Luận án Năng suất lao động trong doanh nghiệp Việt Nam

Như vậy, không giống như kỳ vọng của giả thuyết nghiên cứu và các kết quả nghiên cứu trước đây. Mô hình tác động của các chính sách phúc lợi sau khi xử lý nội sinh và sử dụng thước đo trực tiếp về năng suất lao động cho thấy trong số 3 chính sách phúc lợi bắt buộc chỉ có chính sách bảo hiểm xã hội giúp gia tăng năng suất lao động cho DNNVV trong khi đó chính sách bảo hiểm y tế và bảo hiểm thất nghiệp tác động tiêu cực đến năng suất lao động. Điều này có thể là do bảo hiểm y tế vốn dĩ được xem là một trong những chính sách phúc lợi đắt đỏ nhất và ảnh hưởng đến vấn đề chi trả của doanh nghiệp nhiều nhất (Dulebohn và cộng sự, 2009). Do đó, sự chi trả của doanh nghiệp đối với bảo hiểm y tế và bảo hiểm thất nghiệp có thể cao hơn những gì mà doanh nghiệp nhận lại được từ người lao động sau khi được nhận phúc lợi như tình trạng cải thiện sức khỏe, hay sự nỗ lực làm việc của người lao động để được hưởng chính sách phúc lợi này. Thêm vào đó, những người lao động có sức khỏe kém hoặc tay nghề chuyên môn thấp, xác suất đau ốm hoặc xác suất mất việc cao cũng có xu hướng tìm đến những doanh nghiệp có cung cấp các chính sách này nhằm tìm kiếm sự đảm bảo trong công việc. Do đó, đây cũng có thể là một phần nguyên nhân dẫn đến xác suất của doanh nghiệp cung cấp các chính sách phúc lợi là bảo hiểm y tế và bảo hiểm thất nghiệp tăng lên làm cho năng suất lao động của doanh nghiệp giảm đi. Việc gánh nặng chi phí của các DNNVV đối với các khoảng chi phúc lợi càng được khắc họa rõ nét hơn thông qua biến tương tác Phucloi*LnL.

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PHỤ LỤC Phân bố dữ liệu của Ln(năng suất lao động) và Ln (K/L) trước khi loại outliner 1.1 Ngành may trang phục Phân bố của Ln(K/L) Phân bố của Ln (năng suất lao động) Ngành sản xuất sản phẩm từ kim loại đúc sẵn Phân bố của Ln(K/L) Phân phối của các giá trị ln (năng suất lao động) và ln (K/L) sau khi đã xử lý outliner Ngành may trang phục Phân phối của ln (năng suất lao động) Phân phối của ln (K/L) Ngành sản xuất sản phẩm từ kim loại đúc sẵn Phân phối ln (năng suất lao động) Phân phối của ln (K/L) Những doanh nghiệp không phải là doanh nghiệp FDI ở năm 2015 nhưng là doanh nghiệp FDI ở năm 2016 gen FDI_year=FDI*year gen year1=year gen FDI2015= FDI*year if year=2015 gen FDI2015= FDI*year if year==2015 gen FDI2016= FDI*year if year==2016 list ma_thue if FDI2015==0 & FDI2016==2016 no observations Kết quả mô hình Ngành may trang phục Mô hình FEM xtreg lnproductivity FDI export1 lnts FDI_lnts X_lnts Lncap_FDI Lncap_X Lncap labor_qua kcx if sector1==0 & labor_qua>0 & lnproductivity>0 & lnproductivity1.875 & Lncap < 8.63, fe Mô hình REM xtreg lnproductivity FDI export1 lnts FDI_lnts X_lnts Lncap_FDI Lncap_X Lncap labor_qua kcx if sector1==0 & labor_qua>0 & lnproductivity>0 & lnproductivity1.875 & Lncap < 8.63, re Kết quả Hausman test Ngành sản xuất sản phẩm chế biến từ kim loại chế biến sẵn Mô hình Fem xtreg lnproductivity FDI export1 lnts FDI_lnts X_lnts Lncap_FDI Lncap_X Lncap labor_qua kcx if sector1==1 & labor_qua>0 & lnproductivity>0 & lnproductivity4.7991935 & Lncap < 8.27, fe Mô hình Rem xtreg lnproductivity FDI export1 lnts FDI_size2 X_size2 Lncap_FDI Lncap_X Lncap labor_qua i.commue if sector1==1 & labor_qua>0 & lnproductivity>0 & lnproductivity4.7991935 & Lncap < 8.27, re Hausman test Mô hình hồi quy khi không có các biến tương tác Ngành may trang phục xtreg lnproductivity FDI export1 lnts Lncap labor_qua kcx if sector1==0 & labor_qua>0 & lnproductivity>0 & lnproductivity1.875 & Lncap < 8.63, fe Ngành sản xuất sản phẩm từ kim loại đúc sẵn xtreg lnproductivity FDI export1 lnts Lncap labor_qua kcx if sector1==1 & labor_qua>0 & lnproductivity>0 & lnproductivity4.7991935 & Lncap < 8.27, fe Thống kê mô tả một số biến sum Cap if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max -------------+--------------------------------------------------------- Cap | 5,913 12.37087 1.196532 6.214608 16.55225 sum lnld if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max -------------+--------------------------------------------------------- lnld | 5,914 1.823586 .9629574 .4054651 4.59512 Mô hình mục tiêu 2 7.1 Biến bảo hiểm xã hội logit BHXH11 gender Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 predict BHXH11, pr sum BHXH11 Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max -------------+--------------------------------------------------------- BHXH11 | 6,564 .2352545 .354561 .000059 .9999887 7.2. Biến bảo hiểm y tế logit Health_insur gender Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 sum BHYT Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max -------------+--------------------------------------------------------- BHYT | 6,564 .2361358 .3515333 .0000866 .9999806 xtreg lnproductivity1 BHYT BHYT_lnld Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld> 0 & lnld<4.6 , fe 7.3 Bảo hiểm thất nghiệp logit Unemplyment_Insur gender Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld <4.6 predict BHTN, pr sum BHTN Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max -------------+--------------------------------------------------------- BHTN | 6,564 .1952883 .3122183 .0001139 .9997442 xtreg lnproductivity1 BHTN BHTN_lnld Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 , fe 7.4 Mô hình tác động của 3 chính sách bảo hiểm bắt buộc (BHXH, BHYT, BHTN) xtreg lnproductivity1 BHXH11 BHXH11_lnld BHYT BHYT_lnld BHTN BHTN_lnld Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 , fe 7.5 Trợ cấp đau ốm logit Pay_sick gender Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 predict Dauom, pr sum Dauom Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max -------------+--------------------------------------------------------- Dauom | 6,564 .2756191 .3259243 .0024425 .9995436 xtreg lnproductivity1 Dauom Dauom_lnld Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 , fe 7.6 Cho phép nghỉ thai sản không trả tiền logit Unpay_maternity gender Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 predict BHSĐ_un, pr Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max -------------+--------------------------------------------------------- BHSĐ_un | 6,564 .3467001 .1756294 .0298857 .9266925 xtreg lnproductivity1 BHSĐ_un BHSĐun_lnld Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 , fe 7.7 Phúc lợi sinh đẻ có trả tiền predict BHSĐ, pr sum BHSĐ Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max -------------+--------------------------------------------------------- BHSĐ | 6,564 .2420207 .2546313 .0078672 .9949024 xtreg lnproductivity1 BHSĐ BHSĐ_lnld Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 , fe 7.8 Chính sách Nghỉ phép vẫn được nhận tiền logit Pay_leave gender Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 predict Nghiphep, pr sum Nghiphep Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max -------------+--------------------------------------------------------- Nghiphep | 6,564 .2522588 .3192868 .0016241 .9994959 xtreg lnproductivity1 Nghiphep Nghiphep_lnld Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 , fe 7.9 Trợ cấp hưu trí nhận tiền một lần logit Pay_retirement gender Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 predict Huutri, pr sum Huutri Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max -------------+--------------------------------------------------------- Huutri | 6,558 .1849179 .2815793 .000766 .9966047 xtreg lnproductivity1 Huutri Huutri_lnld Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 , fe 7.10 Trợ cấp tử tuất logit Sur_benefits gender Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 predict BHTT11, pr sum BHTT11 Variable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max -------------+--------------------------------------------------------- BHTT11 | 6,564 .6591584 .2347903 .0254435 .9691906 xtreg lnproductivity1 BHTT11 BHTT11_lnld Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 , fe Mô hình multi- probit mvprobit( Health_insur gender Cap RD_dummy X Private Partnership Cooperative Limitedcompany Jointstock stockwithoutstate FDI training lnld mono Nam Trung Caonguyen Union)( Unemplyment_Insur gender Cap RD_dummy X Private Partnership Cooperative Limitedcompany Jointstock stockwithoutstate FDI training lnld mono Nam Trung Caonguyen Union)( Compensation1 gender Cap RD_dummy X Private Partnership Cooperative Limitedcompany Jointstockstockwithoutstate FDI training lnld mono Nam Trung Caonguyen Union) ( Pay_sick gender Cap RD_dummy X PrivatPartnership Cooperative Limitedcompany Jointstock stockwithoutstate FDI training lnld mono Nam Trung Caonguyen Union)( Pay_maternity gender Cap RD_dummy X Private Partnership Cooperative Limitedcompany Jointstockstockwithoutstate FDI training lnld mono Nam Trung Caonguyen Union)( Pay_leave gender Cap RD_dummy X Private Partnership Cooperative Limitedcompany Jointstock stockwithoutstate FDI training lnld mono Nam Trung Caonguyen Union)( Pay_retirement gender Cap RD_dummy X Private Partnership Cooperative Limitedcompany Jointstock stockwithoutstate FDI training lnld mono Nam Trung Caonguyen Union)( Sur_benefits gender Cap RD_dummy X PrivatPartnership Cooperative Limitedcompany Jointstock stockwithoutstate FDI training lnld mono Nam Trung Caonguyen Union)if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 Mức độ đa cộng tuyến của các chính sách phúc lợi không bắt buộc Mô hình tác động của chính sách BHXH đến năng suất lao động không có biến tương tác xtreg lnproductivity1 BHXH11 Cap RD_dummy X i.Legal FDI training lnld mono i.region Union if lnld>0 & lnld<4.6 , fe

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