factor Survival rate - 42 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT7 4 148.3512748 37.08782 12.84853 CT8 4 213.748935 53.43723 6.117671 CT9 4 63.23362139 15.80841 5.405149 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 2848.061 2 1424.03 175.2916 6.21E-08 4.256495 Within Groups 73.11404 9 8.123782 Total 2921.175 11 significant difference 6. Ảnh hưởng của thức ăn đến ấu trùng cá Song vua 42 - 84 ngày tuổi Anova: Single Factor Total length 84 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT10 30 2256 75.2 18.23448276 CT11 30 3597 119.9 21.12758621 CT12 30 3358 111.9333333 59.51264368 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 34108.95556 2 17054.47778 517.4572139 4.96408E-49 3.101295757 Within Groups 2867.366667 87 32.95823755 Total 36976.32222 89 significant difference 17 Anova: Single Factor Survival rate - 53 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT10 4 38.46669 9.616673 0.026135 CT11 4 39.03591 9.758978 0.016469 CT12 4 38.67664 9.669161 0.009762 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 0.04143 2 0.020715 1.186742 0.348795 4.256495 Within Groups 0.157099 9 0.017455 Total 0.19853 11 not significant difference Anova: Single Factor Survival rate - 63 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT10 4 37.24431 9.311079 0.071752 CT11 4 38.09832 9.52458 0.043174 CT12 4 37.56982 9.392456 0.042354 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 0.092882 2 0.046441 0.885831 0.445471 4.256495 Within Groups 0.471839 9 0.052427 Total 0.564722 11 not significant difference 18 Anova: Single Factor Survival rate - 73 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT10 4 35.49454 8.873634 0.01149211 CT11 4 36.92525 9.231312 0.043849233 CT12 4 36.05436 9.013591 0.006911836 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 0.259898 2 0.129949 6.262281563 0.019765 4.256495 Within Groups 0.18676 9 0.020751 Total 0.446657 11 significant difference Anova: Single Factor Survival rate -84 DAH SUMMARY Groups Count Sum Average Variance CT10 4 35.15332 8.788331 0.020327 CT11 4 36.70787 9.176967 0.044371 CT12 4 35.43488 8.858719 0.0308 ANOVA Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit Between Groups 0.343032656 2 0.171516 5.388056 0.028937 4.256495 Within Groups 0.286494248 9 0.031833 Total 0.629526904 11 significant difference

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