Ôn thi lý thuyết ngữ pháp cao học

What is grammar? Grammar drived from Greek “grammatike” meaning “to write” Ngữ pháp bắt nguồn từ một từ hy lạp “grammatike” có nghĩa là “to write (viết)” - Kinds of grammar: * Prescriptive grammar (ngữ pháp quy ước/ ngữ pháp hiện đại): to be phrased as prohibition - standard grammar (đặt ra những quy tắc cố định về cách sử dùng ngôn ngữ - ngữ pháp tiêu chuẩn) * Descriptive grammar (ngữ pháp miêu tả/ngữ pháp truyền thống): to describe the grammatical system of a language (e.g to describe how to play football: using a ball, hand and a basket .) (mô tả toàn bộ hệ thống ngữ pháp của một ngôn ngữ.) - Grammar development: Traditional grammar: grammar teaching at school, parts of speech, The traditional categoriesImmediate constituents: using techniques for displaying sentence structure is the use of immediate constituent (IC) analysisPhrase structures and transformational grammar: Phrasal structure: the division of a sentence into parts, or constituents, and the division of those constituent into subparts.

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ld - Obligation: They should be home by now. (It is necessary/obligatory for them to be home by now.) - Necessity: You should do as he says. (It is necessary/obligatory for you to do as he says) - Putative use: “it” It is odd that you should say this for me. 7. Will - Willingness: He’ll help you if you ask him. (He will be willing to help you if you ask him.) - Intension (contrasted – the first person): I’ll write as soon as I can. - Insistence: You’ll do whatever you say. You shall do whatever you say. - Prediction: The game will be finished by now. 8. Would - Willingness: Would you excuse me ? (Are you willing to excuse me ?) - Insistence: It is your own fault you would take your baby with you. Characteristic activity in the past: Every morning he would go for a long walk. 9. Must - Obligation: You must be back by 10 o’clock. (It is obligatory for you to be back by 10 o’clock) - Certainty: They must be a mistake. (It is certain that there is a mistake.) 10. Ought to - Obligation (should): You ought to start at once. - Necessity: You ought to be here by now Ex: 39, 40, 42, 43, 44 3. Lexical verbs: 3.1. According to these abilities to be used in the progressive form (aspect), verbs are classified in 2: stative and dynamic. a. Stative: a verb that expresses state, experience, condition . . . It has no continuous forms, expressing: - Feelings and emotion: admire hate mind adore detest loathe appreciate desire respect fear care for like dislike - Thinking and believing: argue mean realise see assume know recall suppose believe forget recollect think expect feel remember understand - Wants and preferences: prefer, want, wish - Perception and senses: perceive, recognize, see, hear, feel, taste - Being, seeming, having, owning: be appear possess become own seem look have owe sound belong - States and conditions: concern contain hold consist keep matter signify b. Dynamic: indicates an action or single event, has continuous form. Deliberate action State I’m weighting myself. I weight 50kg. I’m tasting the soup. It tastes salty. Ex: 27, 13 3.2. According to the relationship between the verb element and other elements in the clause: intensive and extensive (classification in terms of their complementation) INTENSIVE V intransitive EXTENSIVE monotransitive transitive ditransitive complextransitive a. Intensive verbs: take Cs or Aobl. - Two subgroups: Current intensive: be , appear, feel, look, smell, seem, sound, remain, keep, stay He appeared tired. He was in the class. Resulting intensive: become, come, get, go, grow, turn, keep, turn into, prove Her dream came true. - All these intensive verbs are intransitive verbs. - With intensive complementation (sentence types SVC and SVA). b. Intransitive verbs: With zero complementation (sentence type SV) There are two subclasses of intransitive verbs: Common Vintransitive: He arrived. Phrasal Vintransitive: come in, go out, blow up, take off, come to, give in The plane took off. c. Montransitive verbs: takes one object: He wrote a letter. - Sentence pattern: SVO d. Ditransitive verbs: take two objects - Simple Vditrans: give, get, bring, take, … He gave me his book. - Prepositional Vdistrans: inform of, accuse of, provide with, … They informed him of bad news. - Idiomatic Vditrans: make use of, pay attention to, …. They made use of his watch. With ditransitive complementation: sentence type SVOO. e. Complex transitive verbs: take Od Co or Od A e1. With SVOC type: I think life to be thus. I have my hair cut. e2. SVOA type: put, place, stand, hang, They put him in a good position. They hit him on the head. With complex transitive complementation (sentence types SVOC and SVOA) Intensive: Cs, Aob. Stative Extensive: Transitive: Od V Intensive: Cs, Aob Dynamic intransitive Extensive monotransitive transitive ditransitive complextransitive 4. The form of verb Base form -s form - ing form -ed form -ed/ -en participle be is/ am/ are being was/ were been put put putting put put give gives giving gave given work works working worked worked 4.1. Base form: - Imperative form: Be quiet. Give me your book. - All the present tense except the third person singular: They work hard. - After modal auxiliary verb: I can cook. - As object complement: He made me cry. S V O Co - In subjunctive sentences: He orders that we be here at 7. 4.2. -s form: The third person singular present tense: He goes to work every day. 4.3. -ing form: - Progressive aspect: He is reading my letter. -Ing participle clause: Going home, I did some shopping. ó When I was going home, I did some shopping. I enjoy listening to music. 4.4. V-ed form (past form – P1): simple past tense I went to the dentist yesterday. 4.5. -ed/-en participle form (P2): - Perfective aspect: I have finished my work. - Passive voice: He’s called John. - -Ed participle clause: Given a beautiful present, she was happy. ó When she was given a beautiful present, she was happy. Ex: 17, 20, 22 5. Combination of verbs Four basic verb combinations: A. Modal: He can type very well. B. Perfective: He has typed several letters. C. Progressive: He was typing my letter. D. Passive: My letter was typed well. From these four basic verb combination, other combinations may be combined: A + B: He can have typed several letters. A + C: He can be typing my letter. A + D: My letter may be typed. B + C: He has been typing my letter. B + D: My letter has been typed. C + D: My letter was being typed. A + B + C: He can have been typing my letter. A + B + D: My letter may have been typed. Ex: 24 6. The grammatical categories of the english verb 6.1. Tenses - Tense is the correspondence between the form of the verb and our concept of time. There are 2 tenses: present and past: can – could will – would work – worked put - put - Time is a universal non-linguistic concept of the verb phrase with 3 divisions: past, present and future. Tense is grammatical device Time is a concept of time He came here yesterday. Tense: Past Present ways … Tense: past; time: past He has done his homework. Tense: present; time: past It might rain tomorrow. Tense: past; time: future He will buy a car. Tense: present; time: future Past Present Future He is coming here. Tense: present; time: future 6.2. Aspects: Aspect concerns the manner in which the verbal action is experienced, in each verb may occur in 4 aspects: a, Simple aspect (unmarked for aspect) He plays tennis. He stays at home. b, Progressive aspect: He is staying at home. He will be playing tennis. c, Perfective aspect: He has played 2 games of chess. He has finished his homework. d, The perfect progressive aspect: He has been playing tennis for half an hour. 6.3. Moods: Mood relates the verbal action to such condition as certainty, obligation, necessity, possibility. There are 3 kinds of moods. a, Indicate mood: (to make statements or questions) He knows English. They are learning English. Ex: 28, 29, 30 b, Imperative mood: (command, invitation, request, demand) V Don’t + V - Without subject: Keep silent please. - With “let”: Let’s come in. Don’t let him come in. Let’s not come in. - With subject: You open the door. Don’t you open the door. Somebody open the door. Don’t someone open the door. c, Subjunctive mood c.1 The mandative subjunctive mood: - The base form is used to express a wish, a hope or a prayer Long live Ho Chi Minh. God save Queen. Heaven bless us. - In subordinate “that” clause, when the main clause contains an expression of recommendation, resolution, demand, suggestion It’s necessary that you be here. I suggest that he start early. c.2 The formulate subjunctive mood: Come what may, we’ll go ahead. Suffice it to say that, we’ll go ahead. c.3 The subjunctive “were” (unreal conditional sentence): to express unreality, impossibility or doubt If she were here. (future): would do: I would come to. - Wish (present): did/ were: I had a motor. (past): had done: I had done that object. - Comparative subjunctive: (future): would do: I would come to. …as if/ though (present): did/ were: I had a motor. If only (past): had done: I had done that object. He talks as if he was president/ he had been from Australia. - Modal perfect infinitive: + should have done, ought to have done (in the past): (lẽ ra, không thể làm được) (objective) You should have come here yesterday. + Could have done: (lẽ ra, có thể làm được) (subjective) He could have worked hard. + Can’t/couldn’t have done: (Chắc là chưa, nhất định là chưa) (negative): He failed he couldn’t have worked hard. + Must have done (hẳn là, chắc hản là) (positive – deductive): You must have come here yesterday. + Needn’t have done: (lẽ ra không cần) You needn’t have done all these exercises, - Past subjunctive: It’s time + Past subjunctive It’s time we stopped here (It’s time for us to stop here – real condition) Ex: 38, 206 SEQUENCES OF TENSES I, Object clauses - If the main verb is present, the subordinate verb is any tense: Main clause subclause V-s (that) V - any tense He says he (go) to the beach. - If the main verb is past, the subordinate verb is past tenses: V-ed (that) V – past tenses He said he (go) to Hanoi. Exceptionally, the subordinate verb may be present when denoting something which is true all the time or is still true at present: Right at that time, they believed that the earth is round. Yesterday, he told me that he is living in a hotel. II, Adverbial clauses: 1 + 2 (past continuous): When I got home, my mother was cooking dinner. 1 + 3 (past simple): When I saw her, I said “Hello” to her. 1 + 4 (past perfect): When I got home, my mother had cooked dinner. 1 + 5 (past perfect continuous): When I got home, my mother had been cooking dinner for half an hour. 1 + 6 (future in the past): When I got home, my mother was going to cook dinner. 1 + 7 (present perfect): Since I left school, I haven’t seen my old school friends. 1 + 8 (present perfect continuous): Since I left school, I have been learning English here. a + b (future continuous): Tomorrow, when he comes back, I shall be typing the letter. a + c (future simple): Tomorrow, when he comes back, I shall speak to him. a + d (future perfect): Tomorrow, by the time he comes back, I shall have typed the letter. a + e (future perfect continuous): Tomorrow, by the time he comes back, I shall have been typing the letter for 2 hours. Unit 6. THE COMPLEMENTATION OF THE VERB 1. Zero Complementation 1.1. Intransitive verbs are often used with complete zero: She ’s come. They are dancing. 1.2. There may be time/ manner Adjunct after the verb: They danced beautifully. She came two hours later. 1.3. There may also be place Adjunct which seems to be closely associated with the verbs: She comes from Leeds. We’re living in London. 2. Intensive Complementation (Cs and A) 2.1. Cs a, a noun phrase (basic or complex): She is a teacher of Russian. They’ll soon become engineers in construction. b, an adj: She is beautiful. He is happy to see me again. *Cadj: - Pre.P: He’s good at English. I’m fond of football. - FCL: I’m sure that you are right. I’m not certain whether he’ll come or not. - NFCL: He is happy to see me again. She’s busy making up all night. c, FCL: My hope is that life will be better. What I want is what he wants. d, NFCL: My duty is to learn English. All I did was hit him on the head. My hobby is collecting stamps. 2.2. A a, Adv: He’s here. He’s upstairs. b, Pre.P: He’s in the class. He’s at the door. c, CL: He’s nowhere to be seen. They are exactly where they went the other day. d, NP: My birthday is tomorrow. 2.3. Meanings of these adverbials: Place (most common): He was here / in the car. He is at the door. Time: The meeting will be on next Monday. He is in time. Manner/ Description: The matter is of great importance. I’m for/ against you. - Purpose: This is for your exam. - Cause: His failure is because of his being late. 3. Monotransitive Complementation (Od) 3.1. O = a noun phrase We bought this book. On the way here we met a man with a very large ear. 3.2. O = a non-finite clause She wanted to set the house on fire. (to V ) hey enjoyed watching the program. (V-ing part.clause) his singing the song. 3.3. O = a finite clause I know that she didn’t go there with him. (that clause) We can’t make out what he says. (wh-interrogative clause) He didn’t remember whoever had met him first at the station. (nominal relative clause) He didn’t say whether he would come or not. (yes/no interrogative) They cut down on what they had to spend everyday. (wh-relative clause) 4. Di-transitive Complementation (Oi + Od) 4.1. Oi = NP Od = NP We didn’t give him any book. She informed the boy of the terrifying news. 4.2. Oi: NP Od: FCL He gave me what he had. They told us that they had won the match. (that clause). She asked him why he hadn’t come on her birthday. (wh-inter.cl.) He didn’t tell her whether he would be able to go there with her. (yes/no interr.) You can accuse me of whatever I have done against you. (nominal rel. cl) 4.3. Oi = FCL Od = NP He gave who he loved his book. 4.4. Oi: FCL Od: FCL He gave who he loved what he had. 4.5. Oi: NP Od: NFCL She told the criminal to lay down his gun. (to V) They accused him of having stolen the sum of money. (V-ing) 4.6. Oi: FCL Od: NFCL He tells whoever came to his house to answer some questions. 5. Complex transitive Complementation (Od + Co) 5.1. Od = Np1 Co = NP2 We consider him our younger brother. They looked upon us as their brother and sisters. 5.2. Od = NP Co = Adj. P/clause We painted the door red. This made her afraid of these animals. whoever came near. 5.3. Od = NP Co = NFCL We wanted him to finish his work in time. (to V) Her story made them laugh all the time. (V-bare infinitive) We saw them entering the supermarket. (V- ing) They watched the house broken into without doing anything. (V- ed2) 5.4. Od = NP Co = FCl (nominal relative clause) You can call me whatever name you like. They painted the doors and windows whichever colour they wanted. 6. Complex transitive Complementation (Od + A) 6.1. Od = NP A = Adv I put my bag here. We led them upstairs. 6.2. Od = NP A = Pre.P She hung the pictures on the wall. They rowed their boat up the stream. 6.3. Od = NP A = FCl You can put it wherever you like. She hung it where she had hung the day before. 6.4. Od = FCl A = Pre.P Don’t put off till tomorrow what you can do to day. Ex: 219, 220, 221, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 236, 239 Phrasal verbs 1, Phrasal verbs: - a verb that consists of 2 items: the verb + the particle give up take off get up bring up give in see off break down cut off turn on/off - There are 2 kinds of phrasal verbs: + Intransitive phrasal verb: doesn’t take any object take off get up break down The plane took of (at 8 o’clock.) We went on (to the next time.) + Transitive phrasal verb: takes object We saw off our friends. saw our friends off. saw them off. - If the object is not a personal pronoun, the particle can either follow or precede the object. - If the object is a personal pronoun, the particle must follow it. - The verb and the particle cannot be separated by an adjunct: He quickly took off his shoes. - Allow pronominal questions: What did he take off? - Allow passivization: His shoes were taken off quickly. 2. Prepositional verb: - a verb that consist of 2 item: the verb + the preposition wait for care for rely on look after get into insist of think about stand for climb down/ off He looks for his dictionary. - The preposition must always precede the object. - The preposition and the verb can be separated by an adjunct He looked every where for his dictionary. Allow pronominal question: What did he look for? - Allow passivisation: His dictionary was looked every where for. - 2 kinds of prepositional verbs + Mono prepositional verb: take one object They look after him. + Ditransitive prepositional verbs: take two objects They robbed him of his watch. O1 O2 He got rid of her. He made use of the book. Cf: Prepositional verb and phrasal verb Similarities: - They are multi-word verbs. - They have 2 items. - They have two kinds. - They are often followed NP as O. - The position of object may be at the end of the sentence. - They allow pronominal questions. - They allow passivization. Differences: + Intransitive phrasal verbs consists of a verb and a particle and requires no object whereas prepositional verbs consists of a verb and a preposition and requires no object. The plane has taken off (intransitive phrasal verb) He looks after his parents (prepositional verb) + Phrase verb: Intransitive and monotransitive Prepositional verb: monotransitive + ditransitive + In a transitive phrasal verb, the particle can follow the direct object whereas the preposition in preposition verb can not: Turn the light on He looks after his parents. + The clearest distinction between the sub 2 groups is in the position of the NP as O: Phrasal verb: V + particle + O(NP) / V + O(NP/ Pro.) + particle Preposition verb: V + preposition + O + There is A: Phrase verb: V + O + A + particle Prepositional verb: V + A + Prep + O + Prepositional verb allows passivization whereas intransitive phrasal cannot He was snapped at by a dog + Meaning: idiomatic meaning – non-idiomatic meaning 3. Verb + prepositional adv go up go past drive past swim across fly over go down go out step in jump on go on He went past. Phrasal verb – no question – past: adv He went past my house. V + prepositional phrase – where – prepositon à past: prepositional adverb He went up. He went up the stair. à up: prepositional adverb - If we add a N.P to the clause, the adverb becomes preposition: He went out. He went out of my room. compound prep. + Np à Pre.P - If we add a Pre.P in the structure, the Pre.adv may become part of compound preposition. Phrasal-prepositional verb + O V + particle + preposition He put up with the noise. - Take direct object - Allow passivization The noise from the airport was put up with. - Allows pronominal question: What did he put up with? - The preposition and particle can be separated by an adjunct: He put up courageously with the noise. stay away from (avoid) look up to (respect) stand up for (support) look in on sbd (visit) cope up with (face) look down on (despise) walk out on (the project) (abundance) cut down on (expense) Exercises : 211,214, 215, 219, 220, 221, 222, 225, 226, 230, 231, 236, 243. Unit 7: Simple sentences 1. Definition A simple sentence is a sentence that have only one finite verb: I love you. S-NP V-VP Od-NP I enjoy listening to music. S-NP V-VP Od -ing part. NFCl What you say is true. S – FCl V-VP Cs - AdjP (A simple sentence is a sentence whose elements are realised by phrases) 2. Scope - Unextended sentence: S+V: It rained. Extended sentence: S+V+O+C+A The news made me happy yesterday. 3. Syntactic Features and Semantic Roles of S, O, C, A 3.1. Syntactic features of S, O, C and A (trang 78, 79, 80, 81 SGK) 3.2. Semantic roles of S, O and C 4. Classification 4.1. According to communicative function (purpose of utterances): 4 * Statements * Commands * Exclamations * Questions a. Yes/no question: formed by placing the operator before the subject and giving the sentence rising intonation. 3 kinds: a1. Neutral orientation: Did anybody telephone last night? - Yes/ No: a2. Positive orientation: Did somebody telephone last night? – Yes, ... (Is it true that sbd telephoned last night?) a3. Negative orientation: Did noone telephone last night? – No, ... (Is this really true that noone telephoned last night? or we hope nobody telephoned last night) Ex: 113 b. WH-questions (interrogative/ open/ content/ information questions): formed with the initial positioning of an interrogative or wh-element. - Wh- word is a pronoun (who, which, what) to ask about the S, C or O: Who are you? Cs - Wh- word is an adv (A): where, when, how, why Where are you from? Ex: 116 c. Alternative questions (“or” question) - Resembling a yes/no question: Do you like English or French? A wh- question (which): Which do you like better coffee or tea ? d. Exclamatory questions: questions in form but functionally are like exclamation - Speaker expects listener’s agreement to smt on which speaker has strongly positive feelings: Isn’t life wonderful? - Speaker expresses a strongly positive conviction: ‘Am ‘I ‘hungry? Did he look annoyed? e. Declarative questions: is an identical in form to a statement but except for the final rising question intonation You know him ö ? f. Tag-questions: consist of the operator and the pronoun with or without negative particle “not”: Hoa is a student, isn’t he? The meaning of tag questions: f1. If the statement is a positive assumption, the Tag-question has rising tune, the tag-question has neutral expectation: Hoa is a studentæ, isn’t he ä ? -Yes, he is. - No, he isn’t. f2. If the statement is a positive assumption, the tag-question has falling tune, the tag-question has positive expectation: Hoa is a studentæ, isn’t he ? - Yes, he is. f3. If the statement has a negative assumption, the tag-question has rising tune, the tag-question has neutral expectation: Hoa isn’t a studentæ, is he ä ? - Yes, he is. - No, he isn’t. f4. If the statement is a negative assumption, the tag-question has falling tune, the tag-question has negative expectation: Hoa is a studentæ, isn’t he ? - No, he isn’t. - When the speaker is doubtful, he wants to seek information: rising tune: ä - When the speaker agrees with the statement, he wants to seek the confirmation: falling tune æ. To express the strong feeling: +æ, -ä : ± Hoa is a student, is he ? - Yes he is. - No, he isn’t . (when the information is new to speaker) Hoa is a student, isn’t he ? - Yes, she is . - No, she isn’t. (I already know that) Ex: 25, 114 g. Rhetorical questions: - Strong positive assertion: Is that the reason for despair? (Surely, that is not a reason for despair) - Strong negative assertion: Is no one going to defend me? (Surely, someone is going to defend me) - Negative statement: Who knows ? (Nobody knows) What difference does it make? (It makes no difference) h. Echo questions (repetitive questions): - Request for repetition: I didn’t enjoy that meal last night Didn’t enjoy? Last night? - General request for repetition: I’ll make some coffed for you. I beg your pardon? I’m terribly sorry, I didn’t quiet follow/hear what you said. I’m very sorry would you mind repeating that. would you mind say it again. 4.2. According to the clause elements and verb complementation: * S + V: He got up. * S + V + A: He got into his car. * S + V + Cs: He got tired. * S + V + Od: He got his key. * S + V + Od + A: He got himself into the trouble. * S + V + Od + Co: He got the house nice. * S + V + Oi + Od: I got him a book. 5. Concord between sentence elements Concord is the agreement between sentence elements. 5.1. Different types: + S - V concord: He/ She agrees. I/we agree. It doesn’t agree. They don’t agree. + Pronominal concord: She looked at herself in the mirror. They’re teachers of English. 5.2. S - V concord: the most important type a. Grammatical concord (formal): most obviously distinctive with the third person - S singular + V singular (V-s/was) The boy / He likes football. - S plural + V plural (V/were) The boys/ They like football. were there yesterday. b. Notional concord (- meaning) b1. S = nominal relative clause + V singular/ V plural What he says isn’t true. (= The thing he says...) What they like best are tea and coffee. (= The things they like best....) b2. S = collective + V plural (~ members collectively) The government are having a rest. + V singular (~ whole collectively) The government has approved of his plan. b3. S = co-ordinated NPs + V plur. (non-appositional) + V sing. (appositional) His brother and his secretary were there with him. (two different entities) His brother and (at the same time) his secretary was there with him. (same entity) b4. S = none + V sing. (non-count N) + V plur. (plural count N) c. Concord by proximity: (S-word that stands immediately next to V determines S - V concord) c1. In set phrases: One in ten take drugs One of them agree to go c2. In existential sentence with there : There are two chairs and a desk there. There is a desk and two chairs there. c3. With either..... or.... Either your brakes or your eyesight was at fault. Either your eyesight or your brakes were at fault. 5.3. Pronominal concord a. S - O (with reflexive & emphasing pronoun) She saw herself in the mirror. We can do it ourselves. b. S - C : He is a teacher of English. They’re teachers c. O - C : We elected him our chairman. (sing). them our representatives. (plur) Ex: 105, 106 6. Negation 6.1. Affirmative & negative : two forms of sentence We all like football. We all don’t like football. Do you like football? Don’t you like it ? / Why don’t you like it? Someone go there with him. Don’t anyone go there with him? 6.2. Assertives and non-assertives a,List of items : Assertives + Indefinite: Some + N (Determiners) N-s + Pronouns: someone something + Adverbs: somewhere too already + Prep. P: in some way to some extent Non-assertives any + N N-s anybody anything anywhere either yet in any way at all b, Uses + in affirmative sentence I met someone on the way here. + in negative sentence I didn’t give the book to some students. (scope of negation: narrowed) + in questions Did someone call last night? (positive orientation) + in negative + interrogative sentences We didn’t see anything. + two (more) non-assertives used in the same sentence: I haven’t seen anyone yet. + for negative intensification. I didn’t go out at all. I met no one at all. 6.3. Scope and focus of negation a, Scope of negation = stretch of language within which the negative meaning operates normally extending from negative word to the clause end. I don’t know him. scope of neg. She didn’t definitely know the answer. scope of neg. An Adverbial may be inside or out side the scope of negation. She definitely didn’t know him. A scope of neg. b, Focus of negation : - Emphatic stress on certain word of the sentence, conveying different shades of meaning. My sister didn’t like the show. Emphatic stress may be on 'show, 'like, 'sister, 'my ® Scope includes the focus. We didn’t give the book to some of the students. Extended scope to include subordinate clause (rise + fall) I didn’t leave home because I was afraid of my father. 6.4. Negation of modal verbs (scope & focus of negation) AUXILIARY NEGATION MAIN VERB NEGATION ability - can’t + V permission possibility The road can’t be blocked now. (= It’s not possible that...) - may not + V : permission You maynot/can’t use my car. - needn’t + V : necessity She needn’t attend the lecture. - (don’t/doesn’t have to +V) You don’t have to go there now. Ex: 107, 109, 110, 112 - mustn’t + V = prohibition You mustn’t smoke in here. (=you’re obliged not to smoke in here) - won’t + V = futurity, prediction, etc. Oil won't float on petrol. - may not + V = possibility The road may not be blocked now. ( = It’s possible that the road isn’t blocked) - shouldn’t + V = advisability You shouldn’t do that again. (= you’re advised not to do that again.) - oughtn’t to + V She oughtn’t to go there again . 7. Inversion 7.1. In questions: Aux + S + V He liked it. - Does he like it? We must go. - Must we go? The boy’s coming. - Is the boy coming? 7.2. In statements (emphasis) a, A-V-S (Aplace, direction, frequency) Here is the milkman. Never have I seen him. Down came the rain in torrent. b, C-V-S/ C-S-V Joe his name is. Relaxation you call it. So absurd was his manner that everyone stared at him. c, O-S-V Excellent food they serve them. Most these problems a computer could solve easily. d, V-S (agreement, addition) I’m hungry. So am I. I’m not hungry. Neither am I/ Nor am I. Unit 8. COMPLEX SENTENCES Definition The complex sentence is the sentence, one of whose element is a clause. I like music S - NP V - FVP Od - NP I enjoy listening to music. S - NP V - FVP Od -ing part. NFCl. What you say might be true. Od S V __________ _______ _____ S-“Wh-” FCl V - FCl Cs – Adj.P Complex sentences by using coordination and subordination. - Coordination: the relationship between the 2 units which are independent to each other: Tom saw Mary. (1) He ran away. (2) 1 + 2: coordinators ó Tom saw Mary and/but he ran away. 1st indep. Cl. 2nd indep. clause - Subordination: the relationship between the 2 units which are dependent to each other. That is one clause is the subordinate to the other. When Tom saw Mary, he ran away. depent. Cl. indep. Cl. Coordination (trang 106 SGK) 1. What is co-ordination? Co-ordination is the combination of two or more equal units, namely: phrases or clauses. We went there and returned immediately. I told him this, but he didn’t believe me. 2. Syndetic and asyndetic co-ordination a, Syndetic co-ordination ¾ with presence of co-ordinators: Slowly and stealthily, he crept towards his victim. b. Asyndetic co-ordination ¾ with absence of co-ordinator. Slowly, stealthily, he crept towards his victim. 3. Co-ordinators and correlatives a, Co-ordinators and their meanings: (a1) Syntactic features of co-ordinators - Restricted to initial position in the clause or phrase John plays the guitar, and his sister plays the piano. - Fixed position of clauses beginning with co-ordinator: They are living in England or they are spending a vacation there. - Impossibly preceded by other conjunction. - Allowing ellipsis of S of the clause it introduces (to avoid repetition): I may see you tomorrow or (I) may phone later in the day. - And and or can link subordinate clauses: I asked him who he was and why he had come. I wonder whether you should speak to him personally or whether it is better to write to him. (a2) Semantic implication of AND - Addition of consequence or result: He heard an explosion and (he therefore) phoned the police. - Addition of chronological sequence: She washed the dishes and (then she) dried them. - Contrast: Robert is secretive and (in contrast) David is candid. - Second clause being a comment on the first: They disliked John ¾ and that’s not surprising. - First clause being a condition of the second: Give me some money and (then) I’ll help you escape. - Second clause making a point similar to the first: A trade agreement should be no problem, and (similarly) a cultural exchange could be arranged. (a3) Semantic implication of OR -Exclusive choice: You can go there by car or you can walk there. - Inclusive choice: You can boil an egg, or you can make some cheese sandwiches, or you can do both. - Restatement or correction of previously- mentioned idea. He began his educational career, or, in other words, he started to attend the local kindergarten. - Negative condition: Give me some money or I’ll shoot. Let go of me or I’ll scream. (a4) Semantic implication of BUT - Unexpected contrast: John is poor, but he’s happy. He didn’t want their help, but he had to accept it. - Contrast being restatement (negative >< affirmative). John didn’t waste his time in the week before the exam, but studied hard every evening. b. Correlatives (b1) Common correlatives with anticipated addition (both.... and), alternation (either... or) and additional negation (neither.... nor): She smoked both cigars and cigarettes. Unlike both, either and neither can be placed before the lexical verb even when the scope does not include the whole of the predication: He either/ neither smoked cigars or/nor cigarettes. You can either/neither write elegantly or/ nor clearly. (b2), Other correlatives: - nor/ neither - correlated with actual or implied negative in the previous clause. We owe no money, (and) neither do they. - not only... but (also) They not only broke into his office and stole his book, but they (also) tore up his manuscripts. (Not only did they break into... but they also tore up...) Ex: 150, 152, 153, 154 Ellipsis 1, Definition: used to avoid repetation and used to omit the shared items to focus attention on new material. 2, Ellipsis in co-ordinated clauses a, Ellipsis of subject: Peter ate a cheese sandwich and (Peter/ he) drank a glass of beer. b, Sometimes, ellipsis of both S and auxiliary occurs: Mary has washed the dishes, (she has) dried them, and (she has) put them in the cupboard. c, Ellipsis of auxiliary only: John should clean the shed and Peter (should) mow the lawn. d, Ellipsis of Predicate or Predication: - Elllipsis of V or lexical verb only : Yesterday John was given a railway set, and Sue (was given) a doll. I work in a factory and my wife (works) on a farm. - Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S as well) John was the winner in 1971 and Bob (was the winner) 10 years later. The milk turned sour not only today but yesterday too. - Ellipsis of V + Od (possibly only lexical verb + Od) : Peter plays football for his school and Paul (plays football) for his club. Joan will cook the meals today and Barbara may (cook the meals) tomorrow. - Ellipsis of required form of lexical verb or predication: We met last year, but we haven’t (met) since. I saw your parents last week, but I haven’t (seen your parents) since. e, Ellipsis of Od or Cs only: Od: John likes (Mary), and Peter hates, Mary. George opened (the door), but Mary closed, the door. Cs: Bob seemed angry, and George certainly was (angry). f, Ellipsis of A: To my surprise, they didn’t appoint him, and they (to my surprise) didn’t even interview him. In our school, students and teachers get on well together, but (in our school) this harmony is comparatively temporary. g, Ellipsis of head noun or of C prep: We wanted fried fish, but they gave us boiled (fish). Bob is bored with (music), but Peter enjoys music. 3. Semantic effect of ellipsis: Sometimes, the effect of ellipsis is to indicate that there is a combined process rather than two separate processes: Did Peter tell lies and hurt his friends? (cause and effect) Ex: 148, 149, 151, 155, 156 Apposition 1. Definition: the item that is in the same position and performs the same syntactic function as the other items in the clause. A neighbour , Fred Smith, is on the telephone. App of S - A neighbour is on the telephone. Fred Smith is on the telephone. A neighbour is Fred Smith 2. Indicators of apposition that is to say i.e. say namely as follows for example or mainly and mostly in other words viz. or rather such that is for instance e.g. including particularly chiefly The President of the USA, in other words, Bill Clinton, was on television last night. The passenger plane of the 1980s, namely the supersonic jet, has, somewhat transformed relations between people of the world. 3. Restrictive and non-restrictive apposition a, Restrictive apposition: (i) The first appositive: preceded by a definite determiner That famous critic Paul Jones came here last night. The novel Great Expectation was the best seller last week. (ii) The second appositive: preceded by a determiner, more general than the first. Paul Jones the critic didn't attend the last seminar. Bill Clinton the President of the U.S.A ended his working visits to Japan. (iii) Like (i) but with omission of the determiner. Critic Paul Jones was completely against the plan. They talked with Democratic leader Robinson for half an hour. - Indicators: the fact, the idea, the view, the question, etc. I don’t agree with the view that there is no advantage in being patient. The question whether to confess or not troubled him. b, Non-restrictive apposition: Semantically, the appositives may be of: (i) Equivalence: + Appellation: (namely, who/which + BE) The company commander, (who was) Captain Madison, assembled his men and announced their mission. He told them the good news: taxes are to be reduced. + Designation: (that is to say, who/which + BE) Captain Madison, (that is to say) the company commander, took the lead. (2nd appositive being less specific than the first). + Identification: (namely) A literary critic, Mr. Paul Jones, wrote this article. ( 2nd appositive being more specific) We - (that is to say) John and I - intend to resign. + Reformulation: (or) He drew a pentagonal, or five-sided, figure. ( 2nd appositive being reworded) We are studying sound units of the language, technically phonemes. (ii) Attribution: This involves predication rather than equivalence. - The second appositive is commonly an indefinite NP. The house, an imposing building, dominated the street. - But it can be definite or non-articled. Many soldiers, the cream of the battalion, died in the attack. Robinson, leader of the Democratic group on the committee, refused to answer questions. (iii) Inclusion : the first appositive includes the second (but not identical with it). His excuses, say the break down of his car, never seemed plausible. The children liked the animals, particularly the monkeys. The two men, one a Dane, were awarded medals. 4. Realisation of apposition - The first appositive: often noun phrase - The second can be: NP, FCl or NFCl. + His novel Great Expectations is truly thrilling. (NPs) + The soldiers, some of them being natives, are friendly. (V-ing part. NFCl.) + His hope, to become a doctor, was realised at last. (“to” Infi. NFCl.) + This strongly supports his argument that things are getting worse than before. (‘that’ clause). + He didn’t answer my question, why he hadn’t come to the meeting (wh-interrogative clause). + His account of what he had done that year did not satisfy his colleague. (complementation of preposition) Ex: 158 Subordination I, Definition: the relationship between the 2 units which are dependent to each other, that is one clause is the subordinate to the other. When Tom saw Mary, he ran away. II, Indicators of subordination 1, Formal indicators: Simple Compound Correlatives as, because, if, since, that, when, while, etc., as if, as though, so as, so that, in order that so ... that, more ... than, such ... that, no sooner ... than, hardly ... when 2,Use of wh-words: Wh- word as a pronoun: (S, C, O in subclause): What, who, which What you say isn’t true. Wh-word as an adverb: (A in subclause): where, when, how, why I’ll go where you go. 3, Optional use of subordinator + In finite clause: I knew (that) he didn’t like joking. + In non-finite clause: (While) Running away, Tom saw Mary. (After) Having finished the work, they went home. 4, Absence of subordinator + In non-finite clauses acting as S, O or C: We want him to stop talking. Watching these films was not to my liking. + In contingent adjectival clauses: They went home tired / happy. + In case of subject-operator inversion: Had you gone there you would have met her. Ex: 176 III, Classification of clauses 1, According to usages: 2 kinds - Main clause (superordinate clause/independent clause) Sub-clause (subordinate clause/dependent clause) 2, Structural classification: 3 kinds FCl “to” infi. NFCl. Infin. NFCl Bare Infi. NFCL. Cl NFCl - Ing part. NFCl. - Ed part. NFCl. Verbless 2.1. Finite clause: a clause whose verb element is a finite verb phrase He is a student. F.V.P FCL 2.2 Non-finite clause: a clause whose verb element is a non-finite verb phrase a. Infinitive non-finite clause - “To” infinitive NFCl. To learn E is difficult. S - “To” inf. NFCl without S It’s difficult for us to learn English S - “To” inf. NFCl with S - Bare infinitive NFCl. Run away is what I could do then. S - Bare inf. NFCL without S He made me cry. Co - Bare inf. NFCL with S b. -Ing participle NFCl. Going home, I did some shopping. Atime - -Ing part. NFCL without S ó When I was going home, I did some shopping. Fcl. The teacher being ill, we missed our lesson. A reason-Ing part. NFCl. with subject ó As the teacher was ill, we missed our lesson. Fcl. c. -Ed participle non-finite clause Given a beautiful present, she was very happy. Atime -ed part. NFC without S As she was given a beautiful present, she was happy. Fcl. The letter written by my friend is difficult to read. S - -ed part. NFC. with S The letter which was written by my friend is diffiuclt to read. 2.3 Verbless clause: a clause whose verb element is absent He went to bed angry. ó When he was angry, he went to bed. She stayed at home jobless. Ex: 172, 174 IV. Functional classification: 5 clauses: Nominal clauses, Adverbial Clauses, Comment Clauses, Relative clauses, Comparative clauses NOMINAL CLAUSES I, Definition: the clauses that perform nominal function as S, O, C II, Kinds of nominal clauses 1. Finite nominal clause - “that” clauses - “Wh-” interrogative Clauses - Nominal relative clauses - Yes/no interrogative Clauses 2. Non-finite clause - Bare infinitive Non-finite clause - “To” infinitive Non-finite clause - -Ing participle Non-finite clause 3. Possible functions of Nominal clauses Nominal clauses - syntactic functions a, S - “That” clause: That he is the best student of this group is widely accepted. - “Wh-” clause: Who will go there is a question. - Nominal rel.cl. Whoever went there was given a small book. - Yes/no interr. Whether he’ll help us or not is not certain yet. - “To” infinitive: It is easy to learn grammar. - Bare infinitive: Run away was what we could do then. -Ing participle: It is no use crying over the milk spilt. b. Od - “That” clause: We know that you are rich. - “Wh-” clause: I didn’t know why you didn’t love me. - Nominal rel.cl. I can’t understand whatever he says. - Yes/no interr. Do you know if he can swim? “To” infinitive: She likes to dance then. - -Ing participle: We like singing the song in the group. c. Oi - Nominal rel.cl: They gave whoever went there a present. d. Cs: - “That” clause: The question is that he is still single. - “Wh- ” interr.cl. The question is where we will go after the class. - Nominal rel.cl. What he likes is not whatever I like. - Yes/no interr. The question is If he can cope with the situation. - “To” infinitive: My job was to remind him of his duty. - Bare infinitive: What we ought to do is repeat what he says. -Ing participle: Her dream was becoming a good translator. e. Co - Nominal rel. cl.: You can paint it whichever colour you like. - “To” infinitive: We wanted him to keep silent. - Bare infinitive: We heard him murmur something. -Ing participle: I saw him driving a new Dream. f. App - “That” clause: His hope, that he’ll become a teacher of English, will soon come true. - “Wh-” clause: The question how we deal with the situation has not been answered. - Nominal rel.cl.: We want to know her permanent address, that is where she is living most of her time. - Yes/no interr.: Our problem whether he’ll be able to come over this difficulty is a great significant. - “To” infinitive: His desire, to become famous through out the country, comes true. - Ing participle: Her dream, becoming the Queen, was reliased at last. g. Cadj - “That” clause: I’m sure that he’ll get married soon. - “Wh-” clause: I’m not certain who helped him over the difficulty. - Yes/no interrogative: I’m not sure whether he’ll succeed or not. - “To” infinitive: He is easy to deal with. -Ing participle: She was busy making up all day. h. Cprep - “Wh-” clause: It depends on what he will say at the meeting. - Nominal rel. cl: I don’t believe in whatever he says. - Yes/no interr: It depends on whether he can bring in this list. Ing participle: They are thinking of cheating her. Ex: 177 -> 187 Ex 178: Distinguish that: 1. Demonstrative + Noun singular 2. Relative pronoun - Defining/restrictive relative clause (postmodifier) – not omitted – no commas 3. Nominal “that” clause: function as: - S: - Od: optional - Cs: after be & become groups, optional - Appositive: + commas - Cadj: after adj, optional Ex 181: “Wh-” FCl. changes into “wh” NFCl.: + Same tense + Same subject + Main clause sub clause: S, V, Od S V … (Od of Main Clause is the reference to S of sub-clause) S V Oi Od S V …. (Oi of Main Clause is the reference to S of sub-clause) + After “why” - “to” infinitive. Ex: 182 Yes/ no FCl: if/whether Od, Cs, Cadj, App: if/ whether S, Cprep, “or”: whether DISTINGUISH WH-INTERR. CLAUSE AND WH-NOMINAL REl. CLAUSES 1. Similarities a. Form: Both are finite Nominal clause introduced by Wh-word + as Pronouns: What, who, which + as Adverbs: how, where, when, why b. Functions: S, Od, Cs, App, Cprep Differences Clauses Wh-interrogative clause Wh-nominal relative clause Forms Wh-word Wh-word + ever Functions Cadj Ø Ø Ø Oi Co Meanings Wh-interrogative clause correspond to wh – question: I don’t know who he is. Who is he? I don’t know. Why she didn’t come has not been answered. Why didn’t she come? The question has been answered. Nominal relative clause correspond to a nominal element + relative clause: What caused the fired was a cigarette end. The thing that caused the fire was a Nom.element Nom. Re.clause cigarette end. Whoever went there was given a small book. - Anyone who went there was given a small book. COMMENT CLAUSES 1. Comment clauses: - Comment clause similar to main clause She loved him, I know/ see. 2. Possible functions of comment clause (adjunct, disjunct, conjunct): As all of you know, this story is legend. Aadjunct To be honest, he is very stringy. Adisjunct What’s more important, you have to go out. Ex: 201 Aconjunct COMPARATIVE CLAUSES 1. Definition: a comparative clause consists of 2 components: Comparative element + comparative clause He looks younger than she does. 2. Possible functions CS: I’m happier about it than my sister is. S: More people learn English than any other languages. Od: He read more books than I did. Oi: That man has given more children happiness than anyone else. A: You have been working much harder than I had. 3. Ellipsis in “than” clauses She is taller than he (is)/ him. Ex: 197 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES I, Definition Adverbial clauses are those perform adverbial functions in the sentence (adjuncts, disjuncts, conjuncts) II, Finite Adverbial clauses ¾ semantic sub-classification (study book) III, Non-finite Adverbial clauses – structural classification 1, To-inf.Cl. (to V): in order for + N to, so as to - A purpose: I left early (so as) to catch the train. They left the door open in order for me to hear the baby. - A result: The ceiling is too high for me to reach. She woke up to find the whole house on fire. 2,V-ing part.cl: while, without, when -A time: He wrote his greatest novel while working on a freighter. Nearing the entrance, I shook hands with my acquaintances. - A circumstance: The weather having improved, we enjoyed the rest of the game. -A manner: She entered the room without greeting anyone inside. -A reason: Being very suspicious, she hesitated to open the door. Being a man of ingenuity, he soon repaired the car. - A preference: Rather than sitting quietly at home he preferred to visit his friends. - A condition + concession: Whether living in London or not, John enjoyed himself. 3, V-ed part.Cl: - A time: Once published, the book caused a remarkable stir. - A place: Where(ver) known, such facts have been reported. - A condition: These books will cause great harms to young students unless forbidden. 4. Bare infinitive clause - A preference: Rather than go their by air, I’d take the slowest train Verbless adverbial clauses: - Adjectival contingent clauses (without or with subordinator). They went home dead tired. (A circumstance) John, sad at the news, went to Mexico. (A reason) Though very poor, they are extremely generous. (A concession) If necessary, I’ll do that again. (A condition) When ripe, the oranges are picked and sorted. (A time) - Other clauses: (often with subordinator) When in Rome, do as Rome does. While in London, he enjoyed himself greatly. He’ll do his best to help her if requested by the boss. These verbless clauses are often considered as reduced finite clauses with ellipted Subject + Verb. Exercises: 172, 174, 176, 177, 179, 180, 181, 182, 185, 187, 188, 190,191, 201, 203, 206, 208, 209. The end

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