Educating living skill for high school students through extracurricular activities

Principle of approaching the activity and personality in life skills education for pupils through organizing out-of- class-hour educational activities. - Life skills education for high school pupils through out-of- class-hour educational activities must come from the rights and duties of the pupils. - To promote the advantages of out-of- class-hour educational activities to educate life skills for high school pupils.

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0 MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY PHAN THANH VAN EDUCATING LIVING SKILL FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES Major: Theory and History of education Code: 62.14.01.01 SUMMARY OF THESIS FOR PHD OF PEDAGOGY THAI NGUYEN - 2010 The work is completed at EDUCATION UNIVERSITY - THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY Scientific advisor: ASSOC. PROF. DR. Bui Van Quan Critic 1: ........................................................... Critic 2: ........................................................... Critic 3: ........................................................... The thesis will be defended at the State Thesis Appraisal Council held at: THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY At ……. hours …date …. month …. year ….. For further information about the Thesis, please refer to: - Vietnam National Library; - Center for School Materials - Thai Nguyen University; - Library of Education University - Thai Nguyen University. 24 that basic knowledge and formed personality dignities are essential and adequate to conditions of particular pupils. 5. Study on reality indicated that high school pupils either are blind about or lack basic living skills. Educational forces are fully aware of the nature and necessity of education on living skills to pupils but are still embarrassed in procedures, methodologies and contents of education to particular objectives. 6. The thesis has drawn out propositions on methodologies of educating living skills to high school pupils with integrated contents, designed educational themes flexible to particular activities. 2. Propositions 1. Education on living skills to high school pupils would be effective, help enhance education quality meeting the social demand when it is disseminated widely together with the target of eliminating exam result-dependant mentality. Proper investment in this activity to help schools organize well recreation activities could help improve education quality and facilitate development of private schools. 2. The Ministry of Education and Training should early draw out programs on educating living skills to pupils of different education levels, including high school education. This could be an important basis for schools to actively select forms of organizing education on living skills to pupils in appropriate to particular school circumstances. 3. Pedagogy schools should hold training course for teachers to meet the demand for education on living skills, and organizations of recreation activities at high schools should be short-listed to ensure main criteria of presentation skills and procedures. Pedagogy schools should also conduct researches, outline methodologies to improve education skills, living skills, and skills of organizing recreation activities for students, satisfying the requirement for renovating high school education. 4. Localities need to provide support in forms of facilities, precinct and investment in national-standardized school to facilitate schools in organization of recreation activities in line with the education targets and the targets of education on living skills. 23 CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 3 Surveys showed that methodologies of educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities are feasible, make change high school pupils’ living skills in terms of awareness, manners and behaviors. CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSITIONS 1. Conclusions 1. Living skill is a practical index of personality, a manifestation of personality behaviors, and a decisive factor of education quality in line with the new standards on human personality development and mature under the impacts of living environment and education activities. For many countries in the world, living skills is an important target and content in the high school education programs. 2. Education on living skills is an important and urgent task of the education system, is an education result as well as an important tasks of every school activities, particularly recreation activities. Results built up for high school pupils via recreation activities comprise a lot of diversified contents but are confined in living skills among juvenile, which could be an important basis for them to enter the social life securely. 3. Results of the thesis indicated that living skills to be built up for high school pupils via recreation activities are basis skills of evaluation, communication, tense encounter, and positive conflict resolution. The outcomes of forming these skills are to educate pupils about positive living style in the modern society, to build up or change their behavior positively in appropriate to the targets of developing learners’ comprehensive personality via helping them acquire proper knowledge, dignity, behavior and skills. 4. Education on living skills via recreation activities is a process of designing, operating constituent formants of education activities under an integral viewpoint. The defined principle is based on advantages of contents and program on high school education in order to educate living skills to high school pupils, but is to ensure 0 PRONOUNCED SCIENTIFIC WORKS RELATED TO THE THESIS 1. Phan Thanh Van (2004), "Educating legal awareness and behavior for students", Education Magazine, Issue No. 83, Special subject of the 1st quarter of 2004. 2. Phan Thanh Van (2009), " Educating living skill for students in the emulative movement "Building friendly school, active students”", Education Magazine, Issue No. 214, term 2-5/2009. 3. Phan Thanh Van (2009), "Educating living skill - Necessary for children", Education Magazine, term 1-11/2009. 4. Phan Thanh Van (2010), "Integrating the objective of educating living skill in extracurricular activities", Education Magazine, Issue No. 239, term 1, 6/2010. 1 PREFACE 1. Reasons to choose the topic The rapid development of areas of economics, society and international integration has created multilateral effects, affect to the process of formation and development of personality of the young generation. This reality makes the educators and the nations in the world pay special attention to the education of life skills for the young generation, including of high school pupils. Awareness of the life skills, as well as the institutionalization of education of life skills is not specific in general education in Vietnam, especially in guiding the life skills educational activities for pupils at all levels, education levels is also limited. In recent years, status of offenders in juvenile people tends to increase, especially in urban areas and big cities. There are many different reasons, those lead to the above situation. One of the reasons is that, the high school pupils have not accessed to the life skills educational programs yet; the exploitation of the strengths of the educational activities outside the class hours in order to implement the education of life skills for pupils in schools is still limited. It is also the reason for the author to choose the thesis titled: "Life skills education for high school pupils through out-of- class-hour educational activities" to research. 2. Objective of the research To strengthen and improve the effectiveness of life skills education for high school pupils by the way of integrating the life skills education with out-of-class-hour educational activities in high schools. 3. Objects and subjects of research 3.1. Objects of the research Life skills educational process for high school pupils and out- of-class-hour educational activities in high schools. 22 The post-test average point of capacity of two separate groups is meaningful at the reliability of 95%. 3.2.2.3. Pre-test and post-test analyses on experiment group Table 3.5: Frequency distribution of pre-test and post-test results Turn N Test results (%) Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Level 0 Pre-test 96 0.8 2.2 25.9 71.2 3.7682 Post-test 96 14.9 27.1 42.7 15.3 6.3579 Comparison + 14.1 + 24.9 + 16.8 - 55.9 2.5897 Based on the data, we are aware that high school pupils’ post- test manners and behaviors relating to living skills are better than the pre-test ones. The proportion of high school pupils with pre-test points at level 3 was 0.8%, but the post-test one was 14.9% (difference + 14.1%). The proportion of high school pupils with pre- test points at level 2 was 2.2%, but the post-test one was 27.1% (difference + 24.9%). The proportion of high school pupils with pre- test points at level 1 was 25.9%, but the post-test one was 42.7% (difference + 16.8%). The proportion of high school pupils with pre- test points at level 0 was 71.2%, but the post-test one was 15.3% (difference - 55.9%). The pre-test average point was 3.7682, and the post-test one was 6.3579 (difference + 2.5897). 3.3.2.3. General changes in high school pupils’ living skills of experiment group (in terms o knowledge, behavior and skills) Experiments showed that methodologies of educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities are feasible, make change high school pupils’ living skills in terms of awareness, manners and behaviors. Via experiments, pupils of the experiment group were provided with basic living skills of evaluation, effective communication, tense encounter, and positive conflict resolution. Based on the aforementioned results, it could be said that the experiment supposition was proven. 21 Based on those analyses, we come to a conclusion that pre-test variances on capacity of these two groups are not very different. The average point of pre-test capacity of two different groups is meaningless within the reliability of 95%. 3.2.2.2. Comparison of control and experiment groups after tests Table 3.3: Frequency distribution of post-test results for experiment and control groups Group N Test results (%) Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Level 0 Experiment 96 14.9 27.1 42.7 15.3 6.3579 Control 96 0.7 3.2 29.7 66.4 3.8724 The data on the table 3.3 indicated that: Colum EVA means testing implementation under a supposition that post-test points of experiment and control groups have the same variance and use test model S. Value of Sig = 0.9 < 0.1 so that supposition is turned down (at the reliability of 95%), which means that variances of two groups are equal. Value of significance level on two-side test = 0.02 < 0.05; so value T is valuable at the reliability of 95%. Variances averaged at 1.978 means that at the reliability of 95%, average point of capacity of the control group is 0.1978 lower than that of the experiment group. Standard error of this variance is 0.01636. The reliability of 95% indicated difference in the average point of capacity of the experiment and control group varies from 2.111 to 2.578. Tale 3.4: Test T on control and experiment groups after test Test S gives equality of variances Test T give equality of averages F Sig T Df Sig (2-t) MD Std.ED 95% CID L U EVA - Experiment - Control 7.321 0.09 12.549 12.549 3331.887 335.114 0.02 0.02 1.978 1.978 1.636 1.636 2.111 2.111 2.578 2.578 The aforementioned data analyses comes to a conclusion that post-test variances on points of capacity of two groups are different. 2 3.2. Subjects of the research Life skills educational measures applied for high school pupils through out-of-class-hour educational activities. 4. Research hypothesis If the proposed measures which are feasible according to orientation of component integration of life skills education with elements of out-of-class-hour educational activities, they can improve the efficiency of life skills education for high school pupils. 5.Tasks of the research 5.1. Systematize theoretical issues of life skills, life skills education, life skills education for high school pupils through organizing the out side class hour educational activities. 5.2. Survey the actual status of life skills education for high school pupils through organizing the outside class hour educational activities in some high schools. 5.3. Propose some measures of life skills education for high school pupils through out-of-class-hour educational activities and experimentation of some proposed measures. 6. Scope of research 6.1. Contents of the research - The basic life skills needed for high school pupils education defined clearly in the research thesis are: valuation skills, communication skills, skills to cope with emotional stress and skills to resolve conflicts positively. - Experimentation of life skills education for high school pupils through out-of- class-hour educational activities is implemented with the program of out-of- class-hour educational activities in class 10, class 11 high schools. 6.2. Research areas The researches were conducted in Ho Chi Minh City with three high schools representing 3 development areas of the city: urban area, rural area and area with difficulties. 3 7. Methodology and research methods 7.1. Methodology Apply methodology of dialectical materialism, historical materialism and the system approach, integrated approach. 7.2. Research methods 7.2.1. Group of theoretical research methods Use documentation research method, methods of analysis, collective one, generalization and systematization in order to create the theoretical framework for the subject of the thesis. 7.2. 2. Group of reality research methods - Methods of investigation by questionnaire, interviewing, expert used method, testing method, experimental one to reality explicit and research results in order to prove the scientific hypothesis. 7.2.3. Supporting methods - Method of observation: research actual status and research results. - Method of mathematical statistics: To be used to treat the experimental educational results and survey results by questionnaires. 8. Protected arguments - Life skills education is the objective and responsibilities in the task of comprehensive education of high school education. - Life skills education for high school pupils through out-of-class-hour educational activities is operating at the same time elements of life skills education and other elements of out-of-class-hour educational activities to implement the objectives of the two activities. - Integration is the effective way to implement life skills education for pupils through out-of-class-hour educational activities and not to overload the high school pupils’ activities. 9. New contribution of the thesis 9.1. On the theoretical side Contribute to develop the theory on life skills education through out-of-class-hour educational activities by the conclusions: - Life skills education is determined as a task of high school education in order to develop the comprehensive personality for high school pupils in the context of international integration. 20 3.2.1.3. Content Based on assessment of the necessity and feasibility of methodologies, two following methodologies were selected for pedagogic experiments: - Using types of activities and forms of organizing recreation education flexibly so as to realize the targets of educating integrated living skills. - Designing themes for education on living skills in appropriate to the content, activities to realize themes of recreation education at high schools. 3.2.1.4. Experiments Experiments were carried out at the first term of the 2008-2009 school year. Before experiments, we carried out pre-test on control and experimental objectives. Pedagogic experiments applied model of experiment as follows: R1: O1 X O2 R2 O3 Y O4 In which: R1 is experimental group R2 is control group X is experimental interferences Y is other impacts O1, O2 are results of pre-test and experiment of methodologies for experimental objectives. O3, O4 are results of pre-test and experiments of methodologies on control group (time of O1 is the same as O3, and time of O2 is the same as O4) 3.2.1.5. Assessment criteria and tools In order to assess results of experiments, we use two systems of assessment: - A system of assessing efficiency of methodologies which take effects via changes in high school pupils’ awareness, manners and behaviors to living skills. - A systems of assessing feasibility of experimental methodology. 3.2.2. Result 3.2.2.1. Analyses pre-tests on control and experiment groups In order to analyze data of pre-tests on control and experiment groups, we use T-test with two separate models. Result data is processed by SPSS program. 19 3.1.2.2. Result of survey on feasibility of methodologies Survey showed that most of the methodologies are of great feasibility. All methodologies could be implemented successfully and none received any rejects. Power impacts implementation of the methodologies differently but assessments are consented, so the points for general impacts total 65.9. In short, surveys showed that almost all surveyed people agreed with methodologies proposed by the author with the majority considering the methodologies necessary and feasible. This means that proposed methodologies are appropriate and can meet the requirements for educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities. 3.2. PEDAGOGIC EXPERIMENTS 3.2.1. Overview 3.2.1.1. Purpose - Check feasibility and efficiency of proposed methodologies of educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities. - Affirm positive impacts of experimental methodologies on living skills of high school pupils in terms of awareness, manners and behaviors. 3.2.1.2. Objectives Due to difficulties in negotiating locations for experiments (a few schools, high schools agreed to allow the author to organize experiments at schools), experiments were only carried out at two high schools namely Binh Phu and Nguyen Khuyen High Schools in Ho Chi Minh City in the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 academic years. Sample of the experiments are following: Table 3.2: Sample of experiment No. School names Number of pupils participants Experimental group Control group Total 1 Nguyen Khuyen High School 50 50 100 2 Binh Phu High School 46 46 92 Total 96 96 192 4 - Integration is an effective method to implement life skills education for high school pupils and simultaneously help to reduce the load for high school education. - Life skills education for high school pupils through out-of- class-hour educational activities are integrated the structural elements of education with structural elements of the out-of-class-hour educational activities and operate simultaneously those elements according to the defined educational objectives. 9.2. On the practical side Results of the research thesis confirmed: - Pupils in high school is limited in life skills. One of the reasons of this situation is that, the high school education does not pay attention adequately to life skills education issues for pupils; not yet define the effective methods to educate the life skills for pupils. - Integration of educational objectives with the goal of the out- of-class-hour educational activities; design educational subjects suitable with the contents/activities to implement the theme of education programs of out-of-class-hour activities,... are the measures to implement the integrated method in order to educate life skills for pupils in the high schools effectively. 10. The outline of the thesis The thesis consists of 145 pages, in which: Introduction (8 pages). Chapter 1: Theoretical and practical basis (59 pages); Chapter 2: Life skills education measures for high school pupils through out- of-class-hour educational activities (37 pages); Chapter 3: Pedagogic Experimentation (29 pages). Conclusions and recommendations (3 pages). The scientific works have been published relating to the thesis (1 page). References (8 pages). The appendix (27 pages). The thesis presents 28 tables, 3 diagrams and two graphs. 5 Chapter 1 THE THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL BASIS ON LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION FOR HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS THROUGH OUT- OF- CLASS-HOUR EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES 1.1. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH 1.1.1. Researches abroad: The researches on life skills education in the world are plentiful. According to summary of the UNESCO, it can generalize the main contents in these researches as follows: The researches identify the goals of life skills education; The researches identify the programs and the forms of life skills education. Programs, life skills education documents are designed for non-formal education is widespread and in variety of forms. 1.1.2. The domestic researches - Mainly, the topics analyze and clarify the real situation ahead of the urgency of life skills issues, do not focus on solving the tasks of theoretical research in a systematic way yet, the form of life skills education for pupils, students and pupils in general and high school pupils in particular. - The topics mentioned to the forms of life skills education in details and without specific trial results so convincing ability is not high. Some research topics are relatively complete: theoretical researches, and assess the actual situation and propose measures of life skills education but on the pupils. - Therefore, it is necessary to exploit the internal resources of the school activities in high schools in order to implement effectively educational contents for life skills pupils at this level. 1.2. SOME BASIC THEORETICAL ISSUES ON LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION FOR PUPILS IN HIGH SCHOOLS 1.2.1. Concepts 1.2.1.1. Life skills - Life skills is a concept used extensively in all age groups in different areas of social life. However, up to now, this concept is still in a status without a clear and complete definition. - Author of thesis shows the consistency with the conception of life skills of UNESCO. Accordingly, the life skills concept is used in 18 3.1.1.2. Objectives Objectives of the referendum on the necessity and feasibility of methodologies are those who involve in implementation of those methodologies. - Rectors, deputy rectors at high schools: 25 people. - Education researchers and managers: 20 people. - High school teachers: 45 people. 3.1.1.3. Content Sending questionnaires under the referendum to objectives to define the necessity and feasibility of methodologies. Methodologies that are considered necessity are those can resolve problems defined during education living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities. Feasible methodologies are those which meet requirements set for them. 3.1.1.4. Methodology Using the methodology of statistics to process collected data via questionnaires and using the methodology of assessment by the Crown Agents International Training Center (Worthing, Brightain, Great Britain) on the basis of effects of particular groups of participants in implementation of those methodologies to analyze the collected results. 3.1.2. Results of survey 3.1.2.1. Result of survey on necessity of methodologies Table 3.1: Result of referendum on necessity of methodologies Methodologies Levels Very necessary Necessary Unnecessary 1. Integrating the targets of educating living skills with the targets of recreation activities 75.8 22.2 2.0 2. Designing themes for education on living skills in appropriate to the content, activities to realize themes of recreation education at high schools 73.9 24.7 1.4 3. Using types of activities and forms of organizing recreation education flexibly so as to realize the targets of educating integrated living skills 77.2 22.2 0.6 4. Other supporting methodologies 63.3 35.0 1.7 17 - High school managing boards must consider educating living skills to pupils is the school’s comprehensive task in order to make plans for guiding educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities. - Participant in educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities, particularly head teacher, cadres of the school’s trade unions must be trained about educating living skills and recreation activities. CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 2 Based on theoretic analyses and reality on educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities, the author of this thesis has drawn out some methodologies of implementation of educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities. These methodologies reflect quite fully the need of integrating education on living skills to high school pupils with recreation activities at high schools, as following: - Integrating the targets of educating living skills with the targets of recreation activities. - Designing themes for education on living skills in appropriate to the content, activities to realize themes of recreation education at high schools. - Using types of activities and forms of organizing recreation education flexibly so as to realize the targets of educating integrated living skills. - Other supporting methodologies. Chapter 3 PEDAGOGIC EXPERIMENTS 3.1. SURVEY ON NECCESITY AND FEASIBILITY OF METHODOLOGIES 3.1.1. General issues on surveying necessity and feasibility of proposed methodologies 3.1.1.1. Purpose To define necessity and feasibility of proposed methodologies to create a basis for selection of methodologies for pedagogic experiments. 6 the research thesis is: "ability to make the behavior and the oneself change suitable with the positive behavior and help people control, manage effectively needs and challenges in daily life". - There are many classifications of life skills, although the classification is under any way, some skills are still considered the core skills such as: evaluation skills, communication skills, skills to cope with emotional stress; conflict solving skills in a positive ways; self- awareness skills, decision-making skills, goal setting skills… Author of the thesis has limited the life skills studied in the research to educate high school pupils through out-of-class-hour educational activities are skills: evaluation skills, communication skills, coping skills with emotion, stress and conflict solving skills in a positive way. 1.2.1.2. Life skills education The concept of education is also understood in different broad, narrow meanings, at the level of social and school. From connotation of the concept life skills and the concept of educational activities presented in the thesis, the author thinks that, life skills education is a process with specific educational activities in order to organize and control the pupils to know how to transfer knowledge (what pupils know) and attitudes, values (what pupils think, feel, believe) into real action (what to do and how to do) in a positive way and constructive nature. Life skills education for pupils is to educate them with active lifestyles in modern society, to develop or change them behavioring toward positive goals suitable with comprehensive development of personality of learners as a basis to help the pupils have the knowledge, values, attitudes and appropriate skills. 1.2.2. The necessity of life skills education for high school pupils and other structural elements of life skills education for high school pupils 1.2.2.1 The necessity of life skills education for high school pupils Life skills education for pupils is inevitable demand set out from the following aspects: as social requirements; educational points of view; cultural perspective, politics, according to the requirements of sustainable development. 7 1.2.2.2. The structural elements of life skills education for high school pupils Life skills education for high school pupils as well as the processes, and other educational activities in high schools have the determined structure, in which the elements of the objectives, contents and methods are the elements that make the difference between life skills education with other educational processes, and activities. 1.2.3. Factors affecting the characteristics of life skills education in high school pupils in big cities 1.2.3.1. Factors affecting life skills education for high school pupils - Psychological characteristics of high school pupils. - The elements of the educational programs in high schools. - The elements of family and social environment. 1.2.3.2.Characteristics of life skills educationfor high school pupils in big cities From the characteristics of social and economic development, educational development of big cities, it is possible to identify two main features of the life skills education for high school pupils in big cities as follows: In the big cities, there is not only needs to be educated on life skills of the high school pupils but life skills education requirements for high school pupils are also very high. Life skills education for high school pupils in big cities has some advantages but also face many difficulties. 1.3. OUT-OF-CLASS-HOUR EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION ISSUES FOR HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS 1.3.1. out-of-class-hour educational activities in high schools 1.3.1.1. Position and role of out-of-class-hour educational activities in high schools Out-of-class-hour educational activities are the continuation of activities in class, aim to help pupils develop comprehensive personality. out-of-class-hour educational activities are in order to implement aspects of education in schools, so the contents of educational activities are focused on the following basic contents: Activities associated with cultural contents in schools, physical 16 realize the targets of educating living skills. Besides, the methodology will enhance efficiency of integrating the targets of educating living skills with the targets of recreation education as well as designing themes of educating living skills during implementation of the contents and activities under particular themes of recreation activities. 2.2.3.2. Contents and procedures of implementation - Changing forms of activities so as to realize particular themes in the recreation education program. - Designing forms of organizing to organize main forms of activities that are defined in the recreation education program. 2.2.3.3. Conditions for implementation This methodology requires high schools to have sufficient facilities; particularly have functional classrooms. On the other hand, in order to implement this methodology, tight coordination between head teacher and teachers of physical training, music, and fine arts at the schools is also required. The relation between the school with the community, units and organizations in the locality is an important factor to implement this method effectively. 2.2.4. Other supporting methodologies 2.2.4.1. Purpose and meaning Supporting methodologies are aimed at enhancing capacity of participants in education on living skills and recreation activities for high school pupils as well as satisfying conditions to educate living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities effectively. 2.2.4.2. Contents and procedures of implementation - Changing viewpoint about educating living skills, enhancing awareness of the integral viewpoint in educating living skills to high school pupils. - Enhancing capacity of participants in education on living skills and organizing recreation education at high schools. - Promoting the most role of pupils 2.2.4.3. Conditions for implementation In order to implement the aforementioned supporting methodologies synchronically, the following conditions are required: 15 2.2.1.3. Conditions for implementation 2.2.2. Designing themes of education on living skills appropriate to contents and activities to realize the theme of recreation education at high schools 2.2.2.1. Purpose and meaning This methodology fosters creating comprehensive education contents, which would be consistent to the contents of educating living skills with the contents of recreation education. 2.2.2.2. Contents and procedures of implementation Designing themes of educating living skills appropriate to themes of recreation activities at high schools is implemented under the following steps: - Analyzing the program on recreation education at high schools so as to define which themes could be designed into themes of educating living skills. - Designing themes of educating living skills in integration with the contents and the themes of recreation education. 2.2.2.3. Conditions for implementation In order to implement this methodology, the following conditions are required: - Teachers must have a full understanding about the program, schedule programs on recreation education for particular class blocks, particularly the blocks directly have lectures on and organize recreation activities. - Teachers should acquire contents of basic living skills when educating pupils, have skills of designing educational activities, and designing teaching on the basis of a positive viewpoint. - Infrastructure at schools must meet minimal requirements of facilities for designed themes. - Teachers must have skills of designing handouts to pupils. 2.2.3. Using types of activities and forms of organizing recreation education flexibly so as to realize the targets of educating integrated living skills 2.2.3.1. Purpose and meaning This methodology is aimed at diversifying forms of implementing recreation education, attracting pupils in recreation activities, so as to 8 activities, sports, arts, and social - political activities , professional labor, issues of friendship, love , marriage, family, issues to preserve and develop the cultural and national values, prevention of social evils, the issues of the role of youth in building nation in the period of industrialization, modernization, problems of peace and friendship, vocational education, etc... 1.3.1.2. The tasks of out-of-class-hour educational activities in high schools Out-of-class-hour educational activities undertake following three objectives: * Educational tasks of perception To help high school pupils have the knowledge of understanding of the traditional values of the nation as well as good values of humanity, consolidate, broaden the knowledge learned in class (through the forms of club activities by subject, picnics, activities on the theme …); have political consciousness, ethical, legal and healthy lifestyle, sense of right and responsibility for oneself, family, school and society; have consciousness of the career orientation, choose profession suitable with personal ability and profession development requirements in the society. * Educational tasks of skills Continue to practice the basic skills created from the secondary schools in order to base on that basis to develop a number of key capabilities such as: self-improvement capability, adaptability, communication skills, problem solving skills, consistency skill, capability for political- social activity, organizing and management capacity, capacity of cooperation, share, negotiation in order to help pupils live safely, healthy, adaptive with a non-stopping changing life. * Tasks of attitude. To educate the pupils with the ideal of the life for a tomorrow of career,to have belief in the future, the sense and spirit of national pride. To know how to express the attitude ahead of life issues, take responsibility for their own behavior; actively struggle with the wrong expression of themselves and of the others (for self- improvement); to know how to accept and evaluate the beauty in life. 9 To foster them positivity , actively and creatively engaged in group activities, school and social work, eto ducate them the spirit of solidarity, peace and friendship. 1.3.1.3. Content of out-of-class-hour educational activities in high schools Content of out-of-class-hour educational activities in high schools education is conducted according to the major topics, each topic includes a variety of content broken down, major themes are designed for all three grades, but the operational goal, the operation contents in the grades are not the same that are designed the concentric structure on spiral along with the objectives and content of activities on a gradually improving. Content of activities are systematically designed, inheritance, the performance of previous classes is the foundation and the precondition for conducting educational activities in the next classes, while the content of activities in the following classes to consolidate the results of the lower classes… 1.3.1.4. Characteristics of out-of-class-hour educational activities in high schools Content of activities conducted according to the topic, normally, with the implementation activities of a certain topic of out-of-class-hour education programs depends very much on the script and the MC (Master of ceremony) as to the design of the script. The results of out-of-class-hour educational activities are reflected through the growth of personality of the pupils, not by grades. These results must be tested through relationships and exchange activities then reviewed and evaluated. Content of out-of- class-hour educational activities can exploit the strengths to educate life skills for high school pupils. 1.3.2. The Nature and principles of life skills education for high school pupils through out-of class-hour educational activities 1.3.2.1. The nature of life skills education for high school pupils through out-of- class-hour educational activities Life skills education for high school pupils through organizing out-of class-hour educational activities is that the teachers organize a variety of activities in order to stimulate pupils to participate positively 14 viewpoint about the purposes of educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities. Teachers have not yet fully understood about the integration of educating living skills to pupils with recreation education. 3. Based on the reality, it is believed that educating living skills to high school pupils is of great necessity, educating living skills to pupils is to educate them about positive living in the society, either building or changing their behaviors adequate to the purpose of fostering learners’ comprehensive personality development by providing them with proper knowledge, dignity, behavior and skills. Chapter 2 METHODOLOGIES OF EDUCATING LIVING SKILLS TO HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS VIA RECREATION ACTIVITIES 2.1. PRINCIPLES OF PROPOSING METHODOLOGIES 2.1.1. Principle of ensuring targets 2.1.2. Principle of ensuring inherence 2.1.3. Principle of ensuring feasibility 2.1.4. Principle of ensuring sysmtematism 2.2. SOME METHODOLOGIES OF EDUCATING LIVING SKILLS TO HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS VIA RECREATION ACTIVITIES 2.2.1. Integrating the targets of educating living skills with the targets of recreation education 2.2.1.1. Purpose and meaning Integrating the targets of educating living skills with the targets of recreation education is among methodologies of educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities on the basis of integral education viewpoint. 2.2.1.2. Contents and procedures of implementation Access based of orientation of integrating the targets of educating living skills with the targets of recreation education including: - Designing targets of education on living skills. - Analyzing the targets of recreation education so as to integrate with the targets of educating living skills. - Indicating the integral target of educating living skills and recreation education. 13 1.4.3.3. Methodology of educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities * Reality on application of methodologies Only 40 out of 250 surveyed teachers said they had used trained methodologies of educating living skills to pupils, 80 teachers said they learned methodologies from their colleagues and 130 teachers said they had used personal experience in modern educational methodologies. * Reality on access to methodologies Most of surveyed teachers acquired knowledge about methodologies of educating living skills to pupils but their understanding was different. The methodology of using objects and pictures is the most popular, followed by playing someone’s part, games, team-work activities and providing living skills via organizing activities to attract pupils’ participation. CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 1 1. The term of living skill is used in this thesis refers to “the ability to make someone’s manners and changes appropriate to positive behavior so as to help him/her control and manage his/her demand and challenges in daily life effectively”. Living skills are classified into different types but “regardless of types, some living skills are always considered core skills such as evaluation skills, communication skills, tense encounter skills, positive conflict resolution skills, self-conscious skills, decisive skills and targeting skills, etc.” The author has confined living skills in this thesis on educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities to evaluation skills, communication skills, tense encounter skills, and positive conflict resolution skills. 2. Practical studies showed that almost all high school pupils lack basic living skills. A few pupils could have access to information about common living skills and particular skills regularly. Although teachers have been aware of the nature and the necessity of educating living skills to pupils, they are still hesitant in methodologies. Survey showed that only a small number of teachers had appropriate 10 and actively in the processes of operation, thereby forming or changing the behavior to their pupils in the positive way to develop the comprehensive personality of the pupils, help them live safely and healthy, actively in the daily life. Essentially, life skills education through out-of- class-hour educational activities are to implement the integrated out-of- class-hour educational activities with life skills education. In other words it is the process of implementation of life skills education and out-of- class-hour educational activities in integrated perspective. Iintegrated point of view in organizing educational activities in high schools is reflected in two forms: firstly, an educational goal should be implemented through various educational activities (and other different educational activities but together make a certain educational goal); secondly, an educational activity while implementing several educational objectives. 1.3.2.2. Principles for implementation of life skills education through out-of- class-hour educational activities in high schools - Principle of approaching the activity and personality in life skills education for pupils through organizing out-of- class-hour educational activities. - Life skills education for high school pupils through out-of- class-hour educational activities must come from the rights and duties of the pupils. - To promote the advantages of out-of- class-hour educational activities to educate life skills for high school pupils. 1.4. ACTUAL STATUS OF LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION FOR HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS THROUGH OUT-OF-CLASS-HOUR EDUCATUONAL ACTIVITIES 1.4.1. Actual status of life skills and the needs to be educated in youth 1.4.2. Survey results of the actual status of life skills of high school pupils To assess the actual status of life skills education for high school pupils through out-of- class-hour educational activities, topics were surveyed over 500 high school pupils and 250 teachers in high schools in the area of Ho Chi Minh city. 11 1.4.2.1. Awareness of the teachers and the pupils about the life skills To understand the awareness of teachers and high school pupils about the life skills, the thesis author have listed the different notions of life skills (including precise, full notion) and ask the teachers, pupils to select those notions according to their own opinions. Survey results showed that, the percentage of teachers who have the right idea about the life skills is 53.6%, the left opinions also chose the same content but not the life skills (precise definition). For pupils, the percentage of correct opinions is only 13.2%. Thus, most of the high school pupils do not have the correct perception of the life skills yet. The actual status of information receipt related to the life skills of high school pupils: The survey results showed that: 50.52% of pupils have received information about the life skills and concept of life skills at occasionally level. There are 33.8% of the pupils considering that, they have never heard about the concept of life skills and specific names of life skills. In which, skills such as conflict solving skills in a positive way, the skills to cope with emotions that the percentage of pupils said that they "never heard" at the highest (62.4%, and 46, 8%). In the listed life skills, there are 57.6% of high school pupils were asked to mention that they regularly listen this skills. 1.4.2.2. Assessment of the teachers on the actual status of life skills of high school pupils The above results show that, life skills of high school pupils are very much limited. Most of the pupils need the assistance on order to implement the basic life skills. Some life skills pupils have already received information on the frequency (communication skills), but no pupil was assessed by the teachers to implement the skills in a handy way. The basic life skills such as conflict resolution in a positive way, dealing with emotions, stress; evaluation are skills that pupils are still embarrassed when performing. 12 1.4.3. Actual status of life skills education for high school pupils through out-of- class-hour educational activities 1.4.3. Reality of educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities 1.4.3.1. Teachers’ awareness of education on living skills for high school pupils via recreation activities Teachers’ awareness of the nature and necessity of educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities. Surveys showed that: Only ten out of total 250 surveyed teachers know roughly about educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities while 180 teachers though that educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities is an integration of education on living skills with recreation education. In fact, some high schools have applied this form of educating living skills to pupils. Regarding the necessity of educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities, 50 of 250 surveyed teachers are still either hesitant or thought that educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities is unnecessary but 180 teachers confirmed the necessity of educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities. Teachers’ viewpoint about purposes of educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities Surveys indicated that, almost all teachers are not fully aware of integrally pedagogic view in modern education so they did not think that educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities is utilizing the view in education on living skills to high school pupils. 1.4.3.2. Application of educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities Generally, teachers at high school have applied educating living skills to high school pupils via recreation activities but the move is not very popular. As many as 100 out of 250-survyed teachers did not apply the methodology regularly, 90 teachers said they had applied it and only 60 teachers said they applied it regularly.

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