Tóm tắt Luận án Determinants deciding the attraction of department store: the case of Ho Chi Minh city

Life today is too much risk of stalking as serious illness, unknown disease, accident, theft, natural disasters . so did people become more concerned for the lives and well-being of himself. Therefore, even a significant factor not the most one (βantoan=0,089), the security to clients inside and outside the department store also are mentioned. They always want to be safe, or at least feel safe for their lives and property and those who accompany them. They will be more secured when seeing the security guards on duty, showing all the professionalism of security matters through the camera system, fire alarm or wide exits. All these things need to get the attention of investors to build a department store and management of the operation while operating a department store.

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then, administrators will develop appropriate business strategies to 4 attract the right customer segments they want to target, satisfy their needs and better focus for the planning, service improvement and distribution of resources. Finally, this research also contributes to the worldwide experiment research collections on the attractiveness of the department stores, but in a transition market like VN. Also, this can also be used as a reference for academic research in the next research in the fields of retail, for university lecturers, students and fellows in commercial business sector. CHAPTER 2: THE THEORETICAL BASIC AND RESEARCH MODEL 2.1 The theoretical basic 2.1.1 Theory of Motivation The motivation has long been regarded as the main cause for the personal behavior. The nature of the motivation derived from the needs and satisfaction of human. Can understand the motivatio as the answer to the question "Why do we do and what we do?" From that perspective, many researchers have developed many different theories to explain more to this motivation theory and every theory that only focus on a limited field. Motivation theory is divided into two branches: the first branch concerning the internal forces within the human that is the drive reduction theory of Clark L. Hull (1935), Arousal Theory of Motivation of Kendra Cherry (2015) and Instinct Theory of William McDougall; the second branch relating to external forces, such as the encouragement theory of BF Skinner (1953). Besides, there are many theories about the contents of the motivation as the theory of system need level of Abraham Maslow (1943), two- factor theory of Fredrick Herzberg (1959), the theoretical model of Clayton ERG P. Alderfer (1969) and the need theory David McClelland (1961). Within the scope of this study, the relevant theories focuses on branch one and branch two. This is the theoretical foundation as a basis for the explanation of human behavior to satisfy their diverse needs. Drive-reduction Theory of Motivation, Clark L. Hull 1935 Drive-reduction theory became popular in the 1940s and 1950s as a way to explain the behavior, learning and motivation. This 5 theory was developed by Clark L. Hull and further developed by his colleagues. He developed a theory around the idea that the active body to maintain a state of balance or equilibrium. Hull used the term "drive" to just stress, discomfort or stimulating demand caused by biology or physiology, and it should be reduced. Arousal Theory of Motivation, Kendra Cherry, 2015 Arousal theory shows that people can have certain actions, or reduce or increase the level of stimulation level to maintain optimal levels of mental arousal. For example if the level of stimulation of a too low, they can be considered to watch an action movie or jogging. If the level of excitation is too high, they will find ways to relax such as meditating or reading a novel. Instinct Theory of Motivation, William McDougall This theory suggests that all behavior is motivated by instinct. Instinct is innate behavior and target oriented, rather than the result of learning or experience. For example, children have an innate reflexes help them to find the nipple and nutrients from the mother, while the birds have an innate to build nests or migrate in winter. Incentive Theory of Motivation, B.F. Skinner, 1953 Incentive theory shows that behavior is motivated by the desire for reward. Fundamental rule of economics that increased or decreased physical motivation will control human behavior. People want to do something to increase material reward. However, people want to decrease something, just do so costs increased by the rules or penalties. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory, 1943 Maslow said that human behavior is derived from the demand and the needs of the people arranged in a priority order from low to high importance. Accordingly, the demand at higher levels wants to appear, the demand at lower levels must be satisfied before. The higher demand will arise and desire to satisfy more intense when all basic needs in low importance have been met adequate. 2.1.2 Factors attracting customers to department stores In the world, there are plenty of authors focused on the retail market but due to the complex nature of its appeal. By 6 chronological order, we may list the typical authors such as Martineau (1958), Lindquist (1974), Bellenger et al (1977), Howell & Rogers (1980), Nevin & Houston (1980), Gautschi (1981), Finn & Louviere (1990, 1996), Bloch et al (1994), Wakefield & Baker (1998), Wong et al (2001), Sit & et al (2003), El-Adly (2007), Diana et al (2011), Rasa & Sonata (2013) ... All of them focus attention on the problem to find out the factors that build up the image of a retail model, the determinants attract customers to the retail model to that adopted the measure by different criteria. For example, Wong et al (2001) developed a SCATTR tool to assess the attractiveness of the shopping center under the management of the joint enterprise. SCATTR Tools include twenty properties divided into five factors: location, quality and diversity, popularity, service and sales incentives. Sit & et al (2003) synthesized 14 different studies of many authors from 1977 until 2001 and made seven groups typical image of a shopping center which are considered important by customers in attracting them. They are commodity, accessibility, service and atmosphere like the previous author. Also, Sit & et al first added three images related group entertainment needs of customers, the demand for food and safety in the mall. El-Adly (2007) in the UAE - a country of many nationalities and multiculturalism discovered seven key factors to attract customers to the shopping center, there are: comfort, leisure activities , the diversity, the core characteristics of shopping centers, convenience and appearance. In summary, the differences between these studies are attributes never grouping in the same way. They can be separated individually but can also be combined with other attributes. It all depends on the characteristics of consumer consumption in that country from which they lead to different behaviors, different assessment models for the department stores. 2.1.3 The attractiveness of the department store The attraction is the researchers interpreted in two ways. Firstly, in terms of physics, it is understood like gravity theory developed by Isaac Newton in 1680. By this view, there are some pioneering studies of Huff (1964) and Nakanishi & Cooper (1974) applying to the retail sector. Second, in terms of social psychology study, which is the attraction, passion, willingness to overcome geographical distances and a certain amount of time to 7 come up with something or somewhere That (Cliquet, 1997). Applications in the retail sector, the attraction is divided into two phenomena, one is the presence of a selling point to attract almost a natural way most customers, the other attraction is due from the efforts of the media program or the trade policies of point of sale (Cliquet, 1997). Summary of multiple studies show that the attractiveness of the department store is measured through many different ways, from intent to customer behavior. Maenpaa et al (2008) measured the lure past the average frequency of visits by customers for a department store in a determined time period. Howell & Roger (1980) measured by the number of trips a department store in a determined time period and the average frequency of visits by customers to a department store. Wakefield & Baker (1998) and Wakefield & Blodgett, (1994), the environmental explore department store affect desire to stay and come back next time of purchase. Sit & et al (2003) was first one to add entertainment elements in attracting customers of department stores represented by deciding department stores... In terms of psychology, the attraction is also defined by scientists as the ability to activate the wake or the desires of customers, leading them to act in order to meet the individual needs as well as meet social needs (Kendra Cherry, 2015; Russell & Pratt, 1980). Ying & Cheng (2006) suggested that the wake has an impact on perceived service quality and satisfaction in the service environment to enjoy, but there is no environmental impact of utility services. Department store is a service environment to enjoy, the managers always try to evoke the wake of our customers through a variety of factors such as space, decorate, display, merchandise, and senses ... make them go there for shopping, entertainment, stress, regain balance in your life, or at least find inspiration in life. 2.1.4 Segmenting shoppers Segmenting shoppers through image properties with very thorough look and feel throughout the characteristics of each customer because individual consumers are heterogeneous in seeking benefits when shopping. Each shopper is interested in various image attributes (Steenkamp and Wedel, 1991). Several academic studies have explored the contribution of image attributes for customer segmentation in the department stores. 8 Pioneering works were done by Bellenger et al (1977) as identifying two segments of the shoppers because it is economical and shoppers because of entertainment. Dennis et al (2001) clasified image area of four properties (goods, accessibility, service and atmosphere) to recognize two customer segments in the shopping center as "shop" shopper and "service" shopper ". 2.1.5 The concept of retail operations and department store model The concept of retail operations Retailing is all activities related to the direct sale of products or services to end customers, serving the needs of individuals or non- commercial (Philip Kotler & Gary Armstrong, 2012). Sales in this manner is characterized by goods traffic off the field and into the consumer sector, the value and use value of goods was done. Retail activities are varied in size and form from the hawkers, traditional markets to grocery stores, supermarkets, department stores, department stores, convenience stores, direct sales online, television sales, telephone sales and growing sales appear new ways as sales through vending machines and retailers at home or MLM. Model of Department store According to the decision 1371/2004/QD-BTM of the Minister of Trade of VN (now the Ministry of Industry and Trade) signed September 24, 2004 promulgating the Regulations on Supermarkets, Department stores, "Department store is type of business organization of modern, multifunctional trade business, including a combination of the type of stores, facility services, halls, meeting rooms, offices for lease ... layout set medium, uninterrupted in one or several adjacent buildings to meet the standards of business space, technical equipments and management skills, business organization. Having served the civilized methods, conveniently meet the development needs of business operations and satisfying the demand for goods and services of customers." 2.2 Design research model 2.2.1 Designing qualitative research This study was conducted to collect qualitative data by direct observation techniques in twelve department stores selected in HCMC, which are Diamond District 1, Nowzone District 1, 9 Unionsquare D.1, Vincom Center Dong Khoi District 1, Parkson SGN District 1, Parkson Cantavil District 2, Parkson Hung Vuong Street District 5, Crescent mall District 7, Parkson Le Dai Hanh District 11, Parkson Tan Son Nhat Tan Binh Dist (CT Plaza), Pandora City Tan Phu District and AEON Celadon Tan Phu District. The process of observing a department store will record a lot of data from external data, such as distance from the department store to downtown, the main roads leading to the department stores, capable traffic congestion during peak hours in the road... to internal data and how to manage the car in park, walkways from parking inside the department store, the signage, the number and location location of elevators / escalators, security staff on duty, the activities of customers to a department store, the layout of the floor space, the number of booths in each floor, value added services in a department store... On average, each department store is performed twice observations at two different times (in weeks/weekends, during office hours and evening) by moving all the stories, take notes, take pictures (if possible), ask at reception and customers right there, or sit at the dining booths in a department store and observe. Combined with observation techniques, qualitative research conducted with three experts discussed in the retail sector, which are Ms. Tran Thi Bich Tram - Deputy Manager in Retail Division of Crescent Mall, Mr. Nguyen Quoc Trung - Assistant Floor Manager at Diamond and Mr. Tran Khac Kinh - Price Management and data Analysis of Big C VN and group discussion with twenty different objects, including regular customers coming in many department stores of age (pupils, students, office workers, business owners), owner of the booth, salesman, guard at a department store. The combination method, has recently confirmed discovery used in group discussions. 2.2.2 Results of qualitative research Combining records on actual observations and the results of discussions with experts and twenty three subjects show that the typical customers are interested in twelve different elements of a department store, which is: Space, Commodities, Facilities, Personnel, Safety, Price, Value Added Services, Convenience, Advertising, Location, Entertainment and ONE NEW FACTOR is the Management. 10 Besides, the results of further discussions showed ONE NEW POINT in demonstrating the attractiveness of the department stores, which is when it is considered in terms of psychology. It can be understood as the gaining sympathy and trust of those who have to or even less than that ever. It is the impact entice them towards department store, feels first impression, stimulate curiosity, interest and desire to explore the customer and the customer is shown by the attitude very concretely in the positive direction. New findings are completely matching with Motivation Awaking theory of Kendra Cherry (2015) and Theory of Needs of Abraham Maslow (1943). CHAPTER 3: STUDY DESIGN 3.1 Study model Twelve hypothesis from H1 to H12 are: There is a positive relationship between Xi (i=1:12) and customer attractiveness of department stores. 3.2 The process of study and the process of sampling Study process is designed to conduct in three phases: (1) discussion with experts and group discussions (qualitative); (2) preliminary investigation (quantitative); (3) official survey (quantitative). The process of sampling is divided into five steps: (1) Identify the research crowd, (2) Identify the paradigm, (3) Determine the sample size, (4) Select the sampling method, (5) Progress selection. 11 3.3 Method of testing research models Main testing method used in this research is multiple linear regression, namely considering the impact of these factors contributing to the attraction (Xi) to the attraction (Y) Meanwhile, the study also tested the model through the effect of moderator variables. These variables will affect the quality of the relationship between the independent variables Xi and the dependent variable Y and enhancing the scope of the regression model. In this study, K-means analysis is used to segment customers according to the observed variables of the factors of attraction. After the clusters have been formed, the next step will be to interpret and describe the customer segments according to the demographic characteristics and their behavior in the department stores. The difference between the segments is considered significant at a significance level of less than 0:05 (Litwin, 1995) 3.4 Scale of study model A measurement scales for these concepts were also developed. Specifically, the scale of the factors of attraction includes twelve ingredients: Space (8), Commodities (5), Comfort (4), Staff (4), Safety (4) , Prices (3), Additional services (3), convenience (4) Advertising (3), Places (4), Leisure (3) and Quality management (3); Scale the results of the attraction include two components: Intent and behavior (3) and Psychological status (5). A total of 56 observed variables. 3.5 Preliminary investigation on assessment of scales The survey was conducted directly with lecturers of HCM City Economics University, students of International Trade and Commerce K39 of HCMC Economics University, students of Diploma in Accounting 2 of HCM Economics University of Economics, staff of VN Collagen Drink Co., Ltd - HCMC Branch, and persons doing morning exercise at Tao Dan Cultural Park. Number of questionnaires provided 180 and collected of150 satisfactory sheets. Time of survey conducted to from March 01st 2015 to March 20th 2015. Results evaluating the reliability of the scale achieved from 0.779 to 0.956. Scale of "The factors of the attraction": There are SEVEN factors extracted with the total variance is 71.17%> 50%. The variations in the scales are load factor> 0.5. However, in the 12 original built model, the determinants of the attraction of department stores include TWELVE factors but here on extracted by SEVEN. This difference can be explained by reasons of too small sample size (n = 150) in the preliminary investigation because of saving time and costs. In theory study, for small samples, we can solve by evaluating concepts together in pairs (Nguyen Dinh Tho, 2013). However, this method takes too much time when the number of concept study in this case is quite large (k = 12). Therefore, it takes about 66 pairs. Therefore, with the desire to better demonstrate the suitability of the model compared to market data in HCMC, formal quantitative research still keeps TWELVE elements for verification steps but the sample size is larger many times (n = 700). Scale of "attraction": There is ONE factor may deduct the total extraction variance is 77 004%> 50%. However, in the original built model, the attraction is argued and measured at TWO aspects intention - mental behavior, but here only extract one factor. This shows the results of the preliminary investigation of market data showing no difference versus content and theoretical overview and qualitative results presented in chapter two. Because of this difference, with the desire to better demonstrate the suitability of the model compared to market data in HCMC, formal quantitative research will be conducted to test the more obvious with larger sample sizes many times (n = 700). CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS OF RESULTS AND MODEL ACCREDITATION 4.1 How to select respondents and approaches of respondents Option 1: Direct in twelve department stores (n1=411): Twelve interviewers allocated to twelve department stores according to criteria of close to their habitat convenient for travel because under the assignment of coordinators, they must continue access to respondents (shoppers) at the department store by day (time) and hours (time) of the week flexibly. These shoppers were interviewed by a convenient method and judgment (non probability). Statistics reality reach respondents. In terms of gender, with 137 out of 411 respondents were male (33.3%) and 274 out of 411 respondents were female (66.7%). In terms of age, the results are as follows: Boomers Group (1944-1961) were 21 people, Generation X group (1962-1982) with 70 people and Generation Y group (1983-2000) with 320 people. 13 Option 2: Direct in enterprises (n2=146): Ten interviewers conducted the data collection in ten organizations and various enterprises in HCM City, where they are working. Statistics reality reach respondents. In terms of gender, 30 of 146 respondents were male (20.5%) and 116 out of 146 respondents were female (79.5%). In terms of age, the results are as follows: Boomers Group (1944-1961) with one person, Generation X group (1962-1982) with 79 people and Generation Y group (1983- 2000) with 66 people. Option 3: Indirect via Internet (Google Docs) (n3=164): Forty clues respondents are chosen based on the experience and relationships of the study. After answering the online questionnaire, the clue respondents by their personal relationship with their work or in society continue to choose the next respondents to members asking them to answer. Statistics reality accessible online respondents. Regarding gender, male, 47 of 164 respondents (28.7%) and 117 women out of 164 respondents (71.3%). In terms of age, Generation X group (1962-1982) has 64 people and Generation Y group (1983-2000) with 100 people. 4.2 Characteristics of respondents In terms of gender, in total 721 respondents, with 214 male and 507 female. In terms of age, 78.9% of respondents fall in the group aged 15 to 35 years old. Regarding education, the outstanding proportion are undergraduate and graduate students with the absolute number at 582/721 who responded, equivalent to 80.7%. Regarding income, 391 respondents have monthly income from VND 7.5 million to VND 30 million. Career with 71.4% of respondents to the employee. They are public servants and office workers. The second largest amount of respondents are students and students, accounting for 15.4%. The rest are freelancers, housewives or the retired accounted for 13.2%. 4.3 Rating reliability and value scales With the evaluation method of scale reliability and variable testing principle as described in Section 3.6.1, thirteen scales used to measure thirteen concepts in the research model will be evaluated again but with a much larger sample (n = 721) compared with the preliminary investigative steps (n = 150). The results of this assessment will serve as a basis for evaluating value 14 scale and testing research model. Results evaluating the reliability of the scale achieved from 0.684 to 0.901. Scale of "The factors of attraction": Results EFA showed NINE factors extracted with the total variance extracted is 63.927%> 50% (Gerbing & Anderson, 1988). However, in the rotation matrix, with some variables lies in many factors simultaneously, as well as lower weighted factors. Therefore, these variables must be in turn removed. Particularly some variable weighted factor of 0.4 to 0.5 was achieved can be considered depending on the value retains its contents if it makes sense in the present scale (Nguyen Dinh Tho, 2011 ). EFA final results showed NINE factors deducted the total variance extracted is 67.847%, which means that it explains 67.847% market data. In terms of value scales, nine factors demonstrate the convergence value and differentiate its value pretty well and almost reached three quarters compared with the pattern coincident research. Scale of “Attractiveness”: Results EFA showed that one factor may deduct the total variance extracted is 59 185%> 50%. Despite the larger number of samples (n = 721), the attractive even at angles intention - behavior or psychological state perspective also be a factor criticized. That means that the official investigation results from market data showing no difference as content expressed in the overview section theory and qualitative results in chapter two. Therefore, the scale of the new attraction was named the overall attraction (THTT). 4.4 Testing research model by model of multiple linear regression (MLR) The test results show that the correlation value Sig. are less than 0.05. Therefore they are statistically significant. Also, the relationship between the factors attracting nine of agents of attraction are positively correlated with each other and quite tight. Specifically, the correlation coefficient between THTT and Management was the highest (0.608), followed respectively Convenience (0.533), staff (0.533), Goods (0.519), Safe (0,500), Program for customers (0.497), space (0.490), Advertising (0.423) and position (0.400). Results will be used to step linear regression analysis multiples. In this model, the coefficient of determination Adjusted R Square (R2adj) is 0.488. This means that models multiple linear regression was developed in accordance with the data set to the extent of 48.8% or in other words, approximately 15 48.8% of the variation of attractiveness may be explained by differences of nine components, namely: Commodities, space, staff, Safety, Advertising, Location, Convenience, Customer Program and Management. The remaining 51.2% of the variation is explained by other variables. Overal Attraction = 0,557 + 0,133 Commodities + 0,053 Space + 0,085 Staff + 0,079 Safety + 0,020 Advertising + 0,105 Location + 0,096 Convenience + 0,060 Customer Program + 0,301 Management The regression coefficients are positive factors demonstrate the regression model positive influence on attracting customers to the shopping center of commerce. However, of the nine components of the attracting factors mentioned above, there are six components achieved significance level Sig. 0.05 as statistically significant. They are Commodities, Staff, Safety, Location, Convenience and Management. Remaining space, Advertising and Customer Programs (CTKH) with significance level greater than 0.05 so this relationship is not statistically significant. The hypothesis H1, H3, H4, H6, H7, H9 accepted and H2, H5, H8 rejected. Continue remove three variables as Space, Advertising and Customer Programs. The model was run with six variables in the second time with Commodities, Staff, Safety, Location, Convenience and Management. The result of the second time (Appendix 20 - 2nd Regression) has changed slightly compared with the one in the coefficient of determination Adjusted R Square (R2adj),, namely R2adj = 0.485 and significant changes in the coefficients regression (β) of six independent variables. Overall Attraction = 0,607 + 0,161 Commodities + 0,098 Staff + 0,089 Safety + 0,109 Location + 0,120 Convenience + 0,332 Management 4.4.1 Analysis of multiple linear regression with moderator variables Far- Near matter Calculate the distance of a near department stores is measured through space criteria: Group 1 is the respondents chose answers from 10km or less and 2 are respondents selected answers from 10km or more. Results showed that most respondents tend to choose answers below 10km compared to where they came from. This number reached over 721 616 people. The remaining 105 out 16 of 721 people selected to go beyond 10km. Comparing three linear regression model: (1) regression model overall appeal, (2) regression model overall attractiveness, but only consider the case of one group, (3) tissue regression overall attractiveness, but only consider the case of two groups. Results showed that when looking at the environment in the 10-kilometer distance, the linear regression model building multiple matching datasets market reached 62.8. The number of factors that have a statistically significant (Sig. <0.05) makes the draw of each model is not the same. The regression coefficient β not standardized, which also changes but not many. Thus, we can conclude that the moderator variables As far near plays an important role in attracting customers to a department store. The department store far should focus on factors such as the convenience and quality of management. In other words are fun activities, eating, watching movies, or how to organize operation of managers are essential in attracting customers willing to travel long distances to get to a department store. A common point of all three models is always the variable appearance Management β coefficient is almost the largest. Demographic Characteristics The features will be considered, including gender, age and income. Statistical results showed that respondents were women (70.3%). The remainder of men (29.7%). Under 30 with 422 people out of 721 people (58.5%). The proportion remaining respondents aged over 30 (41.5%). Monthly income from under 5 million to 15 million with 490 people (68%), the remaining 231 who have a monthly income of over 15 million (32%). Gender (Group 1: The respondents are South; Group 2: The respondents are Women): Comparing three linear regression models: (1) regression model for overall attraction, (2) regression model overall attractiveness, but only consider the case of group one, (3) tegression model overall attractiveness, but only consider the case of group two. The results show consistent coefficient R2 differ between cases in which, R2 of the three is the highest case 0.540 compared to 0.495 and 0.412 of a case of two cases. The number of significant factors are not the same statistics. Specifically, the six elements of a model reduced to a model of two and even three years of modeling. A big surprise is for men almost nothing attracts them except for external factors. We can 17 say this is also very true to reality because they make fewer shopping alone (22%), which mostly go with family (61.7%), friends (56.5%) or lover (27.6%). While, for women, there are many factors that attract them more, such as commodities, space, location, convenience and manageability. A new point in women's models is the presence of elements of space, meaning that they are also interested in the atmosphere, beautiful views of a department store. Finally, similar to the case of variable on far- close, a common point of all three models is always the presence of Management variable with the greatest β. Age (Group 1: Respondents aged under 30; Group 2: respondents aged over 30 years): Comparing three linear regression models: (1) regression model for overall attraction, (2) regression model overall attractiveness, but only consider the case of group one, (3) tegression model overall attractiveness, but only consider the case of group two. The results show consistent coefficient R2 differ between cases in which, R2 of the two cases is the highest 0.528 versus 0.495 and 0.456 of a case of three cases. The number of significant factors are not the same statistics. Specifically, the six elements of a reduced model of the model year and only two third of three models. We did find it interesting that for those under 30 years of age, factors such as convenient opening hours of the department store, the recreation activities in which occupies the second position after management elements . However, over 30 years old group more interested in merchandise and location. Also, a common point of all three models is always the presence of Management variable at the greatest coefficient β. Income (Group 1: Respondents with incomes below 15 million per month; Group 2: The respondents earning over 15 million per month): Comparing three linear regression models: (1) regression model for overall attraction, (2) regression model overall attractiveness, but only consider the case of group one, (3) tegression model overall attractiveness, but only consider the case of group two. The results show consistent coefficient R2only major changes between one case and three cases (0.495 versus 0.532). This shows that when considered in a new environment is income, the linear regression model building fit multiple data sets to a 53.2% market for those with monthly income from 15 million or more. It is the object to which the department store regularly addressed, the potential shoppers. A special thing of this group is 18 that they only care about the three elements as Commodities, Customer programs and Management. In addition, the common point of all three models is always the presence of Management variable at the greatest coefficient β. 4.5 Segment shoppers Analytical results for K-Means (K = 3) under the principle of seed clusters updated and changed during clustering shows two clusters with the largest number (322 subjects, ~ 44.66% ), followed by a cluster (247 subjects, ~ 34.26%) and cluster numbers of at least three (152 subjects, ~ 21.08%). Segment 1: Customers are pragmatic and demanding (n = 247): This group of customers rated capacity management and administration of a department store, safety during shopping tour and promotional programs. In particular, they love the department store is located conveniently close to where they live. More than half (126) of the selected segment of the department store under five kolimet distance and only takes ten minutes to accept twenty minutes to move to that alone (113). Each department store when they usually go with my family (158), like food services at (201), supermarkets (119) and household appliances (96). So their average time in which is also quite long, from two hours to three hours (114). The money spent for shopping between two million and three million is the largest in this segment (31 versus 23 and 12 of the segment 2 segment 3). Most customer segments are those from thirty years and above (101), married (118), working (175), retired or homemakers (22). Income of customers in this segment primarily under fifteen million per month (172). However, there are also some people with very high monthly income, more than forty-five million (10). The sex ratio of female customers and male customers of this segment was 65% and 35%. In addition, customers in this segment also appreciate the convenience of a department store (mean = 6.47). They are more interested in the food area, game area for kids and reasonable arrangement elevators and escalators there. Segment 2: The customers are relaxed and entertaining (n = 322): This is a customer segment with the largest number, the subject most often take department store (accounting for 44.66% of respondents) and merchandise is something that can attract their strongest side management issues . They are willing to go beyond 5 kilometers and accept leeway than twenty minutes to go 19 to a shopping mall area. Each department store when they usually go with friends (216), like food services at (253), cinema (161) and buy clothes shopping (159). So their average time in which is also quite long, from two hours to three hours (140), even over three hours (46). However, their spending amounts usually below one million (193). Most of this customer segment is young people under thirty years of age (196), unmarried (183), the students (50) or working (231), earning less than fifteen million each month (219). However, there are also some people with very high monthly income, more than forty-five million (9). The sex ratio of female customers and male customers of this segment was 70% and 30%. About goods, customers in this segment are very high concern to the department store has many famous brands (mean = 5.54), diverse merchandise categories (5.52) and eye-catching display (5.37). When shopping they prefer to pay by credit card bank (6.00). Regarding the criteria of convenience, because customers often go with friends to the food area is also where indispensable so they can just enjoy the food while chatting together. The variety of food stalls have a great influence to the desire to stay in a department store of the customer (Wakerfield & Baker, 1998). Segment 3: Customers are enthusiasts but apathetic (n = 152): This is the segment with the least number (accounting for 21.08% of respondents). However, the third customer segment is very similar to the second customer segment at several points: In terms of the factors of the attractiveness, merchandise and management of department stores are the two factors that affect the ability attract them; Shopping behavior, customer segmentation is also willing to go further and accept taking longer than segment one to go to a shopping mall area. Each department store when they usually go with friends (97), like food services at (108), movies (83) and shopping for clothes (75). Their average time in which is also quite long, from two hours to three hours (70). The amount spent by them usually under one million (86); Regarding demographic characteristics, the majority of this customer segment is the youth under thirty years of age (90), unmarried (84), the students (21) or working (109). The vast majority (96.05%) of the segment customers with monthly income up to a maximum of thirty million. Different points of third customer segment compared to the first customer segment and the second 20 is: The sex ratio of female customers and male customers of this segment is quite varied, namely 80% and 20% , different from the segment was 70% two - 30% and 65% one segment - 35%; Management factors most strongly impact to attract them to the regression coefficient β is very high (0.39) not considering the regression coefficients of the other elements in the same segment, but also with the regression coefficients of the elements belonging to the first customer segment and the second segment; Advertising factors not only affect them, but even reverse the regression coefficient β less than 0; The degree of emphasis of the elements that make up the center of attraction in their trade despite above average but still lower than the level of all of the customer evaluation of the first segment and the second segment two. We can say they are quite indifferent customer group with the attributes of a department store. CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF MANAGEMENT 5.1 New contributions of research Regarding research methodology, this study contributes to the characteristics of the measurement scale of factors of attraction and the results of the attraction in the retail business in an economy in transition like VN. Moreover, the system of this scale can also be used as a basis to form the unified system scales in the multinational study on the retail sector for the economy transformation. On the results of the research, this study identified the determinants of attracting customers of the shopping center trade: the case Ho Chi Minh City. In particular, most notably confirmed the quality management element of an operating department store most important role in attracting customers (the largest βQuanly) besides other common factors. This is the difference and also the new point of this study compared with previous studies. In addition, this study also built attraction scale not only through intention and behavior of consumers as the author before, but measurement in their psychological perspective, namely the heat blood enthusiasm, the exuberant joy or excitement excitement. This is also the DIFFERENCE of this study. Finally, SPECIAL CONTRIBUTION point of this research is already segment customers shopping at the department stores into three different groups of customers according to their buying behavior. These are (1) pragmatic and demanding customer, (2) 21 relaxed and entertaining customer, (3) passion but apathetic customer. 5.2 The implication for managers 5.2.1 Executive Quality Management The difference among today's department stores is not only attributed to spatial, architectural design or sale of goods but also due to marketing programs, sales programs launched by the department stores. The operation of center by administrators is the utmost importance. It covers from the marketing to attract tenants’ booth (tenant), signing and monitoring contracts with them, to organize cooperation programs, with their diverse events to entice customers to shopping more and more frequent winter. Therefore, managers should focus on quality management elements operating. It will be the key to success in the fierce competition to win customers on their side. This is also demonstrated by the regression of this study when βquanly achieves maximum value (0.332). To do so in a professional and creative, administrators should closely from the selection, negotiation and management activities input object is the stall holders (tenant) to meet, agree meets the needs and pleasing objects output are its customers. 5.2.2 Diversity and updating of commodity One of the reasons that customers return to the department stores are the shopping needs even though they really are not sure whether they will buy when they come there. We can see this by observing when most customers have a habit of walking around the booth. From there, impulsive buying behavior (impulse buying) can occur. This is why managers need to pay attention to the diversity of goods and updates. Goods sold shall be exhibited beautiful, elegant, eye-catching, guaranteed origin, good quality, there are many famous brands for customer thinks department stores where elegance, class level and their belief in that is higher than the supermarket or other store types. Regression coefficient of this factor is second management element ((βhanghoa = 0.161). The good grasp trends, customer preferences will help department store can be a good commodity policy. From that will create confidence, support, satisfaction, comfort when shopping, as well as forming a thought in them that this is the best place to shop. Administrators need to understand that the goods today not only 22 meet the physical value of the consumers but also on moral values and culture as well. 5.2.3 The more convenient for customers Managers need to focus their attention on the convenience factor for customers in the department stores. It means that they are not just coming to buy physical products (clothes, shoes, cosmetics, bags ...) but also consumer services (catering, event, experience games, movies ...) Therefore, the administrator either by manually deploy or combine with other partners to enrich these services. The survey results show that customers often return department store remains largely young, single or married, with the average income fairly. Besides shopping reasons, they also see a department store is the ideal place to entertain and gather their friends. food court, game parks or cafes are what customers are interested. Meanwhile, they have been satisfying the needs of procurement, has been satisfying entertainment. The regression coefficients of the third element after element management and merchandise. 5.2.4 Location of department stores Ho Chi Minh City has more and more people, the population density is increasingly denser, increasingly heavier environmental pollution, the higher and higher risk when moving outside... In addition, the number of deaths each year for traffic accidents in VN are very high, around 9,000 people, roughly the number of deaths due to the war in a Middle Eastern country (Dinh La Thang, 2015). Therefore, restricting travel by private vehicles off the road are considered by many people. From anxiety, select a department store to visit is always considered by many people at its location, far or near, long or short ... Survey results of this study showed very clearly their willingness to move to a favorable department store is usually only 15 minutes to 20 minutes. Hence, investors should note that this factor when selecting construction sites. Near the city center, close to densely populated areas or near downtown is what needs to be considered very meticulously, scientifically and practically. Regression coefficient of factors came fourth after factors of management, commodity and convenience (βvitri=0.109). 23 5.2.5 Quality of service staff at department store Staff factor has weak linear regression relation (βnhanvien=0,098) but the skills, attitudes, knowledge and behavior of staff of a department store with great impact to customer’s feelings then, it affects their intentions and behavior in the future and far beyond the impact on the business performance of the department store at aspects to attract customers. Therefore, coaching staff from security, parking, cleaning staff to sales, customer care, receptionist ... should be invested and maintained by the managers regularly in order to improve services, strong competition with other department stores, particularly the department stores which are adjacent geographic with same customer segment. 5.2.6 The absolute safety for customers Life today is too much risk of stalking as serious illness, unknown disease, accident, theft, natural disasters ... so did people become more concerned for the lives and well-being of himself. Therefore, even a significant factor not the most one (βantoan=0,089), the security to clients inside and outside the department store also are mentioned. They always want to be safe, or at least feel safe for their lives and property and those who accompany them. They will be more secured when seeing the security guards on duty, showing all the professionalism of security matters through the camera system, fire alarm or wide exits. All these things need to get the attention of investors to build a department store and management of the operation while operating a department store. 5.2.7 The other implications for managers First, managers should focus to make a difference for your department store, avoid customers feeling bored. Such as free Wi- Fi system, stylish design and decoration, the way to choose the color or the full and clear instructions to save time while shopping. In parallel, other features outside the centers such as signs, billboards, light should also be emphasized. The design matches the tastes, habits of customers is essential because it will create the friendly, close, comfortable and good impression to visitors from which to make up their engagement. Second, develop a variety of marketing programs but create an interaction between consumers and retailers. Information technology is growing strongly and quickly. The department stores can apply it 24 to interact more with its customers, even though it can help collect customer information, service of behavior analysis and their shopping habits . Since then, the marketing strategy will be applied correctly and efficiently to each customer group. Third, today, the competition is not only between the department stores themselves but also between the department stores with various other retail outlets, especially online stores in VN, so the pricing becomes even more important as ever because of the online store is always very good price policy. Administrators need to think about this issue in order to provide better solutions for their pricing policies by diversifying programs for customers. 5.3 Limitations of the study and further research directions Firstly, the topic of the attraction of department stores has been studied in many different aspects, from the inside image attributes to the influence of external factors. This study also derives from the idea, but only make the discovery, measure the properties of an image affected department stores to entice customers, but not to mention a few external factors such as the MCI model of Nakanishi and Cooper (1974). Second, the definition of the attraction of this study is measured at two aspects. Although market survey results are insufficient grounds to prove the existence of difference. However, the mentality is something that is always available in every human in different space and time and it could become the engine for that person to act in order to satisfy their personal needs . And this study has not considered that aspect. Third, this study is only limited in HCM City but no condition to widely apply to other large cities in VN such as Hanoi, Da Nang, Can Tho ... Fourth, this study is only targeting shoppers and absolutely not mention the object as tenants. While the department store managers are always looking for ways not only to attract shoppers, but also attract famous brands, the diversified service operators to rent areas in their own department store. The close relationships between tenants - shoppers - the operators of the department store is the key to success in the fiercely competitive market today. Finally, on the world, the retail sector include many types of business, such as hypermarkets, supermarkets, department stores, convenience stores, specialty stores, specialized shops ... However, this study only selected model as department stores, still not yet to learn other retail models. A LIST OF RESEARCH PAPERS Building Research Model of Determinants of Shopping Attraction of Department Stores in Ho Chi Minh City: Reference to Europe Models. The Trend of Showrooming and Webrooming Behaviours of the Consumers in Ho Chi Minh City.

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