Luận án Tác động của tăng trưởng kinh tế, tiêu thụ năng lượng và vốn đầu tư trực tiếp nước ngoài đến mật độ carbon dioxide đối với phúc lợi con người

Luận án này có những hạn chế nhất định: Thứ nhất, điều quan trọng là phải nói rằng hạn chế chính của nghiên cứu này là không có sẵn dữ liệu cho các biến được xem xét đối với một số quốc gia được sử dụng cho nghiên cứu. Điều này cũng đặt ra giới hạn trong việc lựa chọn khoảng thời gian cho nghiên cứu (tức là 2000–2019) vì các tác giả muốn kéo dài khoảng thời gian nghiên cứu sang một năm cập nhật hơn nhiều (tức là năm 2022). Thứ hai, luận án không thu thập đầy đủ hết các quốc gia có thu nhập trung bình với các điều kiện quy định thay đổi có thể mà chỉ thu thập được 21 nước theo các điều kiện dân số và ô nhiễm. Điều này dẫn đến kết quả hồi quy chưa phản ánh tình hình chung cho tất cả các nước thuộc nhóm thu nhập trung bình. Thứ ba, liên quan đến nhóm nước nghiên cứu, luận án cũng chưa chia nhỏ mẫu nghiên cứu theo nhóm nước có thu nhập trung bình cao hơn và nhóm nước có thu nhập trung bình thấp hơn để có thể so sánh sự khác biệt về các kết quả hồi quy. Vì vậy, vấn đề này có thể dẫn đến việc đưa ra khuyến nghị về các chính sách chưa được chi tiết cho từng nhóm nước. Thứ tư, giữa quốc gia thuộc chung khu vực kinh tế thương mại với nhau thường có sự lan tỏa về chính sách kinh tế, hay các tiêu chuẩn về môi trường. Trong số các quốc gia nghiên cứu có những quốc gia có đặc điểm vừa nêu. Tuy nhiên, luận án vẫn chưa xem xét tác động lan tỏa theo không gian giữa các nước. Thứ năm, mặc dù luận án đã trình bày các yếu tố kinh tế tác động như thế nào CIWB trong bối cảnh các nước nhóm lại, tuy nhiên lại chưa cho thấy tác động của các yếu tố này đến CIWB theo từng quốc gia. Do đó, luận án cũng chưa thể đưa ra các khuyến nghị cho từng quốc gia riêng.

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Social Science and Medicine, 68(2), 235–242. 180 PHỤ LỤC Phụ lục 1: Kết quả tính CIWB Country Year CO2 LE CIWB Algeria 2000 2.6487 70.64 60.56435 Algeria 2001 2.6638 71.116 60.18021 Algeria 2002 2.8067 71.605 59.9688 Algeria 2003 2.822 72.101 59.57748 Algeria 2004 2.6873 72.594 58.98733 Algeria 2005 3.2119 73.072 59.31938 Algeria 2006 2.9786 73.521 58.63979 Algeria 2007 3.1727 73.936 58.57317 Algeria 2008 3.1394 74.311 58.23278 Algeria 2009 3.4014 74.644 58.32399 Algeria 2010 3.2746 74.938 57.92597 Algeria 2011 3.2679 75.199 57.71601 Algeria 2012 3.4269 75.436 57.74545 Algeria 2013 3.4723 75.661 57.63373 Algeria 2014 3.6617 75.878 57.71852 Algeria 2015 3.7677 76.09 57.69702 Algeria 2016 3.6726 76.298 57.41508 Algeria 2017 3.7434 76.499 57.35678 Algeria 2018 3.8241 76.693 57.31691 Algeria 2019 3.8706 76.88 57.23798 Argentina 2000 3.861 73.576 59.79526 Argentina 2001 3.5949 73.755 59.28935 Argentina 2002 3.3011 73.932 58.75001 Argentina 2003 3.5347 74.107 58.9265 Argentina 2004 4.0799 74.28 59.52324 Argentina 2005 4.1507 74.451 59.48162 Argentina 2006 4.4441 74.62 59.7401 Argentina 2007 4.3908 74.787 59.53543 Argentina 2008 4.6932 74.952 59.80782 Argentina 2009 4.4204 75.116 59.31407 Argentina 2010 4.5661 75.278 59.37998 Argentina 2011 4.6048 75.439 59.30455 Argentina 2012 4.5914 75.598 59.16209 Argentina 2013 4.506 75.756 58.92597 Argentina 2014 4.4247 75.913 58.69701 Argentina 2015 4.4667 76.068 58.63262 Argentina 2016 4.3894 76.221 58.41351 Argentina 2017 4.2744 76.372 58.14744 181 Country Year CO2 LE CIWB Argentina 2018 4.0824 76.52 57.78406 Argentina 2019 3.7419 76.667 57.22913 Brazil 2000 1.9462 70.116 60.01506 Brazil 2001 1.9536 70.462 59.73086 Brazil 2002 1.937 70.813 59.41135 Brazil 2003 1.8956 71.17 59.05516 Brazil 2004 1.9642 71.531 58.85303 Brazil 2005 1.9576 71.896 58.54507 Brazil 2006 1.9603 72.26 58.25389 Brazil 2007 2.0542 72.618 58.09601 Brazil 2008 2.1488 72.966 57.94858 Brazil 2009 2.0103 73.3 57.49558 Brazil 2010 2.2496 73.619 57.5715 Brazil 2011 2.342 73.921 57.46129 Brazil 2012 2.5005 74.209 57.45187 Brazil 2013 2.6484 74.483 57.43909 Brazil 2014 2.7515 74.745 57.37569 Brazil 2015 2.5889 74.994 56.96837 Brazil 2016 2.3901 75.23 56.5254 Brazil 2017 2.4094 75.456 56.38168 Brazil 2018 2.3091 75.672 56.0882 Brazil 2019 2.3018 75.881 55.92409 China 2000 2.6649 71.397 59.9449 China 2001 2.7056 71.732 59.72169 China 2002 2.9622 72.061 59.80511 China 2003 3.4555 72.381 60.22224 China 2004 3.9482 72.689 60.64488 China 2005 4.4159 72.985 61.03975 China 2006 4.8481 73.271 61.39136 China 2007 5.1847 73.553 61.61361 China 2008 5.5386 73.835 61.8576 China 2009 5.7939 74.119 61.96503 China 2010 6.295 74.409 62.39697 China 2011 6.9223 74.708 62.98691 China 2012 7.0623 75.013 62.91744 China 2013 7.1506 75.321 62.77739 China 2014 7.1353 75.629 62.5015 China 2015 7.0003 75.928 62.07757 China 2016 6.8742 76.21 61.6824 China 2017 6.9812 76.47 61.61261 China 2018 7.2077 76.704 61.71994 182 Country Year CO2 LE CIWB China 2019 7.3163 76.912 61.69422 Colombia 2000 1.4196 72.945 56.9656 Colombia 2001 1.3896 73.241 56.69442 Colombia 2002 1.3561 73.517 56.43601 Colombia 2003 1.3763 73.777 56.2645 Colombia 2004 1.2969 74.026 55.96798 Colombia 2005 1.4083 74.265 55.93787 Colombia 2006 1.4353 74.5 55.79766 Colombia 2007 1.3759 74.732 55.54496 Colombia 2008 1.506 74.962 55.54809 Colombia 2009 1.6214 75.193 55.53091 Colombia 2010 1.6867 75.424 55.44742 Colombia 2011 1.6661 75.655 55.25089 Colombia 2012 1.7304 75.882 55.17034 Colombia 2013 1.8804 76.105 55.20578 Colombia 2014 1.8885 76.322 55.05943 Colombia 2015 1.9353 76.531 54.97022 Colombia 2016 1.9355 76.732 54.82649 Colombia 2017 1.7644 76.925 54.46651 Colombia 2018 1.7092 77.109 54.26495 Colombia 2019 1.7962 77.287 54.25254 Egypt 2000 2.039 68.602 61.47483 Egypt 2001 1.7718 68.796 60.91308 Egypt 2002 1.7596 68.961 60.74964 Egypt 2003 2.0111 69.116 60.97728 Egypt 2004 2.0108 69.271 60.84041 Egypt 2005 2.1853 69.434 60.9489 Egypt 2006 2.2897 69.608 60.94653 Egypt 2007 2.3764 69.788 60.91357 Egypt 2008 2.4457 69.971 60.8533 Egypt 2009 2.5041 70.159 60.77347 Egypt 2010 2.4268 70.349 60.49945 Egypt 2011 2.5202 70.543 60.46547 Egypt 2012 2.4151 70.736 60.15192 Egypt 2013 2.3409 70.928 59.88447 Egypt 2014 2.4514 71.117 59.8807 Egypt 2015 2.3708 71.302 59.6123 Egypt 2016 2.4789 71.482 59.61341 Egypt 2017 2.5985 71.656 59.63556 Egypt 2018 2.3137 71.825 59.09873 Egypt 2019 2.2501 71.99 58.87493 183 Country Year CO2 LE CIWB India 2000 0.9265 62.505 65.69148 India 2001 0.9233 62.907 65.2666 India 2002 0.9357 63.304 64.87688 India 2003 0.9533 63.699 64.50221 India 2004 0.9963 64.095 64.17078 India 2005 1.0334 64.5 63.82536 India 2006 1.0809 64.918 63.48757 India 2007 1.1479 65.35 63.17041 India 2008 1.2183 65.794 62.85111 India 2009 1.3244 66.244 62.58432 India 2010 1.3594 66.693 62.21546 India 2011 1.4238 67.13 61.90639 India 2012 1.5513 67.545 61.7148 India 2013 1.5903 67.931 61.42153 India 2014 1.6871 68.286 61.24397 India 2015 1.7315 68.607 61.02214 India 2016 1.7986 68.897 60.86268 India 2017 1.8181 69.165 60.65504 India 2018 1.922 69.416 60.5854 India 2019 1.9218 69.656 60.37636 Indonesia 2000 1.2989 65.772 62.99468 Indonesia 2001 1.4147 66.037 62.91724 Indonesia 2002 1.43 66.321 62.67089 Indonesia 2003 1.5453 66.631 62.55236 Indonesia 2004 1.5424 66.969 62.23232 Indonesia 2005 1.5422 67.334 61.89467 Indonesia 2006 1.5119 67.717 61.49986 Indonesia 2007 1.6708 68.105 61.38281 Indonesia 2008 1.5556 68.485 60.874 Indonesia 2009 1.6845 68.853 60.73586 Indonesia 2010 1.8688 69.205 60.69324 Indonesia 2011 2.0593 69.542 60.67306 Indonesia 2012 2.0991 69.866 60.44866 Indonesia 2013 1.9701 70.179 59.99524 Indonesia 2014 1.9558 70.481 59.71788 Indonesia 2015 2.1343 70.768 59.72793 Indonesia 2016 2.1443 71.035 59.51751 Indonesia 2017 2.1733 71.282 59.35195 Indonesia 2018 2.2972 71.509 59.33681 Indonesia 2019 2.441 71.716 59.36605 Morocco 2000 1.153 68.684 60.11147 184 Country Year CO2 LE CIWB Morocco 2001 1.2637 69.193 59.82926 Morocco 2002 1.2666 69.769 59.33948 Morocco 2003 1.2279 70.399 58.75348 Morocco 2004 1.4021 71.067 58.44634 Morocco 2005 1.4664 71.746 57.98283 Morocco 2006 1.5014 72.403 57.50502 Morocco 2007 1.5695 73.009 57.12099 Morocco 2008 1.6289 73.546 56.78468 Morocco 2009 1.5929 74.003 56.38536 Morocco 2010 1.6809 74.382 56.21637 Morocco 2011 1.6737 74.696 55.97041 Morocco 2012 1.7133 74.97 55.81867 Morocco 2013 1.6789 75.227 55.58225 Morocco 2014 1.6722 75.477 55.38927 Morocco 2015 1.689 75.726 55.22933 Morocco 2016 1.6642 75.974 55.0164 Morocco 2017 1.7321 76.218 54.92936 Morocco 2018 1.729 76.453 54.75646 Morocco 2019 1.8704 76.68 54.77877 Malaysia 2000 5.4411 72.594 62.78075 Malaysia 2001 5.6513 72.782 62.90739 Malaysia 2002 5.5815 72.976 62.64451 Malaysia 2003 6.3372 73.17 63.51122 Malaysia 2004 6.7923 73.364 63.96361 Malaysia 2005 7.0583 73.555 64.15915 Malaysia 2006 6.8234 73.744 63.67618 Malaysia 2007 6.8283 73.931 63.52174 Malaysia 2008 7.4161 74.118 64.15454 Malaysia 2009 7.2368 74.305 63.75178 Malaysia 2010 7.6551 74.493 64.15242 Malaysia 2011 7.5737 74.683 63.88021 Malaysia 2012 7.4037 74.877 63.48767 Malaysia 2013 8.2286 75.072 64.42157 Malaysia 2014 8.1975 75.268 64.21249 Malaysia 2015 7.659 75.461 63.33465 Malaysia 2016 8.1657 75.649 63.84706 Malaysia 2017 8.0554 75.828 63.55088 Malaysia 2018 8.6345 75.997 64.17156 Malaysia 2019 8.7218 76.156 64.15221 Mexico 2000 4.0047 74.34 59.37404 185 Country Year CO2 LE CIWB Mexico 2001 4.0948 74.658 59.24182 Mexico 2002 4.0514 74.922 58.97515 Mexico 2003 4.2467 75.118 59.08126 Mexico 2004 4.199 75.243 58.91971 Mexico 2005 4.3771 75.3 59.11163 Mexico 2006 4.4307 75.296 59.18596 Mexico 2007 4.3948 75.255 59.1705 Mexico 2008 4.4487 75.194 59.29018 Mexico 2009 4.2316 75.128 59.0533 Mexico 2010 4.065 75.065 58.88092 Mexico 2011 4.1848 75.011 59.08301 Mexico 2012 4.232 74.966 59.18144 Mexico 2013 4.1247 74.93 59.06668 Mexico 2014 3.9976 74.908 58.91435 Mexico 2015 3.9552 74.904 58.86089 Mexico 2016 3.9146 74.917 58.79648 Mexico 2017 3.6854 74.947 58.46713 Mexico 2018 3.6081 74.992 58.32897 Mexico 2019 3.4138 75.054 58.0219 Peru 2000 1.1377 71.111 58.03836 Peru 2001 1.0068 71.505 57.5355 Peru 2002 0.9966 71.882 57.21955 Peru 2003 0.9575 72.24 56.88187 Peru 2004 1.1478 72.581 56.87681 Peru 2005 1.3254 72.908 56.86531 Peru 2006 1.0117 73.222 56.19303 Peru 2007 1.2236 73.528 56.24736 Peru 2008 1.4288 73.826 56.29827 Peru 2009 1.7823 74.12 56.55189 Peru 2010 1.9696 74.41 56.5832 Peru 2011 1.6718 74.697 55.96712 Peru 2012 1.8315 74.981 55.96813 Peru 2013 1.4463 75.258 55.25029 Peru 2014 1.6428 75.529 55.31221 Peru 2015 1.6103 75.792 55.0774 Peru 2016 1.7047 76.044 55.01902 Peru 2017 1.7085 76.286 54.84946 Peru 2018 1.7084 76.516 54.68446 Peru 2019 1.6911 76.736 54.50513 Russia 2000 10.0493 65.48366 76.63478 Russia 2001 10.3387 65.38341 77.1949 186 Country Year CO2 LE CIWB Russia 2002 10.2998 65.12878 77.43698 Russia 2003 10.5497 65.0478 77.91756 Russia 2004 10.6239 65.47098 77.52727 Russia 2005 10.7717 65.52976 77.68327 Russia 2006 11.203 66.72756 76.93517 Russia 2007 11.1998 67.58683 75.95231 Russia 2008 11.4271 67.94927 75.8817 Russia 2009 10.6676 68.68463 73.9635 Russia 2010 11.2428 68.84122 74.63081 Russia 2011 11.5878 69.6839 74.2234 Russia 2012 11.6679 70.0722 73.92641 Russia 2013 11.2206 70.57878 72.76204 Russia 2014 11.2162 70.74366 72.58624 Russia 2015 11.1949 71.18341 72.10789 Russia 2016 11.1416 71.65122 71.56272 Russia 2017 11.3135 72.43195 71.02868 Russia 2018 11.6078 72.65732 71.21342 Russia 2019 11.5132 72.584 71.15502 South Africa 2000 8.4117 56.048 86.61444 South Africa 2001 8.1524 55.089 87.65155 South Africa 2002 7.7216 54.31 88.11556 South Africa 2003 8.6511 53.749 90.76459 South Africa 2004 9.4959 53.444 92.8633 South Africa 2005 8.6867 53.447 91.34406 South Africa 2006 9.2107 53.795 91.72722 South Africa 2007 9.4626 54.452 91.08308 South Africa 2008 9.9367 55.36 90.44556 South Africa 2009 9.9503 56.46 88.70751 South Africa 2010 9.1167 57.669 85.40231 South Africa 2011 9.1137 58.895 83.61942 South Africa 2012 8.7283 60.06 81.35574 South Africa 2013 8.4912 61.099 79.58422 South Africa 2014 8.8117 61.968 78.98538 South Africa 2015 8.1351 62.649 77.04682 South Africa 2016 8.2688 63.153 76.64364 South Africa 2017 8.1424 63.538 75.9803 South Africa 2018 8.0321 63.857 75.428 South Africa 2019 8.1273 64.131 75.25418 Thailand 2000 2.6814 70.623 60.62524 Thailand 2001 2.844 70.832 60.67591 Thailand 2002 2.9782 71.089 60.64533 187 Country Year CO2 LE CIWB Thailand 2003 3.1292 71.389 60.602 Thailand 2004 3.3413 71.728 60.61128 Thailand 2005 3.4088 72.099 60.39302 Thailand 2006 3.439 72.499 60.10146 Thailand 2007 3.4663 72.916 59.79519 Thailand 2008 3.41 73.341 59.37192 Thailand 2009 3.6232 73.766 59.31887 Thailand 2010 3.8009 74.184 59.22417 Thailand 2011 3.7562 74.593 58.83952 Thailand 2012 3.9841 74.992 58.83036 Thailand 2013 4.2204 75.378 58.84258 Thailand 2014 4.1299 75.747 58.43645 Thailand 2015 4.1576 76.091 58.20867 Thailand 2016 4.1095 76.403 57.90801 Thailand 2017 4.1318 76.683 57.72565 Thailand 2018 3.9779 76.931 57.33951 Thailand 2019 3.9012 77.15 57.07733 Turkey 2000 3.6336 70.005 62.52062 Turkey 2001 3.3257 70.56 61.59249 Turkey 2002 3.3921 71.078 61.23704 Turkey 2003 3.5782 71.559 61.08548 Turkey 2004 3.6481 72.004 60.80504 Turkey 2005 3.8908 72.424 60.78753 Turkey 2006 4.0963 72.83 60.73083 Turkey 2007 4.4945 73.235 60.9387 Turkey 2008 4.3926 73.649 60.45779 Turkey 2009 4.4217 74.074 60.1502 Turkey 2010 4.3466 74.507 59.69984 Turkey 2011 4.6224 74.944 59.71974 Turkey 2012 4.7376 75.373 59.53267 Turkey 2013 4.5468 75.784 58.95804 Turkey 2014 4.6831 76.172 58.83666 Turkey 2015 4.8559 76.532 58.78568 Turkey 2016 5.0263 76.86 58.75652 Turkey 2017 5.2434 77.161 58.80867 Turkey 2018 5.094 77.437 58.40614 Turkey 2019 4.7866 77.691 57.81952 Ukraine 2000 5.8425 67.258 68.35835 Ukraine 2001 6.2717 67.267 68.98726 Ukraine 2002 6.1624 67.288 68.80329 Ukraine 2003 6.4523 67.317 69.2043 188 Country Year CO2 LE CIWB Ukraine 2004 6.573 67.361 69.33828 Ukraine 2005 6.6776 67.451 69.40084 Ukraine 2006 7.1377 67.625 69.90264 Ukraine 2007 7.2545 67.909 69.7823 Ukraine 2008 7.0525 68.306 69.08099 Ukraine 2009 6.0319 68.802 67.09959 Ukraine 2010 6.422 69.361 67.12124 Ukraine 2011 6.7504 69.932 67.04278 Ukraine 2012 6.6876 70.464 66.44749 Ukraine 2013 6.5637 70.918 65.8474 Ukraine 2014 5.7083 71.276 64.31654 Ukraine 2015 4.9825 71.535 63.06907 Ukraine 2016 5.2334 71.711 63.26416 Ukraine 2017 5.0145 71.84 62.84585 Ukraine 2018 5.2441 71.953 63.06625 Ukraine 2019 5.0594 72.065 62.71194 Uzbekistan 2000 4.8847 67.156 67.03595 Uzbekistan 2001 4.8823 67.374 66.81548 Uzbekistan 2002 5.0143 67.613 66.77453 Uzbekistan 2003 4.8909 67.868 66.34181 Uzbekistan 2004 4.7979 68.135 65.94534 Uzbekistan 2005 4.4111 68.407 65.11769 Uzbekistan 2006 4.4532 68.676 64.92393 Uzbekistan 2007 4.3784 68.939 64.56775 Uzbekistan 2008 4.4536 69.193 64.43941 Uzbekistan 2009 3.7859 69.435 63.2532 Uzbekistan 2010 3.6238 69.672 62.80537 Uzbekistan 2011 3.8894 69.91 62.97148 Uzbekistan 2012 3.9013 70.155 62.76853 Uzbekistan 2013 3.6573 70.41 62.19466 Uzbekistan 2014 3.4494 70.671 61.67078 Uzbekistan 2015 3.2788 70.928 61.2068 Uzbekistan 2016 3.4403 71.171 61.22474 Uzbekistan 2017 3.3528 71.388 60.91606 Uzbekistan 2018 3.5328 71.573 61.0101 Uzbekistan 2019 3.4625 71.725 60.7828 Vietnam 2000 0.6582 73.025 55.86054 Vietnam 2001 0.7388 73.228 55.81575 Vietnam 2002 0.8401 73.438 55.79408 Vietnam 2003 0.924 73.654 55.74437 Vietnam 2004 1.0564 73.875 55.75683 189 Country Year CO2 LE CIWB Vietnam 2005 1.1296 74.092 55.69233 Vietnam 2006 1.1655 74.295 55.58848 Vietnam 2007 1.1749 74.474 55.46749 Vietnam 2008 1.314 74.625 55.54165 Vietnam 2009 1.4174 74.745 55.59082 Vietnam 2010 1.5754 74.837 55.73361 Vietnam 2011 1.7017 74.904 55.85237 Vietnam 2012 1.5874 74.958 55.65965 Vietnam 2013 1.6443 75.006 55.69989 Vietnam 2014 1.8428 75.056 55.92725 Vietnam 2015 2.0825 75.11 56.20618 Vietnam 2016 2.0586 75.172 56.12803 Vietnam 2017 2.0639 75.241 56.0836 Vietnam 2018 2.3415 75.317 56.39558 Vietnam 2019 2.6986 75.4 56.80711 Iran 2000 5.6253 70.176 65.20642 Iran 2001 5.9408 70.553 65.30517 Iran 2002 5.9096 70.921 64.92232 Iran 2003 6.0723 71.265 64.83724 Iran 2004 6.4095 71.592 65.0121 Iran 2005 6.644 71.917 65.04437 Iran 2006 7.1382 72.257 65.42226 Iran 2007 7.1865 72.626 65.15636 Iran 2008 7.4132 73.027 65.10901 Iran 2009 7.6658 73.457 65.07176 Iran 2010 7.7244 73.905 64.75659 Iran 2011 7.7355 74.352 64.38221 Iran 2012 7.9791 74.776 64.34292 Iran 2013 7.9785 75.162 64.01168 Iran 2014 8.2855 75.502 64.13004 Iran 2015 8.0088 75.796 63.51623 Iran 2016 8.0107 76.047 63.30909 Iran 2017 8.8288 76.271 64.19578 Iran 2018 8.6449 76.479 63.78072 Iran 2019 8.8449 76.677 63.87686 Venezuela 2000 6.2776 72.112 64.36038 Venezuela 2001 6.9777 72.294 65.16676 Venezuela 2002 7.679 72.466 65.97985 Venezuela 2003 7.493 72.618 65.58561 Venezuela 2004 5.8188 72.746 63.16878 Venezuela 2005 6.1978 72.852 63.5971 190 Country Year CO2 LE CIWB Venezuela 2006 5.965 72.938 63.20294 Venezuela 2007 5.5023 73.01 62.50686 Venezuela 2008 6.104 73.071 63.27813 Venezuela 2009 6.0495 73.116 63.16464 Venezuela 2010 6.4727 73.134 63.72776 Venezuela 2011 6.0906 73.11 63.22604 Venezuela 2012 6.2064 73.037 63.44779 Venezuela 2013 6.965 72.918 64.59168 Venezuela 2014 6.2147 72.762 63.69899 Venezuela 2015 5.9878 72.584 63.5426 Venezuela 2016 5.6774 72.405 63.27099 Venezuela 2017 5.4939 72.246 63.15624 Venezuela 2018 4.1602 72.128 61.41049 Venezuela 2019 3.4779 72.064 60.51823 Phụ lục 2: Thống kê mô tả các biến 191 Phụ lục 3: Kiểm định nghiệm đơn vị các biến 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 Các kiểm định và kết quả hồi quy mô hình (3.1’) Phụ lục 4 Kiểm định phụ thuộc chéo Phụ lục 5 Kiểm định phương sai thay đổi Phụ lục 6 Kiểm định tự tương quan 199 Phụ lục 7a Kiểm định nội sinh 200 Phụ lục 7b Kiểm định nội sinh 201 Phụ lục 7c Kiểm định nội sinh Phụ lục 8 Kiểm định đa cộng tuyến 202 Phụ lục 9 Kết quả hồi quy mô hình (3.1’) 203 Các kiểm định và kết quả hồi quy mô hình (3.2b) Phụ lục10 Kiểm định phụ thuộc chéo Phụ lục 11 Kiểm định phương sai thay đổi Phụ lục 12 Kiểm định tự tương quan 204 Phụ lục 13 Kiểm định đa cộng tuyến 205 Phụ lục 14. Kiểm định các cặp hệ số tương quan 206 Phụ lục 15 Kết quả hồi quy mô hình (3.2b) Các kiểm định và kết quả hồi quy mô hình (3.3b) Phụ lục 16 Kiểm định phụ thuộc chéo 207 Phụ lục 17 Kiểm định phương sai thay đổi Phụ lục 18 Kiểm định tự tương quan Phụ lục 19 Kiểm định đa cộng tuyến 208 Phụ lục 20 Kết quả hồi quy mô hình (3.3b)

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