Water Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations

In Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, the intent of the author is twofold. The first intent is to consolidate the information and experience in waterworks and wastewater treatment plant operations that have evolved as a result of technological advances in the field, and as a result of the concepts and policies promulgated by the environmental laws and the subse-quent guidelines. The second intent is to discuss step-by-step procedures for the correct and efficient operation of water and wastewater treatment systems. Tertiary to this twofold intent is the proper preparation of operators to qualify for state licensure and certification examinations. With the impetus given to water quality improvement through the Municipal Construction Grants Program, the United States has undertaken an unprecedented building program for new and improved water and wastewater treat-ment systems. To date, much emphasis has been placed on training engineers to plan, design, and construct treatment facilities. At present, many programs in various engineer-ing disciplines at many universities offer courses in water and wastewater treatment plant design and operation. This text is not about the planning, designing, or con-struction of water and wastewater treatment facilities. While these tasks are paramount to conception and con-struction of needed facilities and needed infrastructure, many excellent texts are available that cover these impor-tant areas. This text is not about engineering at all. Instead, it is about operations and is designed for the operator. We often forget the old axiom: someone must build it, but once built, someone must operate it. It is the operation of ìitî that concerns us here

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LEWIS PUBLISHERS A CRC Press Company Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations Handbook of Frank R. Spellman© 2003 by CRC Press LLC This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microÞlming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. SpeciÞc permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identiÞcation and explanation, without intent to infringe. Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com © 2003 by CRC Press LLC Lewis Publishers is an imprint of CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 1-56670-627-0 Library of Congress Card Number 2003040119 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Spellman, Frank R. Handbook of water & wastewater treatment plant operations / by Frank R. Spellman. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-56670-627-0 (alk. paper) 1. Water—treatment plants—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Sewage disposal plants—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. Water—PuriÞcation—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 4. Sewage—PuriÞcation—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title: Handbook of water and wastewater treatment plant operations. II. Title. TD434.S64 2003 628.1¢62—dc21 2003040119© 2003 by CRC Press LLC Preface Water does not divide; it connects. With simplicity it links all aspects of our existence. David Rothenberg and Marta Ulvaenus In Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, the intent of the author is twofold. The Þrst intent is to consolidate the information and experience in waterworks and wastewater treatment plant operations that have evolved as a result of technological advances in the Þeld, and as a result of the concepts and policies promulgated by the environmental laws and the subse- quent guidelines. The second intent is to discuss step-by- step procedures for the correct and efÞcient operation of water and wastewater treatment systems. Tertiary to this twofold intent is the proper preparation of operators to qualify for state licensure and certiÞcation examinations. With the impetus given to water quality improvement through the Municipal Construction Grants Program, the United States has undertaken an unprecedented building program for new and improved water and wastewater treat- ment systems. To date, much emphasis has been placed on training engineers to plan, design, and construct treatment facilities. At present, many programs in various engineer- ing disciplines at many universities offer courses in water and wastewater treatment plant design and operation. This text is not about the planning, designing, or con- struction of water and wastewater treatment facilities. While these tasks are paramount to conception and con- struction of needed facilities and needed infrastructure, many excellent texts are available that cover these impor- tant areas. This text is not about engineering at all. Instead, it is about operations and is designed for the operator. We often forget the old axiom: someone must build it, but once built, someone must operate it. It is the operation of “it” that concerns us here. Several excellent texts have been written on water and wastewater treatment plant operations. Thus, the logical question is, why a new text covering a well-trodden road? The compound answer is a text that is comprehensive in scope, current, and deals with real world problems involved with plant operations is needed. The simple answer is that after September 11, things have changed. Many of these changes were apparent before Septem- ber 11; at the same time, many of our present needs were not so apparent. Consider, for example, the need for plants to become more efÞcient in operation and more economical in practice. This is not new, but it now takes on added importance because of the threat of privatization. We cover privatization and the benchmarking process in this text. On the other hand, how many of us thought security was a big deal prior to September 11? Some of us did, while some of us did not give it any thought at all. Today, things are different; we must adjust or fall behind. In the present climate, falling behind on the security of our potable water supplies is not an option. We must aggressively protect our precious water sources and those ancillaries that are critical to maintaining and protecting water quality. We cover plant security concerns in this text. There are other current issues. For example, arsenic in drinking water received a lot of coverage in the press recently. We all know that arsenic is a deadly poison, depending on dose, of course. Headlines stating that arsenic has been found in certain municipal drinking water supplies are a red ßag issue to many people. But is it really an issue? We cover arsenic in drinking water in this text. Another red ßag issue that has received some press and the attention of regulators is the presence of patho- genic protozoans, such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium, in drinking water supplies. We cover both of these proto- zoans in this text. In wastewater treatment (as well as water treatment), a lot of attention has been focused on disinfection by- products in water efßuents outfalled into receiving water bodies. We cover disinfection by-products in this text. Water and wastewater treatment is about mitigating the problems mentioned above. However, treatment oper- ations are about much more. To handle today’s problems, water and wastewater treatment system operators must be generalists. Herein lies the problem. Many of the texts presently available for water and wastewater operator use are limited in scope and narrowly focused in content. Most of these texts take a bare bones approach to presentation. That is, the basics of each unit process are usually ade- quately covered, but this is the extent of the coverage. At present, available texts either ignore, avoid, or pay cursory attention to such important areas as the multiple- barrier concept, maintaining infrastructure, benchmarking, plant security, operator roles, water hydraulics, microbi- ology, water ecology, basic electrical principles, pumping, conveyance, ßow measurement, basic water chemistry, water quality issues, biomonitoring, sampling and testing, water sources, and watershed protection. All of these important topics are thoroughly discussed in Handbook of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations. Though directed at water and wastewater operators, this book will serve the needs of students; teachers; con-© 2003 by CRC Press LLC sulting engineers; and technical personnel in city, state, and federal organizations who must review operations and operating procedures. In order to maximize the usefulness of the material contained in the test, it has been presented in plain English in a simpliÞed and concise format. Many tables have been developed, using a variety of sources. To assure correlation to modern practice and design, illustrative problems are presented in terms of commonly used operational parameters. Each chapter ends with a chapter review test to help evaluate mastery of the concepts presented. Before going on to the next chapter, take the review test, compare your answers to the key provided in Appendix A, and review the pertinent information for any problems you missed. If you miss many items, review the whole chapter. The indented notes displayed in various locations throughout this text indicate or emphasize important points to study carefully. This text is accessible to those who have no experience with water and wastewater operations. If you work through the text systematically, you can acquire an under- standing of and skill in water and wastewater operations. This will add a critical component to your professional knowledge. Frank R. Spellman Norfolk, VA© 2003 by CRC Press LLC Contents PART I Water and Wastewater Operations: An Overview Chapter 1 Problems Facing Water and Wastewater Treatment Operations 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Paradigm Shift 1.2.1 A Change in the Way Things are Understood and Done 1.3 Multiple-Barrier Concept 1.3.1 Multiple-Barrier Approach: Wastewater Operations 1.4 Management Problems Facing Water and Wastewater Operations 1.4.1 Compliance with New, Changing, and Existing Regulations 1.4.2 Maintaining Infrastructure 1.4.3 Privatizing and/or Reengineering 1.4.4 Benchmarking 1.4.4.1 Benchmarking: The Process 1.4.5 The Bottom Line on Privatization 1.5 Upgrading Security 1.5.1 The Bottom Line on Security 1.6 Technical Management vs. Professional Management 1.7 Chapter Review Questions and Problems References Chapter 2 Water and Wastewater Operators and Their Roles 2.1 Water and Wastewater Operators 2.2 Setting the Record Straight 2.2.1 The Computer-Literate Jack 2.2.2 Plant Operators as Emergency Responders 2.2.3 Operator Duties, Numbers, and Working Conditions 2.3 Operator CertiÞcation/Licensure 2.4 Chapter Review Questions and Problems References Chapter 3 Water and Wastewater References, Models, and Terminology 3.1 Setting the Stage 3.2 Treatment Process Models 3.3 Key Terms Used in Waterworks and Wastewater Operations 3.3.1 Terminology and DeÞnitions 3.4 Chapter Review Question and Problems References© 2003 by CRC Press LLC PART II Water/Wastewater Operations: Math and Technical Aspects Chapter 4 Water and Wastewater Math Operations 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Calculation Steps 4.3 Table of Equivalents, Formulae, and Symbols 4.4 Typical Water and Wastewater Math Operations 4.4.1 Arithmetic Average (or Arithmetic Mean) and Median 4.4.2 Ratio 4.4.3 Percent 4.4.3.1 Practical Percentage Calculations 4.4.4 Units and Conversions 4.4.4.1 Temperature Conversions 4.4.4.2 Milligrams per Liter (Parts per Million) 4.5 Measurements: Areas and Volumes 4.5.1 Area of a Rectangle 4.5.2 Area of a Circle 4.5.3 Area of a Circular or Cylindrical Tank 4.5.4 Volume Calculations 4.5.4.1 Volume of Rectangular Tank 4.5.4.2 Volume of a Circular or Cylindrical Tank 4.5.4.3 Example Volume Problems 4.6 Force, Pressure, and Head 4.7 Flow 4.7.1 Flow Calculations 4.7.1.1 Instantaneous Flow Rates 4.7.1.2 Flow through a Full Pipeline 4.7.2 Velocity Calculations 4.7.3 Average Flow Rate Calculations 4.7.4 Flow Conversion Calculations 4.8 Detention Time 4.8.1 Hydraulic Detention Time 4.8.1.1 Detention Time in Days 4.8.1.2 Detention Time in Hours 4.8.1.3 Detention Time in Minutes 4.9 Chemical Dosage Calculations 4.9.1 Chlorine Dosage 4.9.2 Hypochlorite Dosage 4.10 Percent Removal 4.11 Population Equivalent or Unit Loading Factor 4.12 SpeciÞc Gravity 4.13 Percent Volatile Matter Reduction in Sludge 4.14 Horsepower 4.14.1 Water Horsepower 4.14.2 Brake Horsepower 4.14.3 Motor Horsepower 4.15 Electrical Power 4.16 Chemical Coagulation and Sedimentation 4.16.1 Calculating Feed Rate 4.16.2 Calculating Solution Strength 4.17 Filtration 4.17.1 Calculating the Rate of Filtration 4.17.2 Filter Backwash© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 4.18 Practical Water Distribution System Calculations 4.18.1 Water Flow Velocity 4.18.2 Storage Tank Calculations 4.18.3 Distribution System Disinfection Calculations 4.19 Complex Conversions 4.19.1 Concentration to Quantity 4.19.1.1 Concentration (Milligrams per Liter) to Pounds 4.19.1.2 Concentration (Milligrams per Liter) to Pounds/Day 4.19.1.3 Concentration (Milligrams per Liter) to Kilograms per Day 4.19.1.4 Concentration (milligrams/kilogram) to pounds/ton 4.19.2 Quantity to Concentration 4.19.2.1 Pounds to Concentration (Milligrams per Liter) 4.19.2.2 Pounds per Day to Concentration (Milligrams per Liter) 4.19.2.3 Kilograms per Day to Concentration (Milligrams per Liter) 4.19.3 Quantity to Volume or Flow Rate 4.19.3.1 Pounds to Tank Volume (Million Gallons) 4.19.3.2 Pounds per Day to Flow (Million Gallons per Day) 4.19.3.3 Kilograms per Day to Flow (Million Gallons per Day) 4.20 Chapter Review Questions and Problems Reference Chapter 5 Water Hydraulics 5.1 What is Water Hydraulics? 5.2 Basic Concepts 5.2.1 Stevin’s Law 5.3 Properties of Water 5.3.1 Density and SpeciÞc Gravity 5.4 Force and Pressure 5.4.1 Hydrostatic Pressure 5.4.2 Effects of Water under Pressure 5.5 Head 5.5.1 Static Head 5.5.2 Friction Head 5.5.3 Velocity Head 5.5.4 Total Dynamic Head (Total System Head) 5.5.5 Pressure/Head 5.5.6 Head/Pressure 5.6 Flow/Discharge Rate: Water in Motion 5.6.1 Area/Velocity 5.6.2 Pressure/Velocity 5.7 Piezometric Surface and Bernoulli’s Theorem 5.7.1 Law of Conservation of Energy 5.7.2 Energy Head 5.7.3 Piezometric Surface 5.7.3.1 Head Loss 5.7.3.2 Hydraulic Grade Line 5.7.4 Bernoulli’s Theorem 5.7.4.1 Bernoulli’s Equation 5.8 Hydraulic Machines (Pumps) 5.8.1 Pumping Hydraulics 5.9 Well and Wet Well Hydraulics 5.9.1 Well Hydraulics 5.9.2 Wet Well Hydraulics© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 5.10 Friction Head Loss 5.10.1 Flow in Pipelines 5.10.2 Pipe and Open Flow Basics 5.10.3 Major Head Loss 5.10.3.1 Components of Major Head Loss 5.10.3.2 Calculating Major Head Loss 5.10.4 Minor Head Loss 5.11 Basic Piping Hydraulics 5.11.1 Piping Networks 5.11.1.1 Energy Losses in Pipe Networks 5.11.1.2 Pipes in Series 5.11.1.3 Pipes in Parallel 5.12 Open-Channel Flow 5.12.1 Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow 5.12.1.1 Laminar and Turbulent Flow 5.12.1.2 Uniform and Varied Flow 5.12.1.3 Critical Flow 5.12.1.4 Parameters Used in Open-Channel Flow 5.12.2 Open-Channel Flow Calculations 5.12.3 Open-Channel Flow: The Bottom Line 5.13 Flow Measurement 5.13.1 Flow Measurement: The Old-Fashioned Way 5.13.2 Basis of Traditional Flow Measurement 5.13.3 Flow Measuring Devices 5.13.3.1 Differential Pressure Flowmeters 5.13.3.2 Magnetic Flowmeters 5.13.3.3 Ultrasonic Flowmeters 5.13.3.4 Velocity Flowmeters 5.13.3.5 Positive-Displacement Flowmeters 5.13.4 Open-Channel Flow Measurement 5.13.4.1 Weirs 5.13.4.2 Flumes 5.14 Chapter Review Questions and Problems References Chapter 6 Fundamentals of Electricity 6.1 Electricity: What Is It? 6.2 Nature of Electricity 6.3 The Structure of Matter 6.4 Conductors, Semiconductors, and Insulators 6.5 Static Electricity 6.5.1 Charged Bodies 6.5.2 Coulomb’s Law 6.5.3 Electrostatic Fields 6.6 Magnetism 6.6.1 Magnetic Materials 6.6.2 Magnetic Earth 6.7 Difference in Potential 6.7.1 The Water Analogy 6.7.2 Principal Methods of Producing Voltage 6.8 Current 6.9 Resistance 6.10 Battery-Supplied Electricity© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 6.10.1 The Voltaic Cell 6.10.2 Primary and Secondary Cells 6.10.3 Battery 6.10.3.1 Battery Operation 6.10.3.2 Combining Cells 6.10.4 Types of Batteries 6.10.4.1 Dry Cell 6.10.4.2 Lead-Acid Battery 6.10.4.3 Alkaline Cell 6.10.4.4 Nickel-Cadmium Cell 6.10.4.5 Mercury Cell 6.10.4.6 Battery Characteristics 6.11 The Simple Electrical Circuit 6.11.1 Schematic Representation 6.12 Ohm’s law 6.13 Electrical Power 6.13.1 Electrical Power Calculations 6.14 Electrical Energy 6.15 Series DC Circuit Characteristics 6.15.1 Series Circuit Resistance 6.15.2 Series Circuit Current 6.15.3 Series Circuit Voltage 6.15.4 Series Circuit Power 6.15.5 Summary of the Rules for Series DC Circuits 6.15.6 General Series Circuit Analysis 6.15.6.1 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 6.16 Ground 6.17 Open and Short Circuits 6.18 Parallel DC Circuits 6.18.1 Parallel Circuit Characteristics 6.18.2 Voltage in Parallel Circuits 6.18.3 Current in Parallel Circuits 6.18.4 Parallel Circuits and Kirchhoff’s Current Law 6.18.5 Parallel Circuit Resistance 6.18.5.1 Reciprocal Method 6.18.5.2 Product over the Sum Method 6.18.5.3 Reduction to an Equivalent Circuit 6.18.6 Power in Parallel Circuits 6.18.7 Rules for Solving Parallel DC Circuits 6.19 Series-Parallel Circuits 6.19.1 Solving a Series-Parallel Circuit 6.20 Conductors 6.20.1 Unit Size of Conductors 6.20.1.1 Square Mil 6.20.1.2 Circular Mil 6.20.1.3 Circular-Mil-Foot 6.20.1.4 Resistivity 6.20.1.5 Wire Measurement 6.20.2 Factors Governing the Selection of Wire Size 6.20.2.1 Copper vs. Other Metal Conductors 6.20.2.2 Temperature CoefÞcient 6.20.3 Conductor Insulation 6.20.4 Conductor Splices and Terminal Connections 6.20.5 Soldering Operations© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 6.20.6 Solderless Connections 6.20.7 Insulation Tape 6.21 Electromagnetism 6.21.1 Magnetic Field around a Single Conductor 6.21.2 Polarity of a Single Conductor 6.21.3 Field around Two Parallel Conductors 6.21.4 Magnetic Field of a Coil 6.21.4.1 Polarity of an Electromagnetic Coil 6.21.4.2 Strength of an Electromagnetic Field 6.21.5 Magnetic Units 6.21.6 Properties of Magnetic Materials 6.21.6.1 Permeability 6.21.6.2 Hysteresis 6.21.7 Electromagnets 6.22 AC Theory 6.22.1 Basic AC Generator 6.22.1.1 Cycle 6.22.1.2 Frequency, Period, and Wavelength 6.22.2 Characteristic Values of AC Voltage and Current 6.22.2.1 Peak Amplitude 6.22.2.2 Peak-to-Peak Amplitude 6.22.2.3 Instantaneous Amplitude 6.22.2.4 Effective or Root-Mean-Square Value 6.22.2.5 Average Value 6.22.3 Resistance in AC Circuits 6.22.4 Phase Relationships 6.23 Inductance 6.23.1 Self-Inductance 6.23.2 Mutual Inductance 6.23.3 Calculation of Total Inductance 6.24 Practical Electrical Applications 6.24.1 Electrical Power Generation 6.24.2 DC Generators 6.24.3 AC Generators 6.24.4 Motors 6.24.4.1 DC Motors 6.24.4.2 AC Motors 6.24.5 Transformers 6.24.6 Power Distribution System Protection 6.24.6.1 Fuses 6.24.6.2 Circuit Breakers 6.24.6.3 Control Devices 6.25 Chapter Review Questions and Problems Chapter 7 Hydraulic Machines: Pumps 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Archimedes’ Screw 7.3 Pumping Hydraulics 7.3.1 DeÞnitions 7.4 Basic Principles of Water Hydraulics 7.4.1 Weight of Air 7.4.2 Weight of Water 7.4.3 Weight of Water Related to the Weight of Air 7.4.4 Water at Rest© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 7.4.5 Gauge Pressure 7.4.6 Water in Motion 7.4.6.1 Discharge 7.4.6.2 The Law of Continuity 7.4.7 Pipe Friction 7.5 Basic Pumping Calculations 7.5.1 Pumping Rates 7.5.2 Calculating Head Loss 7.5.3 Calculating Head 7.5.4 Calculating Horsepower and EfÞciency 7.5.4.1 Hydraulic Horsepower 7.5.4.2 Pump EfÞciency and Brake Horsepower 7.5.5 SpeciÞc Speed 7.6 Pump Characteristic Curves 7.6.1 Head-Capacity Curve 7.6.2 The Power-Capacity Curve 7.6.3 The EfÞciency-Capacity (E-Q) Curve 7.7 Pumps in Series and Parallel 7.8 Considerations for Pumping Wastewater 7.9 Types of Pumps Used in Water and Wastewater Treatment 7.10 Introduction to Centrifugal Pumps 7.10.1 Description 7.10.2 Theory 7.10.3 Types of Centrifugal Pumps 7.10.3.1 Radial Flow Impeller Pumps 7.10.3.2 Mixed Flow Impeller Pumps 7.10.3.3 Axial Flow Impeller Pumps (Propeller Pump) 7.10.4 Characteristics and Performance Curves 7.10.4.1 Head-Capacity Curve 7.10.4.2 EfÞciency Curve 7.10.4.3 Brake Horsepower Curves 7.10.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of a Centrifugal Pump 7.10.5.1 Advantages 7.10.5.2 Disadvantages 7.10.6 Water and Wastewater Applications 7.11 Centrifugal Pump Components 7.11.1 Casing 7.11.1.1 Solid Casing 7.11.1.2 Split Casings 7.11.2 Impeller 7.11.2.1 Semiopen Impeller 7.11.2.2 Open Impeller 7.11.2.3 Closed Impeller 7.11.3 Wear Rings 7.11.4 Shafts, Sleeves, and Couplings 7.11.4.1 Shafting 7.11.4.2 Sleeves 7.11.4.3 Couplings 7.11.5 StufÞng Box and Seals 7.11.5.1 StufÞng Box or Packing Assembly 7.11.5.2 Mechanical Seals 7.11.6 Bearings 7.11.6.1 Self-Aligning Double-Row Ball Bearing 7.11.6.2 Single- or Double-Row Antifriction Ball Bearing 7.11.6.3 Angular Contact Bearings© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 7.11.6.4 Self-Aligning Spherical Roller Bearings 7.11.6.5 Single-Row Tapered Roller Bearings 7.11.6.6 Bearing Installation, Maintenance and Lubrication 7.12 Centrifugal Pump: Operational Procedures 7.12.1 Installation 7.12.2 Start-Up 7.12.2.1 Start-Up Procedure 7.12.3 Normal Operation 7.12.4 Shutdown 7.12.5 Priming 7.12.5.1 Priming Procedure 7.12.6 Backßushing 7.12.6.1 Backßush Procedure 7.12.7 Manual Removal Procedure 7.13 Centrifugal Pump: Maintenance Procedures 7.13.1 Pump and Motor Lubrication 7.13.2 Packing and Seal Replacement 7.13.2.1 Packing Procedure 7.13.2.2 Mechanical Seal Installation Procedure 7.13.3 Pump and Motor Bearing Inspection 7.13.4 Shaft and Coupling Alignment 7.13.4.1 Alignment Procedure 7.13.4.2 Removal of Obstructions 7.14 Centrifugal Pumps Preventive Maintenance 7.14.1 Daily Maintenance 7.14.2 Weekly Maintenance 7.14.3 Monthly Maintenance 7.14.4 Quarterly Maintenance 7.14.5 Semiannual Maintenance 7.15 Centrifugal Pump Lubrication 7.15.1 Purpose of Lubrication 7.15.1.1 Separates Surfaces 7.15.1.2 Prevents Wear 7.15.1.3 Cushions Shock 7.15.1.4 Transfers Heat 7.15.1.5 Corrosion Protection 7.15.1.6 Protective Seal 7.15.2 Lubrication Requirements 7.15.3 Lubrication Procedures 7.15.3.1 Motor Bearing Lubrication 7.15.3.2 Pump Bearing Lubrication 7.16 Centrifugal Pump: Troubleshooting 7.16.1 The Troubleshooter 7.16.2 Troubleshooting: What Is It? 7.16.3 Goals of Troubleshooting 7.16.4 The Troubleshooting Process 7.16.5 Troubleshooting the Centrifugal Pump 7.16.5.1 Pump Fails to Prime or Loses its Prime 7.16.5.2 Pump Does Not Discharge 7.16.5.3 Pump Does Not Deliver Rated Capacity 7.16.5.4 Pump Does Not Deliver SufÞcient Pressure 7.16.5.5 Pump Starts and Stops Pumping 7.16.5.6 Pump Overloads Driver or Consumes Excessive Power 7.16.5.7 Pump Is Noisy or Has Extensive Vibration 7.16.5.8 Packing Has a Short Life© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 7.16.5.9 Mechanical Seal Has a Short Life 7.16.5.10 Mechanical Seal Leaks Excessively 7.16.5.11 Bearings Have a Short Life 7.16.5.12 Pump Overheats or Seizes 7.17 Centrifugal Pump ModiÞcations 7.17.1 Submersible Pumps 7.17.1.1 Applications 7.17.1.2 Advantages 7.17.1.3 Disadvantages 7.17.2 Recessed Impeller or Vortex Pumps 7.17.2.1 Applications 7.17.2.2 Advantages 7.17.2.3 Disadvantages 7.17.3 Turbine Pumps 7.17.3.1 Application 7.17.3.2 Advantages 7.17.3.3 Disadvantages 7.18 Positive-Displacement Pumps 7.18.1 Reciprocating Pumps 7.18.1.1 Diaphragm Pumps 7.18.1.2 Metering Pumps 7.18.1.3 Rotary Pumps 7.18.1.4 Progressive-Cavity Pump 7.18.1.5 Special Purpose Pumps 7.19 Chapter Review Questions and Problems References Chapter 8 Water and Wastewater Conveyance 8.1 Delivering the Lifeblood of Civilization 8.2 Conveyance Systems 8.2.1 DeÞnitions 8.2.2 Fluids vs. Liquids 8.2.3 Maintaining Fluid Flow in Piping Systems 8.2.3.1 Scaling 8.2.4 Piping System Maintenance 8.2.5 Valves 8.2.6 Piping System Accessories 8.2.7 Piping Systems: Temperature Effects 8.2.8 Piping Systems: Insulation 8.3 Metallic Piping 8.3.1 Piping Materials 8.3.2 Piping: The Basics 8.3.2.1 Pipe Sizes 8.3.2.2 Pipe Wall Thickness 8.3.2.3 Piping ClassiÞcation 8.3.3 Types of Piping Systems 8.3.3.1 Code for IdentiÞcation of Pipelines 8.3.4 Metallic Piping Materials 8.3.4.1 Characteristics of Metallic Materials 8.3.5 Maintenance Characteristics of Metallic Piping 8.3.5.1 Expansion and Flexibility 8.3.5.2 Pipe Support Systems 8.3.5.3 Valve Selection 8.3.5.4 Isolation© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 8.3.5.5 Preventing Backßow 8.3.5.6 Water Hammer 8.3.5.7 Air Binding 8.3.5.8 Corrosion Effects 8.3.6 Joining Metallic Pipe 8.3.6.1 Bell-and-Spigot Joints 8.3.6.2 Screwed or Threaded Joints 8.3.6.3 Flanged Joints 8.3.6.4 Welded Joints 8.3.6.5 Soldered and Brazed Joints 8.4 Nonmetallic Piping 8.4.1 Nonmetallic Piping Materials 8.4.1.1 Clay Pipe 8.4.1.2 Concrete Pipe 8.4.1.3 Plastic Pipe 8.5 Tubing 8.5.1 Tubing vs. Piping: The Difference 8.5.1.1 Tubing 8.5.2 Advantages of Tubing 8.5.2.1 Tubing: Mechanical Advantages 8.5.2.2 Chemical Advantages 8.5.3 Connecting Tubing 8.5.3.1 Cutting Tubing 8.5.3.2 Soldering Tubing 8.5.3.3 Connecting Flared/Nonßared Joints 8.5.4 Bending Tubing 8.5.5 Types of Tubing 8.5.5.1 Typical Tubing Applications 8.6 Industrial Hoses 8.6.1 Hose Nomenclature 8.6.2 Factors Governing Hose Selection 8.6.3 Standards, Codes, and Sizes 8.6.3.1 Hose Size 8.6.4 Hose ClassiÞcations 8.6.4.1 Nonmetallic Hoses 8.6.4.2 Metallic Hoses 8.6.5 Hose Couplings 8.6.6 Hose Maintenance 8.7 Pipe and Tube Fittings 8.7.1 Fittings 8.7.2 Functions of Fittings 8.7.2.1 Changing the Direction of Flow 8.7.2.2 Providing Branch Connections 8.7.2.3 Changing the Sizes of Lines 8.7.2.4 Sealing Lines 8.7.2.5 Connecting Lines 8.7.3 Types of Connections 8.7.3.1 Screwed Fittings 8.7.3.2 Flanged Connections 8.7.3.3 Connections 8.7.4 Tubing Fittings and Connections 8.8 Valves 8.8.1 Valve Construction 8.8.2 Types of Valves© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 8.8.2.1 Ball Valves 8.8.2.2 Gate Valves 8.8.2.3 Globe Valves 8.8.2.4 Needle Valves 8.8.2.5 Butterßy Valves 8.8.2.6 Plug Valves 8.8.2.7 Check Valves 8.8.2.8 Quick-Opening Valves 8.8.2.9 Diaphragm Valves 8.8.2.10 Regulating Valves 8.8.2.11 Relief Valves 8.8.2.12 Reducing Valves 8.8.3 Valve Operators 8.8.3.1 Pneumatic and Hydraulic Valve Operators 8.8.3.2 Magnetic Valve Operators 8.8.4 Valve Maintenance 8.9 Piping System: Protective Devices 8.9.1 Applications 8.9.2 Strainers 8.9.3 Filters 8.9.4 Traps 8.9.4.1 Trap Maintenance and Testing 8.10 Piping Ancillaries 8.10.1 Gauges 8.10.1.1 Pressure Gauges 8.10.2 Vacuum Breakers 8.10.3 Accumulators 8.10.4 Air Receivers 8.10.5 Heat Exchangers 8.11 Chapter Review Questions and Problems References Chapter 9 Flow Measurement 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Methods of Measuring Flow 9.2.1 Weirs 9.2.2 The Oscillating Disk Water Meter 9.2.3 Flumes 9.2.4 Venturi Meter 9.2.5 Magnetic Flowmeter 9.3 Flow Measurement Calculations 9.3.1 Calculation Method Used for Fill and Draw Technique 9.3.2 Calculation Method Used for Velocity/Area Technique 9.3.3 Calculation Method Used for V-Notch Weirs 9.3.4 Weir Overßow (Weir Loading Rate) 9.3.5 Calculation Method for Parshall Flume 9.3.6 Typical Flow Measurement Practice Calculations 9.4 Flow Measurement Operational Problems 9.5 Chapter Review Questions and Problems References© 2003 by CRC Press LLC Part III Characteristics of Water Chapter 10 Basic Water Chemistry 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Chemistry Concepts and DeÞnitions 10.2.1 Concepts 10.2.2 DeÞnitions 10.3 Water Chemistry Fundamentals 10.3.1 Matter 10.3.1.1 The Content of Matter: The Elements 10.3.2 Compound Substances 10.4 The Water Molecule 10.5 Water Solutions 10.6 Water Constituents 10.6.1 Solids 10.6.2 Turbidity 10.6.3 Color 10.6.4 Dissolved Oxygen 10.6.5 Metals 10.6.6 Organic Matter 10.6.7 Inorganic Matter 10.6.7.1 Acids 10.6.7.2 Bases 10.6.7.3 Salts 10.7 pH 10.8 Alkalinity 10.9 Hardness 10.10 Water and Wastewater Chemicals and Chemical Processes 10.10.1 Odor Control (Wastewater Treatment) 10.10.2 Disinfection 10.10.3 Chemical Precipitation 10.10.4 Adsorption 10.10.5 Coagulation 10.10.6 Taste and Odor Removal 10.10.7 Water Softening 10.10.8 Recarbonation 10.10.9 Ion Exchange Softening 10.10.10 Scaling and Corrosion Control 10.11 Chapter Review Questions and Problems References Chapter 11 Water Microbiology 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Microbiology: What Is It? 11.3 Water and Wastewater Microorganisms 11.3.1 Key Terms 11.3.2 Microorganisms (in General) 11.3.3 ClassiÞcation 11.3.4 Differentiation 11.3.5 The Cell 11.3.5.1 Structure of the Bacterial Cell© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 11.4 Bacteria 11.4.1 Bacterial Growth Factors 11.4.2 Destruction of Bacteria 11.4.3 Waterborne Bacteria 11.5 Protozoa 11.6 Microscopic Crustaceans 11.7 Viruses 11.8 Algae 11.9 Fungi 11.10 Nematodes and Flatworms (Worms) 11.11 Pathogenic Protozoa and Helminths (Water) 11.11.1 Pathogenic Protozoa 11.11.1.1 Giardia 11.11.1.2 Cryptosporidium 11.11.1.3 Cyclospora 11.11.2 Helminths 11.12 Biological Aspects and Processes (Wastewater) 11.12.1 Aerobic Process 11.12.2 Anaerobic Process 11.12.3 Anoxic Process 11.12.4 Photosynthesis 11.12.5 Growth Cycles 11.12.6 Biogeochemical Cycles 11.12.6.1 Carbon Cycle 11.12.6.2 Nitrogen Cycle 11.12.6.3 Sulfur Cycle 11.12.6.4 Phosphorus Cycle 11.13 Chapter Review Questions and Problems References Chapter 12 Water Ecology 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Setting the Stage 12.3 Ecology Terms 12.3.1 DeÞnition of Terms 12.4 Levels of Organization 12.5 Ecosystem 12.6 Energy Flow in the Ecosystem 12.7 Food Chain EfÞciency 12.8 Ecological Pyramids 12.9 Productivity 12.10 Population Ecology 12.11 Stream Genesis and Structure 12.11.1 Water Flow in a Stream 12.11.2 Stream Water Discharge 12.11.3 Transport of Material 12.11.4 Characteristics of Stream Channels 12.11.5 Stream ProÞles 12.11.6 Sinuosity 12.11.7 Bars, Rifßes, and Pools 12.11.8 The Floodplain 12.11.9 Adaptations to Stream Current© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 12.11.10 Types of Adaptive Changes 12.11.11 SpeciÞc Adaptations 12.12 Benthic Life: An Overview 12.12.1 Benthic Plants and Animals 12.13 Benthic Macroinvertebrates 12.13.1 IdentiÞcation of Benthic Macroinvertebrates 12.13.2 Macroinvertebrates and the Food Web 12.13.3 Units of Organization 12.13.4 Typical Running Water Benthic Macroinvertebrates 12.14 Insect Macroinvertebrates 12.14.1 Mayßies (Order: Ephemeroptera) 12.14.2 Stoneßies (Order: Plecoptera) 12.14.3 Caddisßies (Order: Trichoptera) 12.14.4 True Flies (Order: Diptera) 12.14.5 Beetles (Order: Coleoptera) 12.14.6 Water Strider (Jesus bugs; Order: Hemiptera) 12.14.7 Alderßies and Dobsonßies (Order: Megaloptera) 12.14.8 Dragonßies and Damselßies (Order: Odonata) 12.15 Noninsect Macroinvertebrates 12.15.1 Oligochaeta (Family: TuiÞcidae; Genus: Tubifex) 12.15.2 Hirudinea (Leeches) 12.14.3 Gastropoda (Lung-Breathing Snail) 12.16 Chapter Review Questions and Problems References Chapter 13 Water Quality 13.1 Introduction 13.2 The Water Cycle 13.3 Water Quality Standards 13.3.1 Clean Water Act (1972) 13.3.2 Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) 13.4 Water Quality Characteristics of Water and Wastewater 13.4.1 Physical Characteristics of Water and Wastewater 13.4.1.1 Solids 13.4.1.2 Turbidity 13.4.1.3 Color 13.4.1.4 Taste and Odor 13.4.1.5 Temperature 13.4.2 Chemical Characteristics of Water 13.4.2.1 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 13.4.2.2 Alkalinity 13.4.2.3 Hardness 13.4.2.4 Fluoride 13.4.2.5 Metals 13.4.2.6 Organics 13.4.2.7 Nutrients 13.4.3 Chemical Characteristics of Wastewater 13.4.3.1 Organic Substances 13.4.3.2 Inorganic Substances 13.4.4 Biological Characteristics of Water and Wastewater 13.4.4.1 Bacteria 13.4.4.2 Viruses 13.4.4.3 Protozoa 13.4.4.4 Worms (Helminths)© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 13.5 Chapter Review Questions and Problems References Chapter 14 Biomonitoring, Monitoring, Sampling, and Testing 14.1 What Is Biomonitoring? 14.1.1 Biotic Indices (Streams) 14.1.1.1 Benthic Macroinvertebrate Biotic Index 14.2 Biological Sampling (Streams) 14.2.1 Biological Sampling: Planning 14.2.2 Sampling Stations 14.2.3 Sample Collection 14.2.3.1 Macroinvertebrate Sampling Equipment 14.2.3.2 Macroinvertebrate Sampling: Rocky-Bottom Streams 14.2.3.3 Macroinvertebrate Sampling: Muddy-Bottom Streams 14.2.4 Postsampling Routine 14.2.4.1 Sampling Devices 14.2.5 The Bottom Line on Biological Sampling 14.3 Water Quality Monitoring (Drinking Water) 14.3.1 Is the Water Good or Bad? 14.3.2 State Water Quality Standards Programs 14.3.3 Designing a Water Quality Monitoring Program 14.3.4 General Preparation and Sampling Considerations 14.3.4.1 Method A: General Preparation of Sampling Containers 14.3.4.2 Method B: Acid Wash Procedures 14.3.5 Sample Types 14.3.6 Collecting Samples from a Stream 14.3.6.1 Whirl-pak® Bags 14.3.6.2 Screw-Cap Bottles 14.3.7 Sample Preservation and Storage 14.3.8 Standardization of Methods 14.4 Test Methods (Drinking Water and Wastewater) 14.4.1 Titrimetric Methods 14.4.2 Colorimetric Methods 14.4.3 Visual Methods 14.4.4 Electronic Methods 14.4.5 Dissolved Oxygen Testing 14.4.5.1 Sampling and Equipment Considerations 14.4.5.2 Dissolved Oxygen Test Methods 14.4.6 Biochemical Oxygen Demand Testing 14.4.6.1 Sampling Considerations 14.4.6.2 BOD Sampling, Analysis, and Testing 14.4.7 Temperature Measurement 14.4.7.1 Sampling and Equipment Considerations 14.4.8 Hardness Measurement 14.4.8.1 Measuring Hardness 14.4.9 pH Measurement 14.4.9.1 Analytical and Equipment Considerations 14.4.9.2 pH Meters 14.4.9.3 pH Pocket Pals and Color Comparators© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 14.4.10 Turbidity Measurement 14.4.10.1 Sampling and Equipment Considerations 14.4.10.2 Using a Secchi Disk 14.4.10.3 Transparency Tube 14.4.11 Orthophosphate Measurement 14.4.11.1 Forms of Phosphorus 14.4.11.2 The Phosphorus Cycle 14.4.11.3 Testing Phosphorus 14.4.11.4 Sampling and Equipment Considerations 14.4.11.5 Ascorbic Acid Method for Determining Orthophosphate 14.4.12 Nitrates Measurement 14.4.12.1 Sampling and Equipment Considerations 14.4.12.2 Cadmium Reduction Method 14.4.12.3 Nitrate Electrode Method 14.4.13 Solids Measurement 14.4.13.1 Solids Sampling and Equipment Considerations 14.4.13.2 Total Suspended Solids 14.4.13.3 Volatile Suspended Solids Testing 14.4.14 Conductivity Testing 14.4.14.1 Sampling, Testing, and Equipment Considerations 14.4.15 Total Alkalinity 14.4.15.1 Analytical and Equipment Considerations 14.4.15.2 Burets, Titrators, and Digital Titrators for Measuring Alkalinity 14.4.16 Fecal Coliform Bacteria Testing 14.4.16.1 Fecal Coliforms: General Information 14.4.16.2 Fecal Coliforms 14.4.16.3 Sampling Requirements 14.4.16.4 Sampling and Equipment Considerations 14.4.16.5 Fecal Coliform Testing 14.4.17 Apparent Color Testing/Analysis 14.4.18 Odor Analysis of Water 14.4.19 Chlorine Residual Testing/Analysis 14.4.19.1 DPD-Spectrophotometric 14.4.19.2 DPD-FAS Titration 14.4.19.3 Titrimetric–Amperometric Direct Titration 14.4.20 Fluorides 14.5 Chapter Review Questions and Problems References Part IV Water and Water Treatment Chapter 15 Potable Water Sources 15.1 Introduction 15.1.1 Key Terms and DeÞnitions 15.1.2 Hydrologic Cycle 15.2 Sources of Water 15.3 Surface Water 15.3.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Surface Water 15.3.2 Surface Water Hydrology 15.3.3 Raw Water Storage 15.3.4 Surface Water Intakes 15.3.5 Surface Water Screens 15.3.6 Surface Water Quality© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 15.4 Groundwater 15.4.1 Groundwater Quality 15.5 GUDISW 15.6 Surface Water Quality and Treatment Requirements 15.7 Public Water System Use Requirements 15.8 Well Systems 15.8.1 Well Site Requirements 15.8.2 Types of Wells 15.8.2.1 Shallow Wells 15.8.2.2 Deep Wells 15.8.3 Components of a Well 15.8.3.1 Well Casing 15.8.3.2 Grout 15.8.3.3 Well Pad 15.8.3.4 Sanitary Seal 15.8.3.5 Well Screen 15.8.3.6 Casing Vent 15.8.3.7 Drop Pipe 15.8.3.8 Miscellaneous Well Components 15.8.4 Well Evaluation 15.8.5 Well Pumps 15.8.6 Routine Operation and Record Keeping Requirements 15.8.6.1 Well Log 15.8.7 Well Maintenance 15.8.7.1 Troubleshooting Well Problems 15.8.8 Well Abandonment 15.9 Chapter Review Questions and Problems Reference Chapter 16 Watershed Protection 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Current Issues in Water Management 16.3 What is a Watershed? 16.4 Water Quality Impact 16.5 Watershed Protection and Regulations 16.6 A Watershed Protection Plan 16.7 Reservoir Management Practices 16.8 Watershed Management Practices 16.9 Chapter Review Questions and Problems Reference Chapter 17 Water Treatment Operations and Unit Processes 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Waterworks Operators 17.3 Purpose of Water Treatment 17.4 Stages of Water Treatment 17.5 Pretreatment 17.5.1 Aeration 17.5.2 Screening 17.5.3 Chemical Addition 17.5.3.1 Chemical Solutions 17.5.3.2 Chemical Feeders 17.5.3.3 Chemical Feeder Calibration© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 17.5.3.4 Iron and Manganese Removal 17.5.3.5 Hardness Treatment 17.5.3.6 Corrosion Control 17.6 Coagulation 17.6.1 Jar Testing Procedure 17.7 Flocculation 17.8 Sedimentation 17.9 Filtration 17.9.1 Types of Filter Technologies 17.9.1.1 Slow Sand Filters 17.9.1.2 Rapid Sand Filters 17.9.1.3 Pressure Filter Systems 17.9.1.4 Diatomaceous Earth Filters 17.9.1.5 Direct Filtration 17.9.1.6 Alternate Filters 17.9.2 Common Filter Problems 17.9.3 Filtration and Compliance with Turbidity Requirements (IESWTR) 17.9.3.1 Regulatory Requirements 17.9.3.2 Individual Filter Monitoring 17.9.3.3 Reporting and Record Keeping 17.9.3.4 Additional Compliance Issues 17.10 Disinfection 17.10.1 Need for Disinfection in Water Treatment. 17.10.2 Pathogens of Primary Concern 17.10.2.1 Bacteria 17.10.2.2 Viruses 17.10.2.3 Protozoa 17.10.3 Recent Waterborne Outbreaks 17.10.3.1 E. coli 17.10.3.2 Giardia lamblia 17.10.3.3 Cryptosporidium 17.10.3.4 Legionella pneumophila 17.10.4 Mechanism of Pathogen Inactivation 17.10.5 Other Uses of Disinfectants in Water Treatment 17.10.5.1 Minimization of DBP Formation 17.10.5.2 Control of Nuisance Asiatic Clams and Zebra Mussels 17.10.5.3 Oxidation of Iron and Manganese 17.10.5.4 Prevention of Regrowth in the Distribution System and Maintenance of Biological Stability 17.10.5.5 Removal of Taste and Odors through Chemical Oxidation 17.10.5.6 Improvement of Coagulation and Filtration EfÞciency 17.10.5.7 Prevention of Algal Growth in Sedimentation Basins and Filters 17.10.5.8 Removal of Color 17.10.6 Types of DBPs and Disinfection Residuals 17.10.6.1 Disinfection By-Product Formation 17.10.6.2 DBP Control Strategies 17.10.6.3 CT Factor 17.10.7 Pathogen Inactivation vs. DBP Formation 17.10.8 Disinfectant Residual Regulatory Requirements 17.10.9 Summary of Current National Disinfection Practices 17.10.10 Summary of Methods of Disinfection 17.10.11 Chlorination 17.10.11.1 Chlorine Terms 17.10.11.2 Chlorine Chemistry 17.10.11.3 Breakpoint Chlorination© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 17.10.11.4 Gas Chlorination 17.10.11.5 Hypochlorination 17.10.11.6 Determining Chlorine Dosage 17.10.11.7 Chlorine Generation 17.10.11.8 Primary Uses and Points of Application of Chlorine 17.10.11.9 Factors Affecting Chlorination 17.10.11.10 Measuring Chlorine Residual 17.10.11.11 Pathogen Inactivation and Disinfection EfÞcacy 17.10.11.12 Disinfection By-Products 17.10.11.13 Operational Considerations 17.10.11.14 Advantages and Disadvantagesof Chlorine Use 17.10.11.15 Chlorine Summary Table 17.11 Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water 17.11.1 Arsenic and Water 17.11.2 Arsenic Removal Technologies 17.11.2.1 Prescriptive Processes 17.11.2.2 Adsorptive Processes 17.11.2.3 Membrane Processes 17.11.2.4 Alternative Technologies 17.12 Who is Ultimately Responsible for Drinking Water Quality? 17.13 Chapter Review Questions and Problems References Chapter 18 Wastewater Treatment 18.1 Wastewater Operators 18.1.1 The Wastewater Treatment Process: The Model 18.2 Wastewater Terminology and DeÞnitions 18.2.1 Terminology and DeÞnitions 18.3 Measuring Plant Performance 18.3.1 Plant Performance and EfÞciency 18.3.2 Unit Process Performance and EfÞciency 18.3.3 Percent Volatile Matter Reduction in Sludge 18.4 Hydraulic Detention Time 18.4.1 Detention Time in Days 18.4.2 Detention Time in Hours 18.4.3 Detention Time in Minutes 18.5 Wastewater Sources and Characteristics 18.5.1 Wastewater Sources 18.5.1.1 Generation of Wastewater 18.5.2 ClassiÞcation of Wastewater 18.5.3 Wastewater Characteristics 18.5.3.1 Physical Characteristics 18.5.3.2 Chemical Characteristics 18.5.3.3 Biological Characteristics and Processes 18.6 Wastewater Collection Systems 18.6.1 Gravity Collection System 18.6.2 Force Main Collection System 18.6.3 Vacuum System 18.6.4 Pumping Stations 18.6.4.1 Wet Well–Dry Well Pumping Stations 18.6.4.2 Wet Well Pumping Stations 18.6.4.3 Pneumatic Pumping Stations 18.6.4.4 Pumping Station Wet Well Calculations© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 18.7 Preliminary Treatment 18.7.1 Screening 18.7.1.1 Manually Cleaned Screens 18.7.1.2 Mechanically Cleaned Screens 18.7.1.3 Safety 18.7.1.4 Screenings Removal Computations 18.7.2 Shredding 18.7.2.1 Comminution 18.7.2.2 Barminution 18.7.3 Grit Removal 18.7.3.1 Gravity and Velocity Controlled Grit Removal 18.7.3.2 Grit Removal Calculations 18.7.4 Preaeration 18.7.4.1 Operational Observations, Problems, and Troubleshooting 18.7.5 Chemical Addition 18.7.5.1 Operational Observations, Problems, and Troubleshooting 18.7.6 Equalization 18.7.6.1 Operational Observations, Problems, andTroubleshooting 18.7.7 Aerated Systems 18.7.8 Cyclone Degritter 18.7.9 Preliminary Treatment Sampling and Testing 18.7.10 Other Preliminary Treatment Process Control Calculations 18.8 Primary Treatment (Sedimentation) 18.8.1 Process Description 18.8.1.1 Overview of Primary Treatment 18.8.2 Types of Sedimentation Tanks 18.8.2.1 Septic Tanks 18.8.2.2 Two-Story (Imhoff) Tank 18.8.2.3 Plain Settling Tanks (ClariÞers) 18.8.3 Operator Observations, Process Problems, and Troubleshooting 18.8.3.1 Primary ClariÞcation: Normal Operation 18.8.3.2 Primary ClariÞcation: Operational Parameters (Normal Observations) 18.8.4 Process Control Calculations 18.8.4.1 Percent Removal 18.8.4.2 Detention Time 18.8.4.3 Surface Loading Rate (Surface Settling Rate and Surface Overßow Rate) 18.8.4.4 Weir Overßow Rate (Weir Loading Rate) 18.8.4.5 Sludge Pumping 18.8.4.6 BOD and Suspended Solids Removal 18.8.5 Problem Analysis 18.8.6 Efßuent from Settling Tanks 18.9 Secondary Treatment 18.9.1 Treatment Ponds 18.9.1.1 Types of Ponds 18.9.1.2 Process Control Calculations (Stabilization Ponds) 18.9.2 Trickling Filters 18.9.2.1 Trickling Filter DeÞnitions 18.9.2.2 Trickling Filter Equipment 18.9.2.3 Filter ClassiÞcations 18.9.2.4 Standard Operating Procedures 18.9.2.5 General Process Description 18.9.2.6 Operator Observations, Process Problems, and Troubleshooting 18.9.2.7 Process Calculations© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 18.9.3 Rotating Biological Contactors 18.9.3.1 RBC Equipment 18.9.3.2 RBC Operation 18.9.3.3 RBC: Expected Performance 18.9.3.4 Operator Observations, Process Problems, and Troubleshooting 18.9.3.5 RBC: Process Control Calculations 18.10 Activated Sludge 18.10.1 Activated Sludge Terminology 18.10.2 Activated Sludge Process: Equipment 18.10.2.1 Aeration Tank 18.10.2.2 Aeration 18.10.2.3 Settling Tank 18.10.2.4 Return Sludge 18.10.2.5 Waste Sludge 18.10.3 Overview of Activated Sludge Process 18.10.4 Activated Sludge Process: Factors Affecting Operation 18.10.4.1 Growth Curve 18.10.5 Activated Sludge Formation 18.10.6 Activated Sludge: Performance-Controlling Factors 18.10.6.1 Aeration 18.10.6.2 Alkalinity 18.10.6.3 Nutrients 18.10.6.4 pH 18.10.6.5 Temperature 18.10.6.6 Toxicity 18.10.6.7 Hydraulic Loading 18.10.6.8 Organic Loading 18.10.7 Activated Sludge ModiÞcations 18.10.7.1 Conventional Activated Sludge 18.10.7.2 Step Aeration 18.10.7.3 Complete Mix 18.10.7.4 Pure Oxygen 18.10.7.5 Contact Stabilization 18.10.7.6 Extended Aeration 18.10.7.7 Oxidation Ditch 18.10.8 Activated Sludge: Process Control Parameters 18.10.8.1 Alkalinity 18.10.8.2 Dissolved Oxygen 18.10.8.3 pH 18.10.8.4 Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids, Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids, and Mixed Liquor Total Suspended Solids 18.10.8.5 Return Activated Sludge Rate and Concentration 18.10.8.6 Waste Activated Sludge Flow Rate 18.10.8.7 Temperature 18.10.8.8 Sludge Blanket Depth 18.10.9 Operational Control Levels 18.10.9.1 Inßuent Characteristics 18.10.9.2 Industrial Contributions 18.10.9.3 Process Sidestreams 18.10.9.4 Seasonal Variations 18.10.9.5 Control Levels at Start-Up 18.10.10 Operator Observations: Inßuent and Aeration Tank 18.10.10.1 Visual Indicators: Inßuent and Aeration Tank 18.10.10.2 Final Settling Tank (ClariÞer) Observations© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 18.10.11 Process Control Testing and Sampling 18.10.11.1 Aeration Inßuent Sampling 18.10.11.2 Aeration Tank 18.10.11.3 Settling Tank Inßuent 18.10.11.4 Settling Tank 18.10.11.5 Settling Tank Efßuent 18.10.11.6 Return Activated Sludge and Waste Activated Sludge 18.10.12 Process Control Adjustments 18.10.13 Troubleshooting Operational Problems 18.10.14 Process Control Calculations 18.10.14.1 Settled Sludge Volume 18.10.14.2 Estimated Return Rate 18.10.14.3 Sludge Volume Index 18.10.14.4 Waste Activated Sludge 18.10.14.5 Food to Microorganism Ratio (F:M Ratio) 18.10.14.6 Mean Cell Residence Time (MCRT) 18.10.14.7 Mass Balance 18.10.15 Solids Concentration: Secondary ClariÞer 18.10.16 Activated Sludge Process Record Keeping Requirements 18.11 Disinfection of Wastewater 18.11.1 Chlorine Disinfection 18.11.1.1 Chlorination Terminology 18.11.1.2 Wastewater Chlorination: Facts and Process Description 18.11.1.3 Chlorination Equipment 18.11.1.4 Chlorination: Operation 18.11.1.5 Troubleshooting Operational Problems 18.11.1.6 Dechlorination 18.11.1.7 Chlorination Environmental Hazards and Safety 18.11.1.8 Chlorine: Safe Work Practice 18.11.1.9 Chlorination Process Calculations 18.11.2 UV Irradiation 18.11.3 Ozonation 18.11.4 Bromine Chloride 18.11.5 No Disinfection 18.12 Advanced Wastewater Treatment 18.12.1 Chemical Treatment 18.12.1.1 Operation, Observation, and Troubleshooting Procedures 18.12.2 Microscreening 18.12.2.1 Operation, Observation, and Troubleshooting Procedures 18.12.3 Filtration 18.12.3.1 Filtration Process Description 18.12.3.2 Operation, Observation, and Troubleshooting Procedures 18.12.4 Biological NitriÞcation 18.12.4.1 Operation, Observation, and Troubleshooting Procedures 18.12.5 Biological Denitrifcation 18.12.5.1 Observation, Operation, and Troubleshooting Procedures 18.12.6 Carbon Adsorption 18.12.6.1 Operation, Observation, and Troubleshooting Procedures 18.12.7 Land Application 18.12.7.1 Types or Modes of Land Application 18.12.8 Biological Nutrient Removal 18.13 Solids (Sludge or Biosolids) Handling 18.13.1 Sludge: Background Information 18.13.1.1 Sources of Sludge 18.13.1.2 Sludge Characteristics© 2003 by CRC Press LLC 18.13.1.3 Sludge Pumping Calculations 18.13.1.4 Sludge Treatment: An Overview 18.13.2 Sludge Thickening 18.13.2.1 Gravity Thickening 18.13.2.2 Flotation Thickening 18.13.2.3 Solids Concentrators 18.13.3 Sludge Stabilization 18.13.3.1 Aerobic Digestion 18.13.3.2 Anaerobic Digestion 18.13.3.3 Other Sludge Stabilization Processes 18.13.4 Sludge Dewatering 18.13.4.1 Sand Drying Beds 18.13.4.2 Rotary Vacuum Filtration 18.13.4.3 Pressure Filtration 18.13.4.4 Centrifugation 18.13.4.5 Sludge Incineration 18.13.4.6 Land Application of Biosolids 18.14 Permits, Records, and Reports 18.14.1 DeÞnitions 18.14.2 NPDES Permits 18.14.2.1 Reporting 18.14.2.2 Sampling and Testing 18.14.2.3 Efßuent Limitations 18.14.2.4 Compliance Schedules 18.14.2.5 Special Conditions 18.14.2.6 Licensed Operator Requirements 18.14.2.7 Chlorination or Dechlorination Reporting 18.14.2.8 Reporting Calculations 18.15 Chapter Review Questions and Problems References Appendix A Answers to Chapter Review Questions and Problems Appendix B Formulae© 2003 by CRC Press LLC PART I Water and Wastewater Operations: An Overview© 2003 by CRC Press LLC Problems Facing Water and Wastewater Treatment Operations What is of all things most yielding, Can overcome that which is most hard, Being substanceless, it can enter in even where there is no crevice. That is how I know the value of action which is actionless. Lao Tzu, 5th Century B.C. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Although not often thought of as a commodity (or, for that matter, not thought about at all), water is a commodity — a very valuable commodity. In this text, it is our position that with the passage of time, potable water will become even more valuable. Moreover, with the passage of even more time, potable water will be even more valuable than we might imagine. It may be possibly comparable in pric- ing, gallon for gallon, to what we pay for gasoline, or even more. Earth was originally allotted a finite amount of water — we have no more or no less than that original allotment today. It logically follows that, in order to sustain life as we know it, we must do everything we can to preserve and protect our water supply. We also must purify and reuse the water we presently waste (i.e., wastewater). 1.2 THE PARADIGM SHIFT Historically, the purpose of water supply systems has been to provide pleasant drinking water that is free of disease organisms and toxic substances. In addition, the purpose of wastewater treatment has been to protect the health and well being of our communities. Water and wastewater treatment operations have accomplished this goal by (1) prevention of disease and nuisance conditions; (2) avoidance of contaminatio

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