Tóm tắt Luận án Party development activities of the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954

The reality of the work of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954, both success and failure had shown that to complete the historical mission, every level of Party must be really transparent, strong politically, ideally and constitutively; fond with the people; have scientific leading method, have the crew of staffs and partisans who have quality and competence. At the same time, we have to regulate, innovate, risen the fighting competence and power without stopping, quickly take the chance, accept and overcome the challenges. They are the urgent duties to the Party and the career of innovating the nation today.

doc27 trang | Chia sẻ: toanphat99 | Ngày: 19/07/2016 | Lượt xem: 939 | Lượt tải: 0download
Bạn đang xem trước 20 trang tài liệu Tóm tắt Luận án Party development activities of the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954, để xem tài liệu hoàn chỉnh bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
HO CHI MINH NATIONAL ACADEMY OF POLITICS NGUYEN THI XUAN Party development activities of the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954 Field of study: History of the Vietnam Communist Party Code : 62 22 03 15 SUMMARY OF THE PHD THESIS IN HISTORY HA NOI - 2015 The thesis is completed at the Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics Supervisor: 1. Assoc.Prof.Dr. Nguyen Manh Ha 2. Dr. Nguyen Binh Reviewer 1: Reviewer 2: Reviewer 3: The thesis will be defended in front of the Thesis Committee at Academy level, at the Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics At hour date month year The thesis can be found at the National Library and the Library of Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics INTRODUCTION 1. The urgency of the topic 1.1. Scientifically The reality of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee during the war against the French is very abundance, in which, there were creations of the Party committee of the military district on three aspects: building the Party politically, ideally and constitutively. So far, however, there has not been any research project that is comprehensive and systematic about this subject. 1.2. Practically Building the Party plays an important role, the competence and the combativeness of the Party depend on it. It is essential for the Party to research, summarize and applied the experiences during the local building of the Party in the history, in order to be powerful and to play the leader role. The research, summariation of the experiences about the Party building works of the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954 can be applied for the Party development activities today. 2. Aims and objectives of the thesis 2.1. Aims To research, restore, clarify the process of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954; summarize and draw experiences from the work of building the Party of the districtual Party committee in order to serve the work of building the Party and regulation today. 2.2. Objectives To collect, systematize the references about the building of the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954; to analyze, clarify the policy of the Party Central Committee and President Ho Chi Minh in general and the work of building the Party particularly; to recreate the leading and committing the work of building the Party process of the Interzone III Party Committee politically, ideally, constitutively; to highlight the achieved results, point out the mistakes and their causes; to conclude the experiences, which are theoretically and practically meaningful through the work of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954. 3. Research object and scopes 3.1. Research object The thesis researches the activity of Party development activities of the Interzone III Party Committee; the policy and the guidance of the Party committee and the achieved results. 3.2. Research scopes Content: The thesis researches the building of the Party policy of the Party Central Committee and the committing work of Party building process of the Interzone III Party Committee politically, ideally, constitutively. Geographical scope: From February 1948 to May 1952; on the localities of 11 provinces and cities: Hai Kien, Hai Duong, Hung Yen, Thai Binh, Nam Dinh, Ha Nam, Ha Đong, Son Tay, Ninh Binh, Hoa Binh & Ha Noi. (In December 1948, Hai Kien province splited into Hai Phong city and Kien An province. On May 11th, 1949, Hanoi was splited from the Third military district and became a Special Administrative Region, commanded directly by the Party Central Committee). From May 1952 to July 1954, on 6 provinces and cities: Nam Dinh, Ha Nam, Ha Dong, Son Tay, Ninh Binh và Hoa Binh. Time period: From the time the Third military district was founded (February 1948) to the time the Genève Treaty was signed, on July 1954. 4. Rationale, sources of data and research methods 4.1. Rationale The thesis was performed based on the manipulation of historical materialism and the dialectics of Marxism - Leninism, Ho Chi Minh Thought and the opinions of the Party about the building of the Party. 4.2. Sources of data The thesis was researched based on the main and reliable references, which are stated in the Complete Collection of the Party’s documents or stored in the Archive Department of the Party Central Office, Resource Chamber of the Party’s History Institute; monographs; books about the published local history of the Interzone III Party Committee. 4.3 Research methods The thesis uses the historical, logical, analytical, statistical, comparative method; criticize the historical references and the specific research method of the science of Party’s history. 5. New contributions of the thesis 5.1. Material Collect, assemble, expertise the data and documents, especially the original data about the work of the building of the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954, including many new historical data. 5.2. Content The results of the thesis help the readers aspect out the Third military district leading and committing the work of building the Party process from 1948 to 1954 and the meaning of building the Party to the career of leading resistance and founding nation of the milatary district’s Party committee; contribute to make the work of researching and teaching the history of Communist Party of Vietnam more abundant, more comprehensive and more profound; provide more scientific arguements which serve the work of building the Party and regulation today. 6. Structure of the thesis Besides the introduction, conclusion, the author’s list of works published related to the thesis, list of references and appendices, the thesis includes 3 chapters, 6 sections. OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY RELATING TO TOPICS 1. THE WORK RELATED TO THE CONTENT OF THE THESIS Until now, the work of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954 was mentioned in different levels, scopes, angles in the following historical projects: 1.1. The projects, joint research articles about history of the Communist Party of Vietnam and the work of building the Party Some basic projects, articles such as: The history of the Communist Party of Vietnam, draft, chapter I (1920 - 1954), National Political Publishing House, Hanoi, 1981. (republished in 1984, Ho Chi Minh Institute, The Party’s history Institute, Chronicle history of Communist Party of Vietnam, chapter III The Party leading the resistance and the national Salvation (1945 - 1954), National Political Publishing House, Hanoi, 2009 (republished in 2012); Experiences about building the Communist Party of Vietnam through 70 active years, Professor Dau The Bieu (3 - 2000); The work of building the Party and Party’s organizations consolidation in the Forth military district, period 1945 - 1950, Nguyen Danh Loi (12 - 2000); Ministeral scientific project The Party’s leadership of the building of the system of the Party’s organizations during the war against French (1945 -1954), acted as a chairman by Professor Nguyen Binh, etc In different levels, those projects, articles reflect some aspects related to the topic of the thesis. 1.2. The general scientific research projects about the Third military district Some representative projects such as: Third military region - History of resistance against French colonialism, People's Army Publishing House, Hanoi 1998; The history of resistance against the French on the right bank of Red River District, 1945-1955; National Political Publishing House, Hanoi 2001; Some main aspects at the right bank of Red River District during the resistance against the French; National Political Publishing House, Hanoi 2001; Ministeral scientific project The role of the Third military district committee during the resistance against French and during the first years building, consolidating the North, acted as a chairman by Professor Nguyen Quy etc Those projects present some resistance, national salvation policies of the Third military district and the committees of some provinces and cities in the district; state some of the aspects about the work of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee. All three groups of project above are important documents, which suggest the issues need to be solved by the thesis, and help the Phd student complete his/her thesis well as well. 1.3. The projects about the history of the Party committee and the history of departments, associations and unions of the provinces in the Third military district The projects about the history of the Party committee of the provinces and cities in the Third military district such as: Party Executive Committee of Communist Party of Vietnam in Hai Phong, History of Hai Phong Party Committee, chapter I (1925 - 1955), Hai Phong Publishing House, 1991; Party Executive Committee of Communist Party of Vietnam in Nam Dinh province, History of Nam Dinh Party Committee 1930 - 1975, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi, 2001; Ha Tay Provincal Committee, History of Ha Tay’s Party committee, chapter II 1945 - 1954, 1994, etc reflected some aspects about the work of building the Party of the regions in the military district. 2. REVIEW THE RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH PROJECTS So far, there has not been any project researches the work of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954 comprehensively, systematically. In almost every stated project, the contents related to the theme of the thesis were only reflected seperately, scatteredly and illustratively during the general development of the resistance. The work of building the Party of the Third military district from 1948to 1954 has not been considered as an independent research subject. How did the Interzone III Party Committee build the Party politically, ideally and constitutively? How are the achieved results, mistakes, the causes of those results and mistakes, the experiences drawn from the reality of the work of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee ? As long as these issues have not been clarified and explained thoroughly, evaluations, insights about the process of building the Party during the resistance war against French invaders will not yet be completed, insightful and comprehensive. 3. THE ISSUES WHICH THE THESIS FOCUSES SOLVING - Analyze the factors which impact to the work of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee from February 1948 to July 1954. - Present systematically the opinions, policies and guidance of the Party Central Committee and President Ho Chi Minh in general and the building of the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954 particularly. - Recreate the leading and committing the work of building the Party process of the Interzone III Party Committee in three aspects: politics, ideas, organization. - Evaluate objectively the achievements and mistakes as well as the causes of the mistakes during the building of the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee. - Summarize some experiences, which are practically meaningful from the history of the work of building the Party of Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954. Chapter 1 BUILDING THE PARTY IN THE ASPECTS OF POLITICS, IDEA, ORGANIZATION, MEATING THE DEMANDS OF GUIDING THE RESISTANCE IN THE NEW PERIOD (2/1948 - 5/1952) 1.1. THE SITUATION OF PARTY BUILDING IN THE AREA OF THE THIRD MILITARY DISTRICT BEFORE FEBRUARY AND THE POLICY OF PARTY CENTRAL COMMITTEE AND PRESIDENT HO CHI MINH ABOUT THE BUILDING OF THE PARTY 1.1.1. The foundation of the Interzone III Party Committee Within the framework of committing the resolution of uniting the Northern area of Central Committee of the Communist Party, January 20th, 1948 and the Decree 120 - SL of President Ho Chi Minh, January 25th, 1948, in the beginning of February 1948, the Third military district was formed, based on the annexation of district II, district III and district XI. The locality of the Third military district included 11 provinces and cities: Hai Kien, Hai Duong, Hung Yen, Thai Binh, Nam Dinh, Ha Nam, Ha DĐong, Son Tay, Ninh Binh, Hoa Binh and Ha Noi. Just right after the foundation of the Third military district, in order to promptly lead, operate the troops and the people of the military district to resist, the Party Central Committee assigned the Standing Interregional Committee including these comrades: Do Muoi, Dang Kim Giang, Nguyen Van Loc, Kien (or Nha), Vu Oanh, Di, Dang Tinh, Le Quang Dao, Tran Quang Binh, Van Tien Dung, Do Muoi, Vu Oanh, Dang Tinh, Nguyen Khai,... comrade Nguyen Van Tran to be Interregional Commissioner Secretary and President of Resistance - Administrative Committee of the military district, comrade Le Thanh Nghi to be the Vice President. When the provinces of the Red River’s right bank was occupied, isolated, in order to operate the resistance more easily, on May 24th, 1952, the Party Central Committee had issued the resolution #8/NQTU, splitting the Third military district’s 5 provinces in the north of the Red River including Hai Phong, Kien An, Thai Binh, Hai Duong, Hung Yen in order to form the Red River’s right bank area. From that time until the end of the war, the Third military district included 6 provinces and cities at the left bank of Red River, including Ha Dong, Ha Nam, Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh, Son Tay and Hoa Binh. Within the framework of committing the guidance of the Party Central Committee, from May 20th to June 2nd, 1952, the Interregional Committee met the Third conference and issued the resolution about organizing and dividing the duties to the comrades who join the new Executive Board of the Interregional Committee. The Interregional Committee included 15 comrades, comrade Le Thanh Nghi became the Secretary and the Commissar. 1.1.2. Factors that impact the work of building the Party in the Third military district 1.1.2.1. Natural, economic and social conditions Third military district - a large fruitfulness with the area of about 16.000 km2, locates at the center of the Red River Delta; the natural, economic and social conditions are usually favorable but sometimes also hard and complicated. Not only is it the center of the Red River Delta, the Third military district is also the path to the North of Vietnam. The natural, economic and social conditions of the military district had regulated the special strategic position of the locality to our resistance and to the enemy’s war. Therefore, the Third military district was the number 1 occupation target of the French. The reality of intense, tough war had impacted to the thoughts and spirits of the staffs, partisans and people. On the other hand, the natural, economic and social properties of the military district had strongly dominated the conceptions, ideas, lifestyles and characters of the staffs and partisans on the locality. Besides the creative, independent, resilient, united, steadfast, long-suffering spirits, there was still the idea of small farmers with a lot of defects in characters (selfish), of awareness and educational levels. The Third military district was where a lot of Christians and many ethnics lived in: Muong, Thai, Tay, Nung, Dao, Hoa,... (in Ninh Binh, Hoa Binh and Son Tay). In order to improve the advantages and overcome the bad effects to the ideas and characters of the staffs, partisans and unite the people in every religion and ethnic to resist, against the plot of pacifying the delta of the military district, the plot of taking advantages to divide the united unity of the French, it requires the districtual Party committee to enhance the work of building the Party to make the districtual Party committee powerful, to meet the demand of leading the resistance in a strategic locality with many difficulties. 1.1.2.2. The situation of building the Party on the locality of the Third military district before February 1948 From 1930 to the August Revolution in 1945, under the guidance of the Party Central Committee, of Northern Party Committee, the localities on the military district concentrated on building the system of Party organization, developing the partisans, leading the people against the empire and the feudalism. In the same time, the localities had developed few partisans and building some of Party committee. Since after the August Revolution until before the foundation of the Third military district (February 1948), the ministry levels on the localities of the military district (that time were the district II, III and XI) continued building the Party in every aspect, with some achieved goals and a few mistakes. In the same time, the system of Party organizations in every levels were being formed, the number of staffs, partisans and Party committee increased almost in every provinces and cities. In December 1947, the number of partisans in the district III was totally 9.256 comrades [190], and it was the area with the biggest number of partisans. 1.1.2.3. The policy of the Party Central Committee and President Ho Chi Minh about building the Party After losing in Viet Bac, the French decided to fight a long-lasting war, pacify the populated and rich delta in order to riffle the man powers and estate powers to serve the invading war, use the total war to defeat the resistance of the Vietnamese. To meet the demand of resistance in the new situation, the Party Central Committee and President Ho Chi Minh promoted the work of building the Party, concentrated in developing the partisans, educated the opinions, paths, situations, duties and awareness of the partisans. 1.2. THE WORK OF BULDING THE PARTY OF THE INTERZONE III PARTY COMMITTEE FROM FEBRUARY 1948 TO MAY 1952 1.2.1. Interzone III Party Committee determined the political duty, defeated the plot of pacification of the French Facing the French’s plot of attacking and occupying the locality, based on the situation of the military district and the policy of the Party Central Committee and of President Ho Chi Minh, the Party Committee of the military district had determined the political duty for the whole military district. The political duty of the military district was expressed through the conference of delegates of the military district in the beginning of 1948, the first conference of staffs of the military district (April 1948), the first conference of delegates of the military district (July 1948), the second conference of delegates (July 1949), the third conference of staffs of the military district (March 1951) with the basic points were: resist, commit the People’s war with the spirit of independence, self - sufficient, long-lasting and with the motto “resist and build the nation at the same time”. Every other duty was for the resisting duty. In the occupied zone, the typical duties were to use variety of military operations, combined with the duty of resisting economically, politically, sabotage the villages which supported the French, against the conscription and forcing the people to move away in order to establish hamlets. In the rears, besides the typical duties were to produce foods, weapons, medicines, protect the rears, built the force; there were other frequent duties, they were to prepare and to be ready to fight. With the work of determining the political duty, from February 1948 to April 1952, the Party Committee had led the people and the troops in the localities to commit the suggested political duties. Until April 1952, many liberated area were expanded The guerilla bases of the military district had been uninterrupted. Every effort to pacify the military district of the enemy in 1951 was failed. Every military and civil operation from 1948 to April 1952 had contributed making the failure of the French’s plot of pacifying the Red River Delta and the policy of Vietnamization, making the resistance changed to be the counter and offensive war. 1.2.2. The Interzone III Party Committee prompted educating ideas The content of educating the ideas of the Interzone III Party Committee was mainly to the class viewpoint, the faith to the guidance of the Party, the awareness of long-lasted resistance, self-reliance, not being afraid of sacrifice; make the staffs and partisans realize friends and enemies, against the ideas of dependence, doubt, being afraid and compromise with the USA, overestimate the French, motivate the spirit and the willpower when facing great operations (The Border Operation) With the right policies and by necessary education methods, the work of education during this period had helped the staffs, partisans of the Party Committee raise awareness, consolidate class viewpoint, opinions of the public, opinions and policies of the resistance, situations and duties. The wrong ideas like: pessimism, doubt, being afraid of sacrifices and difficulties, avoid fighting with the enemy, surrender, optimism bias, careless, underestimate the enemy, dependent, hasty, resist in a short time were overcome. The staffs and partisans distinguished clearly who are friends and enemies. Based on them, they determined clearly the awareness and responsibilities to the resistance and had the awareness of completing the duties. 1.2.3. The Interzone III Party Committee actively built and consolidated the organizations The work of organizing focused on building and completing the Party apparatus following the trend of “acumen, brief, effective”; strengthened the work of training, adding, promoting the staffs; changed the working style, opposed the individualism, promoted developing the Party, focused on building the branches of the Party. In 1948, 1949, the Party’s ideas of “compete building groups” had dominated the work of developing the Party in the military district. As a result, the military district had developed the Party massively, had no insurance of the quality, and became the locality with the most developed Party of the country, with 150000 comrades in the end of 1949. [25] In 1950, 1951 and in the beginning of 1952, for some objective and subjective (slashing war, damaged infrastructure, many staffs and partisans were killed or taken prisoner, many prayed for peace, avoided active service, rigidly committed the designation “Temporarily not add any new more partisans” of the Party Central Committee”,), the number of staffs, partisans, basic and auto-collaborate Party committee of the districtual Party committee decreased quickly, and there was a serious lack of staffs, especially the staffs of districts and communes. Until May 1952, the whole military district had 20000 partisans. Conclusion of Chapter 1 From 1948 to May 1952, the Interzone III Party Committee had carried out building the Party politically, ideally, and constitutively, raised the fighting competence and power of the Party Committee; led the troops and people of the military district commit the political duty well, started to defeat the plot of occupying the delta of the French. Besides achieved results, the work of building the Party at this time had many mistakes. The worse mistake was adding the partisans without attending to the quality, over-considered the achievements, which affected the quality of the team of staffs, partisans and the fighting power of the Party Committee. Those mistakes were overcome by the districtual Party committee the years later. Chapter 2 BUILT A STRONG PARTY COMMITTEE, ENSURED LEADING THE RESISTANCE TO VICTORY 2.1. THE NEW IDEAS OF THE PARTY CENTRAL COMMITTEE AND PRESIDENT HO CHI MINH ABOUT BUILDING THE PARTY In 1952, the resistance of Vietnamese people achieved many important victories. With the Hoa Binh victory in Winter - Spring of 2 years 1951 - 1952, the power of our troops had gotten more powerful, the troops and the people had a good advantage to operate great operations to defeat the enemy and end the war soon. To enhance the fighting power of the Party and response the requirements of promoting resistance leadership, from the first half of the year 1952 to the end of the war, Party Central Committee and President Ho Chi Minh continued determining that the work of building the Party was a critical duty, in it, adjusting the Party was the center duty. At the same time, strengthened studying, advanced training for staffs and partisans, combined with regulating constitutively. All were made in order to make the whole Party be united ideally, strong constitutively, and powerful enough to lead the resistance during the crucial period. 2.2. INTERZONE III PARTY COMMITTEE STRENGTHENED BUILDING THE PARTY POLITICALLY, IDEALLY AND CONSTITUTIVELY (5/1952 - 7/1954) 2.2.1. Interzone III Party Committee determined the political duty during the crucial period of the war After the Hoa Binh Operation, the resistance on the locality of the military district had more advantages, and it became more realistic to actively operate operations to exterminate the enemy. The Party Committee became more mature day by day and had more leading experiences. Besides, some of the staffs, partisans still made many mistakes: class ideas, viewpoints, resisting opinions were wrong; fighting spirits and willingness were not good enough, individualism, bureaucracy and bossy hadn’t been overcome, On the other hand, after the Hoa Binh Operation, the French became more and more passive, they strengthened the fighting forces, promoted sweeping, destroying, grabing the locality of the military district. In summer of 1953, the French carried out the Navarre plan in order to occupy and keep the Red River Delta by all costs, the Third military district became a focus of the French’s occupying plan. Based on the local situation and the ideas of the Party Central Committee, during this period, the districtual Party committee continued determining the political duty of the military district in the new period. The political duty of the military district during this period was expressed through the Third Interregional Committee conference (from May 20th to June 2nd, 1952), the Assembly Standing Interregional Committee (August 1953), the resolution of Interregional Committee Executive Board (October 1952), the Third military district’s staff conference (January 1954) with the spirits: continue promoting the resistance, in which the most important duty was to keep and enhance resisting in the enemy’s occupied zone, combine closely with all the battlelfields of the whole country. Every other works such as: building fighting forces, fostering man powers, encouraging producing, saving, paying agriculture tax, devoting man powers and estate powers for the resistance had to be carried out usually and for the resistance. Every region determined specific duty and suitable for the locality’s properties. With the work of determining the political duty, from May 1952 to July 1954, the districtual Party committee had led troops and people on the locality defeat the enemy’s plot of occupying the military district’s delta, achieved bigger victory from time to time, contributed to the victory of Winter - Spring of 1953 and 1954, in which the top was the Dien Bien Phu operation, led to the contracting of Genève Treaty, liberated the whole Northern part. 2.2.2. The Interzone III Party Committee’s leadership in the aspect of idea In order to unite the ideas and show out the determination of resisting, carry out the political duty, from May 1952 to July 1954, the Interzone III Party Committee continued focusing educating the class viewpoints, resisting opinions, mottoes of the Party, educated the fighting situations, duties, responsibilities, regulated the wrong ideas, awareness, opposed the individualism, built right ideas, strengthened the awareness, degrees in every aspect for staffs and partisans. The Party Committee especially focused on educating, supporting during the crucial periods of the resistance (before great operations). Thanks to focusing on educating, fostering; the staffs and partisans had their awareness, ideas and responsibilities fostered in committing the ideas, policies of the Party, actively led the troops and people resisting. The ideal trend of rightist and leftist were overcome, basically solved the state in which staffs and partisans in the occupied zones prayed for peace and wanted to move to free zones. The whole Party united, unionized and was willing to lead the people to resist. 2.2.3. Interzone III Party Committee built and consolidated organizations After the Party Central Committee had divided the Right Bank Area from the Third military district, the Third military district’s focused organizing, re-consolidating the leading apparatus, strengthened the work for staffs, reformed the working style, opposed “3 muchs” (declare to the council, direct and report too much), “3 few” (study, check and follow; learn from the policies, learn and summarize from experiences too few), committed rightly the motto “the public leads, the individual is responsible”. At the same time, it carried out adjusting the Party and the staffs. The work of developing the Party was taken care by the Interregional Committee, but didn’t achieve any result. The number of partisans and Party committee decreased quickly, in the beginning of 1954, the districtual Party committee had only 20000 partisans. To enhance the quality of staffs and partisans, the districtual Party committee carried out opening the fostering, educating theories, moralities, cultures; usually committed the work of checking, consider the Party’s discipline, committed reward and punishment mode. With the positive ideas and methods, the Party apparatus of the districtual Party committee was consolidated, the reactive partisans were expelled from the Party, the staffs who were from the working class and peasants were chosen into the different committees. The fighting power of the districtual Party committee was strengthened, which created the advantage for the Party Committee to complete well the stated political duty. Conclusion of chapter 2 With the efforts of the Interregional committee, from May 1952 until the end of the war, the districtual Party committee had overcome the mistakes, had built the Party Committee more powerful politically, ideally and constitutively step by step. The districtual Party committee led the people in the locality resist and gain victory. Compared to the period before splitting the provinces in the Right Bank (May 1952), the work of building the Party of the districtual Party committee in this period had some differences: - Leadership of building the Party in a smaller locality (6 provinces and cities), focusing on consolidating and regulating the Party (every committee, consolidated the Party committee, educating the staffs and partisans, consolidating the Party committee and committees in every level); the work of adding partisans had almost stopped in the localities. As a result, the number of partisans, Party committee and staffs in this period decreased much more than it used to be in the past, and there was a serious lack of core staffs and commune staffs. - Because of focusing mainly on the work of consolidating, the Party organizations, staffs and partisans had their competences, fighting powers strengthened and got more working experiences. With the incredible growth, the districtual Party committee had led the troops and people complete the resisting duty excellently, contributed to the victory against the invasion of the French, liberated the North completely. Chapter 3 COMMENTS AND SOME EXPERIENCES 3.1. COMMENTS 3.1.1. Achievements and causes Through 6 years striving without any stop, the work of building the Party of the Third military district’s Party had achieved many important achievements. These achievements are: Politics: The Party Committee suggested the right ideas, political policies, which were suitable to the local reality, contributed to the victory of the resistance. During the resistance against the French, the Interzone III Party Committee complied the mottoes in determining the Party’s political duty, it was: grasped through the ideas of the Party Central Committee, suggested the suitable political duty based on the specific situation of the locality. With the starting point was the key area of the enemy’s pacification in the Red River Delta, based on the leading spirit of the Party Central Committee and President Ho Chi Minh, the main political duty which was determined by the districtual Party committee was resisting, every other duty was for the resisting duty. Based on that spirit, each region, based on the specific properties, suggested the primary duty besides the usual duty. In the occupied zone, the primary duties were the variety of military actions besides the usual duties, which were producing, building the forces, resisting politically, economically, culturally, opposing making strategic hamlet, conscription, enemy propaganda, In the free zone, the primary duty was protecting, building forces in every aspect, developing producing besides the duty of actively prepare to fight and be ready to fight. Thanks to the motto-compliance in determining the Party’s political duty, the political duty suggested by the districtual Party committee to respond to all the demands had to be carried out in an enemy’s occupied zone, an important locality in an important battlefield; had to be suitable to the opinion “all the people resist, resist in every aspect”, “resist everywhere” of the Party Central Committee and President Ho Chi Minh. So, the Party Committee led the troops and people gain victory for the resistance. Ideas: The districtual Party committee had grasped through deeply, enhance the awareness about the Party’s resisting opinions, ways and mottoes to the staffs and partisans. Uniting the ideas and activities in the whole Party Committee was the critical condition to gain the victory for the resistance. After being aware of that, from 1948 to 1954, the districtual Party committee considered the work of educating ideas, in which, on one hand, focused grasping through staffs and partisans in the aspect of the Party’s resisting opinions, ways, mottoes, ideas, situations, of situations, duties by periods; of the military district’s situations and the Party Committee’s ideas. So, the staffs, partisans in the military district always were aware that the resisting against the French was the civil, total, long-lasting, self-reliance resistance; the main motto of the resistance was “resist along with building the country”. From that, the staffs, partisans consolidated their viewpoints, fighting spirits and willingness, awareness and responsibilities to the Party and the resisting career. In the occupied zone as well as the free zone, staffs and partisans usually complied well the ideas and policies of the Party and the government, completed well their given duties, became the examples which supported the people to join the resistance greatly. In some periods, for some reasons, there was a part of staffs and partisans who followed the wrong trend of thoughts: rightist and leftist; individualism, bureaucracy, dictatorship, embezzlement, factionalism which affected to the fighting power of the Party Committee. The districtual Party committee had carried out many solving methods: training, regulating the Party, organizing studying for the partisans Thanks to those methods, the staffs and partisans had had their thoughts consistent; their spirits and actions united, the fighting power of the Party had risen. The wrong trends of thoughts, the harmful “diseases” to the Party were overcome. The people trusted on the leading of the Party Committee, actively join the resistance. The tough resisting reality on the locality under the leading of the districtual Party committee with greater victories day bay day were the evidences for the success of the districtual Party committee in the work of leading ideally. Organizations: Built a leading apparatus with crews of staffs who had qualities, competences and leading spirits. The districtual Party committee focused on building a 4-level steady compact Party leading apparatus based on the motto “the incorporation leads, the individual is in charge of”. The committees from the military district to the base were built based on democratic election (in some periods, because of the tough hostilities, some committees were assigned by the superior temporary). The leading apparatus of the Party was consolidated compactly and effectively; there was a clear duty and function assignment, which were suitable to the properties of an enemy’s occupied, destroyed and strictly-controlled zone. In the same time, the Party Committee built a crew which were high-quality, high-qualified and responsible (at the end of 1949, there were 8555 comrades in the Party Committee). The compact leading apparatus and the high-qualified and highly-experienced of the districtual Party committee was one of the important factors, which determined the victory of the resistance in the locality. Developed the loyal crew of partisans and the self-managed Party committee In the context of the French occupation and destruction of the military district, the locality were divided, the hard traffic and communication, the Party Committee had focused building, developing the loyal crew of partisans and the self-managed Party committee. Although there were some mistakes in the work of the Party in some periods, but basically, the crew of partisans and the enthusiastic hadn’t stopped consolidating, which created the conditions so that the districtual Party committee promoted its role in every situation, made the military district’s resistance move forward. The reality of leading the resistance in the enemy’s occupied zone; without fearing of hardships, sacrifices, the staffs, partisans and the self-managed Party committee stayed in the locality to lead the people resist. As a result, the military district’s resistance had overcome the hard time in the years 1950 - 1951. Thanks to that, at the end of 1953 and in the beginning of 1954, although there were only 20,000 partisans but the Interzone III Party Committee had led the troops and people on the locality success in carrying out political duty, success in fighting the attacks of the enemy, defeated the plot of occupying the delta, contributed making the victory for the resistance together with the whole nation. 3.1.2. Limitations and causes Besides the achieved achievements in the leading of building the Party during the resistance from 1948 to 1954, the Interzone III Party Committee still had some limitations and defects. Politically Some ideas were suggested too slowly and not suitable for the reality. “Rightist” in determining and directing committing the political duties. Ideally Ideal viewpoints, resisting spirits of some of the staffs and partisans were wrong and uncertainty. Constitutively Added partisans without paying attention to the quality, there were some signs of rightist and leftist. There were still many limitations in the work of training, using and disposing the staffs, and in some cases, there were some places which hadn’t estimated well the competence, and had discriminated against the people who had bad profiles. The limitations, mistakes in the work of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee had many causes, however, the basic cause was the limitation of awareness, leading competence of some staffs in the different levels of committees and of some partisans; on the other hand, some were caused by some wrong ideas of the Party. 3.2. EXPERIENCES From the reality of the work of building the Party of the districtual Party committee from 1948 to 1954, we initially learn from some theoretical and practical experiences below: First, it is necessary to grasp through the work of building the Party and apply flexibly and creatively the ideas of the Party Central Committee based on the reality of the localities. Second, consolidate educating ideally with committing the Party’s discipline seriously. Third, build the different levels of committees to be the real leading nuclear. Fourth, focus on building the Party in the bases during the tough war, the divided and surrounded locality. Fifth, add more partisans with the insurance of the quality, focus on developing the Party in the Christians and minor-ethnics areas, consider building the crew of staffs. CONCLUSION 1. From the foundation time until now, to achieve success for the resisting movement, Communist Party of Vietnam always considers and carries out the work of building the Party politically, ideally and constitutively. Thanks to that, the Party became more mature, enduring politically, united and steady ideally and constitutively, established the right revolutionary ideas, the scientific and creative leading method. So, the Party had gained the victory for the revolution. During the revolutionary leading process, based on the demand and the reality, the Party always focused on the work of building the Party in the important strategic localities. Being an important battlefield in the main battlefield in the North, the Third military district had an important role to our resistance and critically meaningful to the enemy’s invasion. To complete the duty of the main battlefield, defeat every plot of occupying and pacifying of the French, the Party Central Committee and President Ho Chi Minh had decided to found the military districts, two of them were Third military district and Interzone III Party Committee in February 1948. Founding the Interzone III Party Committee was the right ideas of the Party, suitable to the demand of resistance. 2. Leading a critical locality, from 1948 to 1954, the Interzone III Party Committee always considered committing the duty of building the Party and achieved many important results politically, ideally and constitutively; contributed to the work of building the Party in general. The process of committing the duty of building the Party in the Third military district was based on complying the mottoes of organizing of Marxism - Leninism Party, committing seriously the leading of the Party Central Committee, President Ho Chi Minh; and also based on the properties of the assigned locality, which was the enemy’s occupied zone, the key areas of occupying policy of the French, the center of the Red River delta, where most civilians were farmers, some were workers, and it was also where many Christians and minorities lived in, with the limited educational and awareness level; the assigned locality usually had changes, with both enemy’s occupied zone and free zone. The process of building the Party politically focused on grasping through, manipulating the ideas of comprehensive, civil, long-lasting, self-reliant resistance on the local reality. Based on the resisting, nation-building ideas, the ideas of the Party and President Ho Chi Minh, the Interzone III Party Committee had determined the ideas, direction and suitable solutions to lead the troops and people of the military district overcome the difficulties, promote the resistance, liberate the homeland, contribute to the victory of the nation. The process of building the Party ideally focused on building the reliance on the leading of the Party, on the victory of the resistance, created the unification ideally about the awareness of opinions, ideas, resistance-leading mottoes of the Party; about the situations and duties; opposed the thoughts of being afraid of sacrifice and difficulties; resisted against individualism, the “epidemics” of bureaucracy, bossy, self-interest. In the process of building the Party constitutively, the Party Committee focused on building the system of Party organizations in every level; developed the big crew of staffs and partisans; including some partisans which were Christians and minorities. With the efforts of the Party Committee, the work of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee had achieved important achievements; the competence and fighting power of the Party Committee were upgraded. The success of the work of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee helped the districtual Party committee complete excellently the duty of a critical battlefield, contributed to the general victory of the resistance. 3. The work of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee still had a lot of limitations in the awareness, determining the political duty; the work of educating the ideas, building the organizations, training the staffs and developing the partisans. There were many causes to those limitations, including the reason began from the ideas of building the Party of the Party Central Committee, which contained many unsuitable points. However, the basic cause was the limited awareness of some of the leading staffs in different levels of committees, of some of the staffs and partisans in the localities and partly because of the impact of the tough war. 4. The reality of the work of building the Party in the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954 had left the valuable experiences which can be applied in the work of building the Party. Those experiences were: Determining the political duty based on grasping through the ideas of the Party Central Committee, manipulating creatively to the local reality; enhancing the work of educating the ideas with committing seriously the Party’s discipline, promoting building the organizations, including focusing the different levels of committees, building the Party organizations in the localities, building the self - managed committees, developing partisans in both quantity and quality, paying attention to the regions where Christians and minorities lived in; considering building the crew of staffs. Those experiences were also the mottoes in building the Party, which were meaningful in every period of revolution. The reality of the work of building the Party of the Interzone III Party Committee from 1948 to 1954, both success and failure had shown that to complete the historical mission, every level of Party must be really transparent, strong politically, ideally and constitutively; fond with the people; have scientific leading method, have the crew of staffs and partisans who have quality and competence. At the same time, we have to regulate, innovate, risen the fighting competence and power without stopping, quickly take the chance, accept and overcome the challenges. They are the urgent duties to the Party and the career of innovating the nation today. AUTHOR’S PUBLICATIONS RELATED TO THE THESIS TOPIC 1. Nguyen Thi Xuan (2012), “Activities to strengthening the Party at Inter zone III between 1949 - 1951”, Journal of the Communist Party History (1). 2. Nguyen Thi Xuan (2013), “The Party development and Party cell building in several North Delta provinces (1945 - 1947)”, Journal of the Communist Party History 9 (274). 3. Nguyen Thi Xuan (2014), "The Interzone III Party Committee led the self-managed Party cells (1948 to 1951)”, Journal of the Communist Party, 11 (288). 4. Nguyen Thi Xuan (2015), "The Party development activities of the Interzone III Party Committee (1948 to 1954)", Journal of the Communist Party History, 5 (294). 5. Nguyen Thi Xuan (2014), "The Interzone III Party Committee led the struggle in coporated with the Dien Bien Phu campaign”, 60 years of Dien Bien Phu Victory, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi. 6. Nguyen Thi Xuan (2010), “ Guidelines of the Party and Nguyen Ai Quoc to the development of Party organizations in the North between 1930 and 1945”, The Communist Party of Vietnam’s 80 years of building and developing”, National Political - Administrative Publishing Housse, Hanoi.

Các file đính kèm theo tài liệu này:

  • doctom_tat_nguyen_thi_xuan_anh_bao_ve_cap_hoc_vien_6922_1_6904.doc
Luận văn liên quan