Đề tài Tỷ lệ tiêu hóa, giá trị dinh dưỡng và phương trình ước tính tỷ lệ tiêu hóa chất hữu cơ, giá trị năng lượng trao đổi của thức ăn cho gia súc nhai lại

Vì các tương quan này chưa đủ mạnh để chỉ dùng lượng khí sinh ra sau 24 giờ làm biến duy nhất để ước tính ME in vivo (Chenost và cs., 1997; Steingass và Menke, 1986; Menke và Steingass, 1988; Datt và Singh, 1995; Abreu và BrunoSoares, 1998; Sommart và cs., 2000, Nitipot và Sommart, 2003; Al-Masri. 2003; Sallam và cs., 2007) nên khi đưa thêm các thành phần hóa học của thức ăn như: CP, CF, NDF, ADF và thậm chí là khoáng và mỡ vào phương trình ước tính ME thì R2 của phương trình tăng lên. Nguyên nhân khác nữa là thành phần hóa học nói chung, đặc biệt là CP, NDF, ADF là các yếu tố quan trọng làm tăng hoặc giảm lên men trong dạ cỏ (Sommart và cs., 2000; Al-Masri, 2003; Sayan và cs., 2004; Getachew và cs., 2004; De Boever và cs.,2005; Sallam và cs., 2007; Njiadda và Nasiru, 2010) và do đó ảnh hưởng đến lượng khí sinh ra và tỷ lệ tiêu hóa của thức ăn và kết quả là ảnh hưởng đến ME.

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Tính toán các giá trị năng lượng của thức ăn Giá trị GE: Để tính giá trị GE của các loại thức ăn vùng nhiệt đới dùng công thức của Jarige (1978); Xande và cs. (1989b): GE (kcal/kg OM) = 4543 + 2,0113 x CP (g/kg OM) ± 32,8 (r = 0,935) Trong đó GE = Kcal/kg chất hữu cơ - OM Sau đó chuyển giá trị này thành GE: Kcal/kg chất khô - DM và MJ/kg DM Giá trị DE: Để tính giá trị DE dùng công thức của Jarige (1978); Xande và cs. (1989b): DE = GE x dE Ở đây: DE = Kcal/kg OM. dE - Tỷ lệ tiêu hoá của năng lượng thô = 1,0087 dOM - 0,0377 ± 0,007 (r = 0,996) dOM: tỷ lệ tiêu hoá của chất hữu cơ. Sau đó chuyển giá trị này thành DE: Kcal/kg DM và MJ/kg DM. Giá trị ME: Để tính giá trị ME của thức ăn nhiệt đới dùng công thức của Jarige (1978); Xande và cs. (1989): ME = DE x ME/DE Trong đó: ME = Kcal/kg OM. Sau đó chuyển giá trị này thành ME: Kcal/kg DM và MJ/kg DM. ME/DE = 0,8417 - (9,9 x 10-5 x CF [crude fibre - xơ thô (g/kg chất hữu cơ]) - (1,96 x 10-4 x CP (crude protein-protein thô) (g/kg chất hữu cơ)) + 0,221 x NA). NA = Số lượng chất hữu cơ tiêu hoá ăn được (Digestible oganic matter - DOM) (g/kg W0,75)/23 . Thông thường người ta sử dụng giá trị bình quân: NA = 1,7 131 Giá trị NE Để tính giá trị NE của thức ăn nhiệt đới dùng công thức của Jarige (1978); Xande và cs. (1989b): NE = ME × kl kl = 0,463 + [0,24 × (ME/GE)] kl: là hiệu quả sử dụng năng lượng trao đổi cho sản xuất sữa Năng lượng thuần cũng có thể biểu diễn dưới dạng đơn vị thức ăn. Theo hệ thống đánh giá giá trị thức ăn của Pháp, đơn vị thức ăn tạo sữa (UFL) của thức ăn được tính bằng 1700 Kcal NE. UFL = NE (Kcal)/1700 2. Tính toán các giá trị protein của thức ăn Giá trị protein của một thức ăn là tổng lượng protein được tiêu hoá tại ruột non tính bằng g/kg vật chất khô (PDI)- Protéines Digestibles dans l’Intestine) và được biểu thị bằng hai giá trị PDIE và PDIN. Thông thường người ta lấy giá trị thấp hơn trong hai giá trị này làm giá trị PDI của thức ăn, một thức ăn có hai giá trị này tương đương nhau là một thức ăn cân đối). Protein tiêu hóa ở ruột (PDI) (g/kgDM): - Protein tiêu hoá ở ruột giới hạn bởi năng lượng: PDIE = PDIA + PDIME - Protein tiêu hoá ở ruột giới hạn bởi ni tơ: PDIN = PDIA + PDMN và được tính như sau: PDIME (g/kgDM): Số lượng protein vi sinh vật tiêu hoá ở ruột có thể được tổng hợp khi năng lượng dễ lên men không bị hạn chế: PDIME = 135 x 0,8 x 0,7xDOM (kg/kgDM) Ở đây: DOM - Chất hữu cơ tiêu hoá ((kg/kg vật chất khô) = OM (chất hữu cơ) kg/kg DM (chất khô) x Tỷ lệ tiêu hoá OM (chất hữu cơ) PDIMN (g/kgDM): Số lượng protein vi sinh vật tiêu hoá ở ruột có thể được tổng hợp khi năng lượng không bị hạn chế: PDIMN = CP (g/kgDM) x (S + 0,35 x (1-S)) x 0,8 x 0,7 S: độ hoà tan của Nitơ ≅ 0,3 cho các loại thức ăn. PDIMN (g/kg DM) = CP (g/kgDM) x (0,3 + 0,35 x (1-0,3)) x 0,8x0,7 PDIA (g/kgDM): Protein tiêu hoá ở ruột từ nguồn thức ăn ăn vào (g/kgDM). PDIA (g/kgDM) = 0,65x CP (g/kgDM) x (1-S) x dr 132 Ở đây: dr: Tỷ lệ tiêu hoá của protein của khẩu phần trong ruột. dr = (0,65 x Protein không hoà tan (g/kg DM) - PANDI)/0,65 x Protein không hoà tan (g/kgDM) Protein không hoà tan = CP x (1-S) PANDI (g/kgDM): Protein của khẩu phần không tiêu hoá ở ruột non PANDI (g/kgDM) = ICP - 0,501 - 0,033 x DOM - 0,009 x IDOM = 0,045 x CP. ICP: Protein không thể tiêu hoá ICP = 0,501 + 0,045 CP g/kgDM) + 0,033 DOM (g/kg DM) + 0,009 IDOM (chất hữu cơ không thể tiêu hoá, g/kgDM) Ở đây: * Protein tiêu hoá DCP = CP (g/kgDM) x tỷ lệ tiêu hoá của CP * Chất hữu cơ tiêu hoá DOM (g/kgDM) = OM (g/kgDM) x tỷ lệ tiêu hoá OM * Chất hữu cơ không thể tiêu hoá IDOM (g/kgDM) = OM (g/kgDM) - DOM (g/kgDM) 133 PHỤ LỤC 2 1. Các hình ảnh thí nghiệm in vitro gas production Ảnh 1: Lấy dịch dạ cỏ làm thí nghiệm in vitro gas production Ảnh 2: Chuẩn bị xylanh làm thí nghiệm in vitro gas production Ảnh 3: Lấy dịch dạ cỏ vào xylanh đưa vào máy gas Ảnh 4: Chuẩn bị đọc kết quả thí nghiệm in vitro gas production 134 Ảnh 5: Chuẩn bị mẫu thức ăn thí nghiệm Ảnh 6: Thí nghiệm in vivo trên cừu Ảnh 7: Cân khối lượng phân thải ra của cừu thí nghiệm Ảnh 8: Cân khối lượng thức ăn còn thừa của cừu thí nghiệm

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