How to help students build english sentence by using the game of card

Sentence is a group of words that has a least on subject and one predicate and that express a complete thought to be a sentence. In teaching writing there are many techniques usually used by teacher, one of them is to make a sentence or using game. Game can stimulate student’s interest and also increase the student’s ability in writing especially in making sentence. A properly introduce game can be one of the highest motivation and techniques. Right now there are many games in learning English, and it has been publish many books talking about how to make sentence. Teaching the student writing through game have to be related to the context of teaching at the time, because there are many games right now related how to arrange sentence.

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s also use the target language to persuade and negotiate their way to desired result. This process involves the productive and receptive skill simultaneously. Games offer students a fun-filled and relaxing learning atmosphere. After learning and practicing new vocabulary, students have opportunity to use language in a non stressful way (Uberman, 1998: 62). While playing game, the learner gives attention on the message, not on the language. Rather than pay attention to the correctness of linguistic form, most participant will do all in order to they can win. This eases the fear of negative evolution, the concern of being negatively judged in public, and which is one of language in front of the other people (Horwitz and Cope, 1986: 62). In a game oriented context, anxiety is reduced and speech fluency is generated thus communicative competence is achieved. Games are also motivating. Game introduces an element of competition into language-building activities. This provides valuable impetus to a purposeful use of language (Parasad, 2003: 235). In other words, these activities create a meaningful context for language use. The competitive ambience also make learners concentrate and think intensively during the learning process, which enhance unconscious acquisition of inputs, most students who have experience game oriented activities hold positive attitudes toward them (Uberman, 1998: 328). Student says that they like the relaxed atmosphere, the competitiveness and the motivation that games bring to the classroom (Nuyen and Nga, 2003:55). On 8 the effectiveness of game, teacher reported that action research reported that their students seem to learn more quickly and they learn materials better in a stress-free and comfortable environment. (Nuyen and Nga, 2003:88) The benefits of using games in language learning can be summed up in nine points as follows: 1. Promote communicative competence 2. Create a meaningful context for language use 3. Increasing learning motivation 4. Reduce learning anxiety 5. Integrated various linguistic and skill 6. Encourage creative and spontaneous use of language 7. Construct a cooperative learning and environment 8. Foster participatory attitudes of the students C. The concept of writing 1. What is writing? According to Byrne (1989) that the writing is clearly much more than production of graphic symbol, just as speech is more than the production of sounds. The symbol should be arranged according to certain convention: to form words and words have to be arranged to from sentences. Writing involves the encoding of a message of some kind that is translated in to language. 9 According to Lever (198:1) that writing is one way of making meaning from experience for one self and for others. Furthermore, he says that writing serves as the most available and the most compelling way because the outcome, visible language is satisfyingly permanent record of thoughts and felling. Caldesonello et. Al (1982: 4-5) define writing as a revising, recursive and drafting process. They put forward five common components of the writing: inventing, planning, drafting and editing. According to them, inventing is any activities that involve the writer in discovering and generating what he want to say. Planning is the activity of preparing all writing of preparing equipment. Before the process of writing is done, revising involves adding or cutting out writing, or rear, ranging what is writing, or substituting another way of saying something, and editing means polishing a piece of writing by making word, level, changes in spelling, mechanics, usage, word choice and so on. From the argument above, it is clear that writing is way of human being to communicate and express their idea or encoding a message through the graphic symbol and the and the writer draws a conclusion that writing can be defined as a process of transferring what someone has in his mind to the written language. The process involves the formation of graphic symbol; that is combine letters to form words, and words are arranged to make complete sentence that has a complete meaning. 2. The types of writing 10 The types of writing are based on three factors: purpose of writing, audience and context. 1. The purpose of writing Mayer Wangisa (1998) categories the purpose of writing into three categories: to persuade, to inform and to entertain. a. To inform The writer generally explains or describes an idea, a process, an even, a belief, a person, a place or a thing to give information. The writer also gives the facts and explains the causes. b. To persuade The writer tries to change the audience or behave differently. In this sense, the writer appeals to the readers’ logic or emotion. c. The entertain The writer gives some efforts to make the reader laughed, smiled, fascinated, surprised or even angry. 2. Audience In planning to write topic, a writer determines the readers to when the topic is written to or for. In the sometime, the writer also thinks hard about the readers’ age, gender, interest, cultural background, region, educational 11 background and so on. Readers and audience are not physically present when a writer is writing a topic. In describe the own personal writer. 3. Context Context means the use of conventions appropriate the topic and discourse type. Context also includes some consideration that a writer is going to say about extensive series of detain, various view point and so on. 3. The importance of writing Hoiston (1986:2) gives some reasons why writing is important: 1. Writing is a tool for discovery we stimulate our through process by he act writing and taffy into information and image we have our unconscious mind. 2. Writing generates new ideas by helping us to make connection and relationship. 3. Writing helps us to organize our ideas. We can arrange them the coherent form. 4. Writing down ideas allows us to distance ourselves from them. 5. Writing helps us to absorb and process information, when we write a topic, we learn is better. 6. Writing enables we solve the problem, by putting the element of into the written form; we can examine and manipulated them. 12 7. Writing on subject makes us actives learners rather than passive learners of information. From definition above we may conclude with writing we can express our ideas, specially feeling to other people without ashamed because the reader is not present in front of the writer to have face to face communication and with writing the people can put their ideas, feeling and knowledge into written form more freely. Writing helps us to discover exactly how we think and what we think freely. 4. The characteristic of good writing Experience in school leave some people whit the impression that good writing simply means writing that contains no had mistakes that is no errors of grammar, punctuation, or spelling. In fact, good writing is must more than just correct writing. Its writing that responds to the interests needs of our readers. Briefly, here are basic characteristic of good, effective writing: a. Good writing has a clearly defined purposed b. It make a clear point c. It supports that point with specific information d. The information is clearly connected and arranged e. The words are appropriate, and the sentences are clear, concise, empathic and correct. 13 Good writing is the result of much practice and hard work. This fact should encourage you: it means that the ability to write well is not a gift that some people are born with, not a privilege extended to only a view. If you are willing to work, you can improve your writing. (Richard Nortquist, 2007: 1-2). 5. Writing component Jacobs at. al (1981: 31) point out five significant components in writing these are content, organization, vocabulary language use and mechanics. 1. Content There are four things that could be measured in connection with content. The composition should contain one purpose only. Should be unity, should have coherence and continuity and should be adequately developed. 2. Organization The purpose of organization material in writing involves coherence, order of importance general to specific, specific to general, chronological order and spatial order of pattern. When writing the learner should arrange their writing chronologically. They should present their ideas based on the order of which happed from beginning to the end. 3. Vocabulary Vocabulary is one language aspect dealing with the process of writing study in the process of writing the writer always thanks about putting word into 14 sentences and putting sentences into paragraph until they can create a piece of writing. 4. Language use Language is writing description and other form of writing involves connect language and point of grammar. We should be able to do anything more than letter separate items of language for separate function. And also grammar can help the students improve the use of formal language. 5. Mechanics Mechanics in writing deals with capitalization, spelling are punctuation. Capital letters have principal uses in English writing. This may be used distinguish between particular and general classes of person, places and things. Punctuation has only one function: that of making writing clearer for the reader. Out tendency is to use punctuation, as little, as possible, but we must never forget the inclination to out punctuation for the sake of clean looking page must be which organist the reads requirement of centered audience. Equally important is adherence to the nouns of capitation and to correct spells, because eccentricity, deviance, inconsistency, or errors in these distract and confuse readers and ultimately undermine the function of way writing to communication of a message as clearly one as efficiently possible. (Ehrlich, 1977: 2) 6. Models of writing 15 Models of writing, forms of writing, types of writing and domains of writing have specific purpose. There are four basic models, descriptive, narrative, expository, and persuasive. 1. Creative writing The primary purpose of creative writing is to entertain the reader. 2. Descriptive writing The primary purpose of descriptive writing is to describe a person, place, or event so that the topic can be clearly seen in the reader’s mind. The writer must use vivid details that paint a picture for the reader. 3. Expository writing The primary purpose of expository writing is providing information such as explanation or directions. 4. Narrative writing The primary purpose of narrative writing is to describe an experience, event, or sequence of events in the form of story. 5. Persuasive writing The primary purpose of persuasive writing is to give an opinion and try to influence the reader’s way of thinking with supporting evidence. (Mcdougel, 1998: 2) D. Kinds of Sentence 16 1. Simple sentence The ability in making simple sentence is the ability of student in finding idea in sentence form. We should give attention for two things in making sentence namely: sustention from the writing (expressing idea) and form or structure (grammatical form and syntactic pattern). Making a sentence include writing skill because of that making sentence also means expressing the idea and communication with the other through language symbol DR.Harris (2009:2). The sentence that made can be the simplest sentence that only consists of two positions in sentence namely: {S+V}, {S+V+O}, or the complete sentence: {S+V+O+ADV}. 2. Compound Sentence Compound sentence in sentences have two or full prediction, in the form of independent clause. ( Warriner et al, 2004:8) Ex: - the weather was very bad, therefore all classes where cancelled. 3. Complex sentences Sentences in sentences which have two or more full prediction, on of these is an independent clause (or main clause) that is similar to the form of the simple sentence and one or more of these are dependent clause (or sub- ordinate clause). (Warier et al, 2004:8) Ex: - All classes were cancelled because the weather was bad. 17 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD This chapter presents the research design, research variables, population and sample, research instrument, procedure or collecting data and technique of data analysis. A. Research Design The research used pre-experimental design with one group pre-test and post- test. The students was given pre-test to know the student’s ability in making sentence before applying chain card game strategy, and then apply the treatment. After apply the treatment, post-test was given to know the student’s achievement in making sentence after applying chain card game strategy. The research design conducted as follows O1 X O2 Note: O1 : Pre-test X : Treatment O2 : Post-test (Gay, 1986: 28) 1. Pre test (O1) 18 Before doing the treatment, the students were given the pre test to find out the students’ ability to use simple, compound, and complex sentences. The kind of test that was given to the students was essay test. 2. Treatment After giving pre test, the students treated by using Chain Card Game Strategy. The procedure of this treatment as follows: a. The first, teacher explained about simple present tense b. The second, teacher explained how to play chain card game c. The third, teacher divided the students into some groups d. The fourth, teacher divided the cards to each groups and let them to play the cards for 15 minutes e. The fifth, teacher asked the representative of each groups to bring their cards that have finished and wrote all of the sentences that has been arranged in white board f. The six, teacher checked up all of the sentences that has been written by the students in white board g. The last, teacher asked the students to do the work assignment 3. Post test Post-test was given to the students to know their ability in making English sentence after applying chain card game strategy. The test was essay test. B. Research Variable The research has two variables. They were independent variable and independent variable. Independent variable of this research was the application of 19 the chain card game strategy. Dependent variable was students’ ability in making English sentence. C. Population and Sample 1. Population The population was the second year students of SMP GUPPI SAMATA GOWA in 2009/2010 academic year which consisted of three classes. Each class consisted of 30 students. The total population was 90. 2. Sample The sample was taken by using total sampling. It meant that only one class, VIII B as sample. D. Hypothesis The hypotheses of this research were formulated as follows: 1. H0 (Null Hypotheses): There was no significance of the difference of the students’ writing ability before and after teaching writing through Chain Card Game method. 2. H1 (Alternative Hypotheses): There was a significance of the students’ writing ability before and after teaching writing through Chain Card Game method. 3. E. Instrument of the Research The research used pre-test and pos-test. The pre-test was given after the treatment to find out student’s ability in making English sentence. 20 1. Pre-test was given to the students to check their ability in making English sentence before applying chain card game strategy. The test was essay test. 2. Post-test was given to the students to know their ability in making English sentence after applying chain card game strategy. The test was essay test. F. Procedure of Collecting Data The procedure of collecting data was performed through these steps: 1. The first, the students were given pre-test to know their ability in making English sentence. 2. The second, applying chain card game strategy for some meeting. The steps were as follows: a. The first, teacher explained about simple present tense b. The second, teacher explained how to play chain card game c. The third, teacher divided the students into some groups d. The fourth, teacher divided the cards to each groups and let them to play the cards for 15 minutes e. The fifth, teacher asked the representative of each groups to bring their cards that have finished and write all of the sentences that has been arranged in white board f. The six, teacher checked up all of the sentences that has been written by the students in white board g. The last, teacher asked the students to do the work assignment 3. The third after given treatment, the students were given post-test to know the ability in making English sentence. 21 G. Technique of data analysis Some formulas were applied in this study to process the data as follows: 1. The students’ score was tabulated by using the following criteria: The total score of the writing test was 100 consisting of five components, namely : Component Score Content 20 Organization 20 Grammar 20 Vocabulary 20 Mechanics 20 Total 100 2 . The mean score of the students was found out by means, following the formula. ∑ X X = N Where: X = the mean score ∑X = the sum of all score N = Total number of the students (Gay, 1981: 298) The writer classified the score into seven categories (Depdikbud, 1985:6) standard of evaluation as follows: a. 9.6 to 10 is classified as excellent 22 b. 9.6 to 9.5 is classified as very good c. 7.6 to 8.5 is classified as good d. 6.6 to 7.5 is classified as fairly good e. 5.6 to 6.5 is classified as fair f. 4.6 to 5.5 is classified as poor g. 0.00 to 3.5 is classified as very poor 3. Categorizing the whole score into the following classification 1. 86-100 : Excellent to very good 2. 68-85 : Good to average 3. 48-67 : Fair to poor 4. 32-47 : Very poor 4. Finding of the significance difference between the result of the pre-test and post-test by using the following formula: t = D ∑D2 – (∑D) 2 N N (N- 1) Notation: T : test of significance D : Deviation ∑D : The Sum of D Square (∑D) 2 : The Sum of ∑ D N : Number of Students 23 CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 24 This chapter consists of findings of the research and discussion of the interpretation of data analysis in detail the finding at the research covers the result of the data collected through the test. a. The Findings The finding of the research deal with the answer of problem statement which is aims was to find out the students’ ability in use simple sentence, compound sentence, and also complex sentence. It can be seen through the result of pre-test and post-test, as follows: Table 1 No Variables Pre-test Mean Score Post-test Mean Score Increasing (%) 1. 2 Simple Sentence Compound Sentence 51 58 67.33 74.5 32.01 28.45 3 Complex Sentence 55.33 71.16 28.61 The table above shows the students’ mean score in pre-test and post-test in students’ writing ability where the variables are simple, compound, and complex sentences. The mean score of simple sentence at pre-test is classified as poor with the mean score 51, while the mean score of compound sentence is 58 which classified as “fair“, so do the mean score of students’ complex sentence 55.53 The table above indicates the students’ score. In the pre-test, the students’ achievement on simple sentence is just about 51 which classified as “poor”, but in the post test the students’ compound has improved to 67.33, which classified as “fair”. In the complex element the students’ score moved from 55.33 to 67.33 classified as ‘fair’. The students’ ability in writing simple sentence moved from 51 to 67.33. The percentage level of the students’ ability in writing simple 25 sentence is 54.43% (67.33-51) and for the compound sentence is 16.5 (74.5-58) while the percentage level of the students’ ability in writing complex sentence is 15.83 (71.16-55.33). 1. The increasing students’ ability in writing simple sentence The following table shows the students ability in increasing writing simple sentence by using chain card games. Table 2 The mean score of students’ increasing in writing simple sentence Pre-test Post-test The Increasing (%) 51 67.33 31.96 % Data in the table above shows that the mean score of increasing students ability in writing simple sentence in pre-test, post-test and improvement. The students’ writing increasing by using chain cards game is mean score in pre-test (51), it was low score before giving treatment and the mean score post-test was higher after giving treatment. It can be calculated that the students progress (67.33). The increasing of the students’ vocabulary by using chain card games is significant because the score of post-test greater than the pre-test. It appears that the mean score of the post-test obtains by the student are different. In order to know the level of significance 5 % (0.05), degree of freedom (df=N-1)= 29 is the result of calculation is shown as follow: Table 3 The result of significance of the students’ writing simple sentence variable t-test value t-table value Simple sentence 5.29 2.54 The table shows that the t-test value (5.29) is greater than the t-table value (2.54). Based on this result, it is concluded that the difference of both means is statically significant. 26 Graphic 1 The increasing of students’ writing simple sentence by using chain card games 2. The increasing of students’ writing ability in compound sentence The following table shows the students ability in writing compound sentence by using chain card games. Table 4 The mean score of students’ increasing of compound sentence Pre-test Post-test The Increasing (%) 58 74.5 28.44 The table above shows that the increasing of students ability in writing compound sentence about pre-test, post-test and increasing. The students’ ability in writing compound sentence by using chin card game has mean score in pre-test (58), it was low score also before giving treatment and the mean score post-test was higher after giving treatment. It can be calculated that the students progress (74.5). The increasing of the students’ ability in writing compound by using chain card game is significant because the result of significance of students’ ability in writing compound sentence shows that the t-test value is greater than the t-table value. It appears that the mean score of the post-test obtains by the student are different. In order to know the level of significance 5 % (0.05), degree of freedom (df=N-1)= 29 is the result of calculation is shown as follow: 27 Table 5 The result of significance of the students’ vocabulary variable t-test value t-table value compound 5.88 2.54 The table shows that the t-test value (5.88) is greater than the t-table value (2.54). Based on this result, it is concluded that the difference of both means is statically significant. The graphic below shows the significance of the research in increasing the students’ ability in writing compound sentences; Graphic 2 The graphic shows that the increasing of the student ability, in pre-test the student increasing ability in writing compound sentence is 58. It means that the student improvement in pre-test was lower than the student increasing in the post- test because the students’ increasing in post-test is 74.5. 3. The increasing of students’ ability in writing complex sentence by using chain card games. The following table shows the students ability in writing complex sentence by using the chain card games. Table 6 The mean score of students’ increasing in writing complex sentence ability 28 Pre-test Post-test Increasing (%) 55.33 71.16 31.96 Data in the table above shows that the increasing of students ability in writing complex sentence in pre-test, post-test and increasing. The students’ ability in writing complex sentence by using chain card game has mean score in pre-test (55.33), it was low score before giving treatment and the mean score post- test was higher after giving treatment. It can be calculated that the students progress (71.16). The increasing of the students’ ability in writing complex sentence by using chain card game is significant because the score of post-test greater than the pre-test. It appears that the mean score of the post-test obtains by the student are different. In order to know the level of significance 5 % (0.05), degree of freedom (df=N-1)= 29 is the result of calculation is shown as follow: Table 7 The result of significance of the students’ writing complex variable t-test value t-table value Complex sentence 12.08 2.54 The table shows that the t-test value (10.19) is greater than the t-table value (2.54). Based on this result, it is concluded that the difference of both means is statically significant. Graphic 3 The graphic shows that the increasing of the students’ ability in writing complex sentence, in pre-test the students’ writing ability in complex sentence is 52.77. It means that the student increasing in post-test was higher than the 29 students’ improvement in pre-test. Because the students speaking improvement in post-test is 71.16. 4. The students’ increasing ability in writing by using chain card games Table 8 The students’ writing ability No Value % 1. 2. 3. Simple Sentence Compound Sentence Complex Sentence 31.96 28.44 21.69 Data in the table above shows the students’ writing ability in making sentence, namely simple, compound, and also complex sentences. The students’ ability in writing simple sentence in increasing students’ ability have the percentage is 31.96%, the students’ compound sentence writing ability is 28.44 %, and the students’ writing ability of complex sentence is 21.69 %. From the calculate data above, the students’ ability in writing compound sentences is highest than simple sentences and complex sentences. Graphic 4 Increasing of the students writing ability in simple sentence is 31.96% the mean score of students’ writing ability in compound sentence is 28.44 and complex sentence is 21.96%. Table 9 The significance No Significance t-test t-table 1. 2. Simple Sentences Compound sentences 5.29 5.88 2.54 2.54 30 3. Complex sentences 12.08 2.54 5. Hypothesis Testing Table 10. Statistic T-testing Operation Writing Ability t-test t-table Simple Sentences 5.29 2.54Compound sentences 5.88 Complex sentences 12.08 After calculating the t-test value, then it is compared with the value of t- table with the level of significance p=0.05 with the degree of freedom (df = 29), the value of t-test value for simple sentence and complex sentence is greater than t-table value. The t-test value for simple sentence is 5.29, while the t-test for compound sentence is 5.88 and the t-test for complex sentence is 10.24. This shows that mean score difference between pretest and post test is statistically significant. These findings are used to determine whether or not the hypothesis stated in this research is statistically proved. As being stated in previous chapter that the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected when the value of t-test is greater than the value of t-table and the alternative hypothesis (H1) is accepted. Therefore, based on the above result where the value of t-test is greater than the value of t-table, the alternative hypothesis (H1) is accepted and the null hypothesis (H0) is rejected. This means that the hypothesis “There is a significance difference of the students’ writing ability before and after teaching through chain card games” is accepted (p = .05. df = 24). And this also means that chain card games could significantly improve the students’ writing ability in making simple sentences, compound and complex sentences. 31 B. Discussion The research finding indicates that the students’ ability in writing is increase by using Chain Card Games. The description of the result of simple sentences, compound and complex sentences test showed the increasing of the students’ ability on writing trough Chain Card Games. This finding is not surprising the writer as all steps in the Chain Card Games had successfully been conducted. Since the beginning of the treatment the students are involved to determine what topics they wanted to speak about. The table below showed the students’ involvement. Table 11 The Students’ Involvement in writing sentence through Chain Card Games N Involved No involved 30 f % f % 30 100 0 - This is happened until the end of the treatment. All students are active and give participation in doing all the tasks given. Another thing that supports the success the method is that Chain Card Games encourages the students’ communicative skill and intrinsic motivation as said the previous chapter. This is encouraged through self-determination. The students learn fun by using the card. They do the games to study by themselves freely, and planned their own way by their own team. 32 The way the students interacted during treatment was also one thing that supported the success of Chain Card Games. The process of learning was done through mutual interaction. Each group members used the cards to make any sentences and then helped another friend as the group decision. In that way the students felt quite admitted their existence. Besides motivation, communicative skill and also interaction, the learning atmosphere is also one factor that supports the success of Chain Card Games. During the treatment, the students are given freedom to play the card and making sentences as much as they can. The teacher is there just to facilitate and help the students who really needed supervision. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions After conducting the research about Chain Card Games in the students’ writing ability at SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa and based on the research findings in the previous chapter, the writer puts forward the following conclusions: 1) Chain Card Games is one of effective teaching method in improving the students’ writing ability. It is indicate by the research that has been done at SMP GUPPI SAMATA. The research findings indicate that the students’ writing ability in making simple, compound and complex sentences is significantly improve through the application of chain card games. The students’ mean score increased from which classified as fair to good where categorized as average to good score 33 2) Chain Card Games can improve the students’ writing ability. It is analyzed through the hypothetical testing which show that the t- value of vocabulary is greater than t-table (5.29>2.54), then the t- value of grammar is greater also than t-table (5.88>2.54) and t-value of pronunciation is greater than t-table (12.08>2.54). 3) Chain Card Games involves the students into the actual activities, build their critical thinking by learning in mutual cooperation and create their communicative smartly to perform the success result of teaching and learning. B. Suggestion Concerning to the conclusions above, the writer puts some suggestions as follows: 1. Chain Card Games is expected to be a reference for the teacher in teaching writing as one alternatives teaching method. 2. Besides, Chain Card Games can be applied for the other language skills, such us speaking, or the other subjects of English 3. Chain Card Games is a better method to improve the students’ writing ability; the students are expected to increase their intensity learning writing through chain card games. 4. The teacher should be more creative to manage the method for teaching writing ability. 34 5. The researchers in the future are suggesting that they could use these research findings to investigate the students’ achievement in writing, speaking, vocabulary or the other English subjects. BIBLIOGRAPHY Byrny, Donn. 1998. Teaching Writing Skill. Longman. London. Calderonello, Al and Edwards. Jr. 1984. Roughdraft: The Process of WritingT. Boston Haughton Miffin Company. Debdikbud. 1985. 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The students’ Pre-test in writing sentence PRE-TEST AND POST TEST MEAN SCORE SIMPLE SENTENCE PRE- POST- ∑ D ∑ D ² TEST TEST 1 75 85 10 100 2 45 85 40 1600 3 40 70 30 900 4 40 60 20 400 5 45 80 35 1225 6 70 75 5 25 7 40 80 40 1600 8 45 60 15 225 9 45 75 30 900 10 50 85 35 1225 11 40 90 50 2500 12 85 80 -5 25 13 40 90 50 2500 14 70 70 0 0 15 70 70 0 0 16 45 50 5 25 17 40 50 10 100 18 55 60 5 25 19 70 60 -10 100 20 40 70 30 900 21 40 50 10 100 22 40 60 20 400 23 40 60 20 400 24 65 65 0 0 25 40 50 0 0 26 45 50 5 25 27 40 50 10 100 28 45 60 15 225 29 85 90 5 25 30 40 40 0 0 SUM 1530 2020 480 15650 Mean Sco. 51 67.33333 16 B. PRE-TEST AND POST TEST MEAN SCORE COMPLEX SENTENCE PRE- POST- ∑ D ∑ D ² 38 No. Respon den ELEMENT SCORING Jumla h Rata- RataSIMPLE SENT. Compound Sent. Complex 1 75 75 50 200 66.67 2 45 75 60 180 60.00 3 40 60 55 155 51.67 4 40 60 40 140 46.67 5 45 60 60 165 55.00 6 70 45 45 160 53.33 7 40 45 50 135 45.00 8 45 70 45 160 53.33 9 45 70 65 180 60.00 10 50 70 60 180 60.00 11 40 40 60 140 46.67 12 85 70 40 195 65.00 13 40 70 45 155 51.67 14 70 40 65 175 58.33 15 70 70 70 210 70.00 16 45 60 50 155 51.67 17 40 60 50 150 51.67 18 55 60 55 170 56.67 19 70 60 55 185 61.67 20 40 65 55 160 53.33 21 40 50 70 160 53.33 22 40 55 75 170 56.67 23 40 55 70 165 55.00 24 65 60 60 185 61.67 25 40 40 60 140 46.67 26 45 50 60 155 51.67 27 40 50 45 135 45 28 45 55 45 145 48.333 33 29 85 45 50 180 60 30 40 55 50 145 48.333 33 SUM 1530 1740 1660 Mean Sco. 51 58 55.33333 333 D. POST TEST 39 No. Respon den ELEMENT SCORING Jumla h Rata- RataSIMPLE SENT. Compound Sent. Comple x 1 85 80 60 225 75.00 2 85 80 70 235 78.33 3 70 75 60 205 68.33 4 60 75 60 195 65.00 5 80 65 75 220 73.33 6 75 85 60 220 73.33 7 80 90 65 235 78.33 8 60 85 65 210 70.00 9 75 80 70 225 75.00 10 85 85 70 240 80.00 11 90 85 70 245 81.67 12 80 80 60 220 73.33 13 90 85 65 240 80.00 14 70 90 75 235 78.33 15 70 75 70 215 71.67 16 50 80 65 195 65.00 17 50 80 65 195 65.00 18 60 80 70 210 70.00 19 60 90 70 220 73.33 20 70 60 75 205 68.33 21 50 70 80 200 66.67 22 60 55 85 200 66.67 23 60 90 90 240 80.00 24 65 75 90 230 76.67 25 50 60 80 190 63.33 26 50 60 85 195 65.00 27 50 55 80 185 61.666 67 28 60 50 70 180 60 29 90 55 75 220 73.333 33 30 40 60 60 160 53.333 33 SUM 2020 2235 2135 Mean Sco. 67.33333 333 74.5 67.33333 33 1.a. Pre-test Simple ( Mean Score) 40 X = ∑× N X = 1530 30 = 51 b. Post-test X = ∑× N X = 2020 30 X = 67,3 c. The students’ Increasing Ability % = X2-X1 × 100 X1 % = 67.3-51 × 100 67.3 % = 31, 96 41 1. Compound A. Pretest mean score X = ∑× N X = 1740 30 X= 50 b. Post-Test X = ∑× N X= 2235 30 X = 74.5 C. The student’s Increasing Ability % = X2-X1 × 100 X1 % = 74,5-58 x 100 58 % = 28.44 42 1. Complex a. Pre-test (Mean Score) X = ∑× N X = 1660 30 X = 55, 3 b. Post-Test X = ∑× N X = 2135 30 X= 67, 3 c. The students’ Increasing Ability % = X2-X1 × 100 X1 % = 67, 3-55,3 x 100 43 55, 3 % =21, 69 THE T-TEST VALUE FOR SIMPLE SENTENCE ∑D 2 = 15650 ∑D = 480 N = 30 D = ∑D N D = 480 30 = 16 t = D ∑ ∑− 2)( DD N N (N – 1) t = 16 15650-(480) 3 0 44 30 (30-1) t = 16 15650-230400 3 0 30(29) t = 16 15650-230400 30 (29) 870 t = 16 15650-7680 870 t = 16 7970 870 t = 16 9, 16 t = 16 3,026 T= 5, 29 The test of pre-test and post-test is = 5, 29 45 2. THE T-TEST VALUE FOR COMPOUND SENTENCE ∑D 2 = 13825 ∑D = 475 N = 30 D = ∑D N D = 475 30 = 15,83 t = D ∑ ∑− 2)( DD N N (N – 1) t = 15, 83 13825-(475) 3 0 46 30 (30-1) t = 15,83 13825-22562520,83 3 0 30(29) = 15,83 13825-7520,83 870 t = 15,38 6304.17 870 t = 15.83 7.2461 t = 15,38 2.69 T= 5, 88 C. THE T-TEST FOR COMPLEX SENTENCE ∑D 2 = 9025 ∑D = 475 N = 30 D = ∑D N D = 4 7 5 30 = 15, 83 47 t = D ∑ ∑− 2)( DD N N (N – 1) t = 15, 83 9025-(475) 3 0 30 (30-1) t = 15, 83 9025-225625 3 0 30(29) t = 15, 83 9025-7520.83 30 (29) 870 t = 15, 83 1504, 17 870 t = 15, 83 1.72 t = 15, 83 1, 31 t = 12.08 Instrumen Penelitian Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Tingkat : VIII (Delapan) Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010 Arrange the words below into good sentences by using chain card! 48 likes work there tohe 12.. 3. 4. 5. 1…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 2…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 3…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 4…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 5…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. Instrumen Penelitian Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Tingkat : VIII (Delapan) Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010 49 says he it funny is alway he the cut and th branch leav In taking it of the in gard leave sway the trees whe n rain th e of run is hand he washes his Arrange the words below into good sentences by using chain card! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 2…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 3…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 4…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 5…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. Instrumen Penelitian Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Tingkat : VIII (Delapan) 50 his washe warsidi Mr. hands uses cream he soap the washes he warsi di whil e hand s the Mr . uses crea m the soap run is the rain involv es ofte n warsidi childre n Mr. to take his care togeth er of th e garde n Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010 Arrange the words below into good sentences by using chain card! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 2…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 3…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 4…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 5…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 51 Mr. washe warsidi flowe rs plants Warsid i Mr. the works she in mond ay from an to offic e frida y works sh lives Bogo r Tina in Instrumen Penelitian Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Tingkat : VIII (Delapan) Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010 Arrange the words below into good sentences by using chain card! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 2…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 3…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 4…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 5…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 52 telepo answe she the goes with out friend her work she begin s at every nin da y finish es and at five types sh letter a answe rs Tini while telepho ne the letter type she she Instrumen Penelitian Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Tingkat : VIII (Delapan) Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010 Arrange the words below into good sentences by using chain card! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 2…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 3…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 4…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 53 Sya is name my at live Sunggumina sa I she and smart is beautiful football I like have I friend a 5…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. Instrumen Penelitian Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Tingkat : VIII (Delapan) Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010 Arrange the words below into good sentences by using chain card! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 54 nam is Rini her likes to she meatb eat kind also is she her I like usuall y she buys every day whe n meatba ll seller the Passed by he r is home is 1…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 2…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 3…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 4…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. 5…………………………………………………………………………………… ……………. Instrumen Penelitian Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Tingkat : VIII (Delapan) Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010 Pre Test 1. Arrange the words below into good simple sentences! 1. English – writing – studying – are – the students (+) 2. Seriously – piano – plays – Ani (+) 3. fastly – runs – the cat (+) 4. walks – he – in hurry (+) 5. pen – buy – I – a (+) 6. Jessica – name – my – is 7. Nurse – is – a – Martha 8. Banana- I – like 9. Patient – she – looks – after – the 10. Playground – is – this – the 11. Food- is – tasty – the – very – this 12. School – is – it – big –a 13. Works – he – hard 14. Twenty – tables – are – there 15. I – cake – eat – a 16. Cook – my – mother- rice 17. Dinda – school – goes – everyday – to 55 18. Mamank – floor – the – sweeps 19. Nyrma – patients- the – treats 20. Reads- every – day – a – novel- Deni 1. Arrange the words below into good compound sentences! 1. English – John – speaks – and French – Mary – speaks 2. Anna – Azzam – Jakarta – to- goes – Bandung – to – goes- and 3. Slowly – quickly – eats – Irma – Ika –and – eats 4. And – the dog – stoles – fish – stoles – bone – the cat 5. A novel – Arham – and – reads – Isa – magazine – reads. 6. Santi – from – comes- Yogyakarta – comes – Ira – and – from – Makassar 7. Twelve- years- am – I – my- elder – sister- and- years – twenty – old 8. Blackboard – cleans – the – Ani – tables – cleans – Anti – the – and 9. Watches- Rita – show – entertainment - Uchi- cartoon –movie – watches – and 10. Walks – quickly – Ifa- and- slowly – Irma – walks 11. Plays – Ayu – a – piano – and – a guitar – Ira – plays 12. Opens – Ika – her – and- her – opens- Ira – email. 13. Studies – Fitri – English – and – Hasna – her – lesson – studies – Mathematic 14. Sits – a – desk – on – Anna – and – Wati – on – sits – a- chair. 15. Likes – Mount Tea- Yahya – Akmal – Green Tea – likes- and 16. Alqaf – a car – and – sells – Ridwan – motorcycle – a 17. Amin – Ika- loves – wiwin – Ida – and – loves 18. Teaches – Mr.Muin – Grammar – and – teaches – Mrs. Dewi – speaking. 19. Ewi – the- clothes – washes – Idha – and – washes – dishes – the. 20. Runs – Andi – fastly – Anggi – and – run – slowly 1. Arrange the words below into good complex sentences! 1. My room- Mr. Takur- to – came – I - was – when – sleeping 2. The – sway – when – it – the – trees- leaves – the ground – of – rain = runs 3. Goes- she – to – while – mother – school – her – cooks – mother – kitchen – in – the 4. Anne – guitar – plays – a – while – sings – she – song – a 5. Sets – the – sky – on – sun – the- the – in- east – comes – when – the – it – morning 6. Do-I-always – my – homework – school – after 7. Helps – usually – she – her – mother – after – homework – doing – her 8. Cries – Nita – always – her – when – mother – are – going – work - to 9. Was – playing – football – when – his – Andi – mother- him – called. 10. Early- Rita – came – school – to – when – was – going – to – Bali – her – headmaster. 11. To – the – radio – while – sings – she – listens – a – song 56 12. Ten – was- years- old- I – moved – we – when – Australia – from 13. TV – watches – they – while – parents – are – they –newspaper- reading 14. Book – a – write – when – I – father – knocked – my – door – the 15. Prepare – dinner – our – we – my – mother – cooked – has – the – in – kitchen-when. 16. Sitting – is- he – living – in – the – room – watching – while – film –a 17. A- new – recipe – she – tries- she – when – has – a – magazine – bought 18. Herman – working – is – computer – a – he – attended- while – a- call - with 19. Talking – is – he – the- phone – on – his – when – mother – his – screamed. 20. Always – he – does – homework – his – watching – television – after. INSTRUMEN PENELITIAN Sekolah : SMP GUPPI Samata Gowa Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Tingkat : VIII (Delapan) Tahun Ajaran : 2009/2010 Post-Test 1. Make ten simple sentences and write it down in your paper! 2. Make ten compound sentences and write it down in your paper! 3. Make ten complex sentences and write its down in your paper! 57 4. Arrange the words below into good simple sentences! 1. stands – me – she – in front – of (+) 2. a – letter – writes – she (+) 3. play – football – they (+) 4. an – I – apple - bring (+) 5. we – drama – watch (+) 6. things – many – he - knows 7. editor – is – the - Herman 8. television – watch - they 9. cake – Rina - sells 10. noodles – eats - Zhie 11. rises – the - sun 12. sit – calmly - we 13. her – teeth – brushes - Ewi 14. doctor – is – my – father - a 15. Mandarin – course – language – takes- Rita – a 16. Buys – an – apple – Idah 17. Watermelon – hate – I 18. Rani – to – the – listens – radio 19. Meatballs – eat- we 20. Mangoes – some – are- there 1. Arrange the words below into good compound sentences! 1. My father – proposal – his - types – and – coffee – drinks – a - cup 2. Washes – my mother – and – the clothes - dries 3. The pool – swim – he – in – and – the park – runs - in 4. Dan – soccer – play – school- at – and – home – at – computer – his – works - on 5. The radio – she – the car – and –drives – listens - to 6. Works – she – hospital – at – treats – and – patients - the 7. Comes – Irma – early – looks – and - happy 8. Zalsya- cries – loudly – and – speaks 9. Plays- Irgi – football – wins – and the - game 58 10. Wets- his – hair – and – Heri – uses – shampoo- a 11. Grammar – learn – we – he – and – learns - writing 12. Do – the students – exercise – collects – it - and 13. Usually – go – I – school – and – friends – my –also- to 14. Listen- to- we – her- explanation- the – write- teacher – and - 15. Needs – Iwan – liters – of – two – oil cooking – and – liter – a – sugar - of 16. Bandung – go –t o – we – visit – and – our - grandmother 17. Makes- Rimba- paint – a – he- and – uses – airbrush - the 18. Meatball – eats – and – drinks – juice – orange - he 19. See – I – and – smell – flower – it - a 20. jumps – Andi – highly – Anggi – and – jumps – slowly 1. Arrange the words below into good complex sentences! 1. My mother – hand – her – washed- after – eaten – had -she 2. Me- he – cooking – visited – was – I - when 3. After – studying – slept - she 4. Was – action – doing – the robber – their – when – the boy – football - watched 5. Entered- the window – when – the robber – to - the room – they – after - broke 6. Gets – up – early – Susno – his – mother- when – comes – to – home - his 7. Sending – was- Rani Juliani – message- a – Antasari – when – her - called 8. Talked – to Edo – Wiliardi – when – Ary – coming - was 9. Go fishing- I – Jamil – when – his – room – in - studying 10. Paper – the – cuts – he –puts – it the- on- table - paper 11. Cleaned – the classroom – the headmaster- when – punishing – was - Ardi 12. TV- watched – when – policemen – were- the- coming- we 13. Picnic – we – went – visiting- while – picnic - grandparents 14. Lili – her – homework- after- does – praying Isya 15. Helps- Ewi – Ida – when – is – washing – she - dishes. 16. Invited- the headmaster – his teachers- was- he – when – his birthday - celebrating 17. Got up – Ifa- early – going – to – before - school 18. Late- he – comes- when – lived – he – the village - at 19. Always – my mother – happy – we – when – got A – school - at 20. Gives- always – reward – a – she – her student – was – when – good. 59 60

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